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Communications System

Main purpose of an electronic

communications system is to transfer

information from one place to another.

Electronic communications can be

viewed as the transmission, reception

and processing of information between

two or more locations using electronic

circuit/device.

1

It covers

Communication models

Communication transmission modes

communication

Electromagnetic frequency spectrum

Communication bandwidth

Information capacity

2

1.1 Basic Communication Model

Basic communication models shows the communication

flows between two points.

Sink receiver that receive the information

Channel transmission path/medium of the

information between the source and sink

3

1.1 Basic Communication Model

Communication system model

4

Transmission channel physical link between

the communicating parties

Modulator transform the source signal so

that it is physically suitable for the

transmission channel

Transmitter introduce the modulated signal

into the channel (also act as amplifier)

Receiver Detect the signal on the channel

and amplify it (due to the attenuation)

Demodulator Get the source signal (original)

from the received signal and pass it to the

recipient 5

1.2 Communication / Transmission Mode

Communication system can be designed for transmitting

information in one or both direction. Generally, the mode of

communication can be divided into three types :

direction only where only the sender can send the information and only the

recipient can receive the information. (e.g. TV & radio broadcasting)

direction, but only one direction is allowed at a time. The sender transmits to the

intended receiver, and then reverse their roles. (e.g. walkie-talkie, 2-way

intercom)

same time. The 2 directions of information travel are independent of each other.

(e.g. ordinary/mobile phone systems, computer systems)

6

Transmission Style

Simplex

A B TV, Radio, Pager etc

Half-Duplex

String Phone,

A B Intercomm

Handy Talky

Full-Duplex

A B Telephone

1.2 Communication Transmission/Mode

Half-duplex System vs Full-duplex System

8

1.3 Power Measurement

(dB, dBm, Bel and dBW)

Magnitudes of communication signals span a

very wide range causing a drawbacks as

follow :

Extremely large scale (graph/drawing)

Hard calculation (too big vs too small numbers)

Prone to errors (e.g. 0.0001 vs 0.00001)

Hard to compare the signals

9

1.3.1 Decibel (dB)

Used to measure the ratio between two

values value to be measured relative to a

reference value

In the electronic communication field, decibel

is normally used to define the power ratios

between 2 signals

- To express relative gain and lose of the

electronic device/circuit

- Describing relationship between signal and

noise

10

In the common usage, it also used to express the

ratios of voltage and current

If two powers are expressed in the same units (e.g.

watt, miliwatt), their ratio is a dimensionless

quantity that can be expressed in decibel form as

follow

P 0ut

dB 10 log 10 (1)

Pin

11

1.3.1 Decibel (dB)

WherePout : power level of output (watts)

Pin : power level of input (watts)

respect to the reference power Pin

the dB value shows the difference in dB

between power Pout and Pin

12

1.3.1 Decibel (dB)

In the case to measure the power gain or loss of any

electronic circuit or device, equation (1) can be

written as follow

Pout

Ap ( dB ) 10 log 10

Pin (2)

where Ap(dB) : power gain (unit in dB) of Pout with respect to

Pin

Pout : output power level (watts)

Pin : input power level (watts)

Pout/Pin : absolute power gain (unitless)

13

Positive (+) dB value indicates the output

power is greater than the input power, which

indicates power gain or amplification

Negative (-) dB value indicates the output

power is less that the input power which

indicates power loss or attenuation

If Pout = Pin, the absolute power gain is 1,

which means dB power gain is 0 (referred as

unity power gain)

14

15

1.3.1 dB

Ex 1 : Convert the absolute power ratio of 200 to a

power gain in dB.

16

1.3.1 dB

Ex 1 : Convert the absolute power ratio of 200 to a

power gain in dB.

Answer. 23.0102 dB

17

1.3.1 dB

Ex 2 : Convert a power gain Ap = 30 dB to an

absolute power ratio.

18

1.3.1 dB

Ex 2 : Convert a power gain Ap = 30 dB to an

absolute power ratio.

Answer. 1000

19

1.3.1 dB

Ex 3 : Expressing power gain in term of voltage ratio

From

PV 2 (3)

Vout 2

i.e. dB 10 log 10 2

(3-1)

Vin

Vout

Voltage Gain Av ( dB) 20 log 10

Vin (3-2)

20

1.3.2 dBm

A dBm is a unit of measurement used to

indicate the ratio of power level with respect

to a fixed reference level. With dBm, the

reference level is 1 mW (miliwatts).

dBm unit can be expressed as follow

P (4)

dBm 10 log 10

0.001

21

1.3.2 dBm

Ex 4 : Convert a power level of 200 mW to

dBm

22

1.3.2 dBm

Ex 4 : Convert a power level of 200 mW to

dBm

23

1.3.2 dBm

Ex 5 : Convert a power level of 30 dBm to an

absolute power

24

1.3.2 dBm

Ex 5 : Convert a power level of 30 dBm to an

absolute power

Answer. 30 dBm

25

1.3.2 dBm

26

1.3.3 Bel

A Bel is one-tenth of a decibel

Pout

Bel log 10 (5)

Pin

The Decibel unit was originated from the Bel unit, in honor of Alexander

Graham Bell.

Bel unit compressed absolute ratios of 0.00000001 to 100000000 to a

ridiculously low range of only 16 Bel (-8 Bel to + 8 Bel).

Difficult to relate Bel unit to true magnitudes of large ratios and impossible

to express small differences with any accuracy.

To overcome this, Bel was simply multiplied by 10, creating a decibel.

27

The Decibel unit was originated from the Bel

unit, in honor of Alexander Graham Bell.

Bel unit compressed absolute ratios of

0.00000001 to 100000000 to a ridiculously

low range of only 16 Bel (-8 Bel to + 8 Bel).

Difficult to relate Bel unit to true magnitudes

of large ratios and impossible to express small

differences with any accuracy.

To overcome this, Bel was simply multiplied

by 10, creating a decibel.

28

1.3.4 Power levels, Gains and Losses

and power gains are given as

absolute values, the output power is

determined by multiplying the input

power with the power gains.

29

Ex 6 : Given a 3 stages system comprised of

two amplifiers and filter. The input power Pin =

0.1 mW. The absolute power gains are AP1 =

100, AP2 = 40 and AP3 = 0.25. Determine

b) the dB gain of each of the 3 stages

c) output power (Pout) in watts and dBm

30

1.3.4 Power levels, Gains and Losses

Ex 7 : For a 3-stages system with an input

power Pin = -20 dBm and the power gains of

the 3-stages as AP1 = 13 dB, AP2 = 16 dB and

AP3 = -6 dB, determine the output power (Pout)

in dBm and watts.

31

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

Communicating the information between two or more location is done by

converting the original information into electromagnetic energy and then

transmitting it to the receiver where it is converted back to its original form

The electromagnetic energy is distributed throughout infinite range of

frequencies

The total electromagnetic frequency spectrum with the approximate

locations of various services is shown below.

32

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

The spectrum is divided into bands, with each band having a different

name and boundary.

The radio frequency band (30Hz ~300GHz) is divided into narrower band

as follow.

33

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

Wavelength : is the length that one cycle of electromagnetic wave

occupies in space. It is inversely proportional to the frequency of the

wave and directly proportional to the velocity of propagation.

Wavelength can be defined as follow,

c

f (6)

where = wavelength (m), c = velocity of light (3 x 108 m/s),

f = frequency (Hz)

Total electromagnetic wavelength spectrum is shown below.

34

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

35

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

36

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

Ex. 8 : Determine the wavelength in meters for the following frequencies:

1 kHz, 100 kHz and 10 MHz

37

1.4 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum

Ex. 8 : Determine the wavelength in meters for the

following frequencies: 1 kHz, 100 kHz and 10 MHz

a. 300,000 m

b. 3,000 m

c. 30 m

38

1.5 Bandwidth

Bandwidth of an information signal is the difference between

the highest and the lowest frequency contained in that signal.

between the highest and the lowest frequency that the channel

will allow to pass through it.

greater than the bandwidth of the information.

Hz

39

1.6 Information Capacity

Information capacity is a measure of how much information can be

propagated through a communication system.

It can be expressed in the function of bandwidth and transmission time.

It represents the number of independent symbols that can be carried

through a system in a given unit of time

Based on Hartleys Law,

IB t (7)

B = bandwidth (Hz)

t = transmission time (seconds)

40

1.6 Information Capacity

In 1948, Claude E. Shannon published what is called as Shannon limit for

information capacity defined as follow

Based on this law, the information capacity of any communication channel

is related to its bandwidth and the signal-to-noise ratio.

The higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the better the performance and the

higher the information capacity is.

Mathematically, it is defined as,

S

I B log 21 (8)

N

or

S

I 3.32 B log 101

N (9)

41

1.6 Information Capacity

where I = information capacity (bits per second)

B = bandwidth (Hz)

S/N = signal to noise power ratio (unitless)

a signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 (30 dB)

and a bandwidth of 2.7 kHz, determine

the Shannon limit for information

capacity.

42

26. 9115 Kbps

43

1.7 Noise Representation, types & source

Definition any undesirable electrical energy that falls within the passband of

the signal.

Effect of noise on the electrical signal :

Correlated noise noise that exists only when a signal is present.

Uncorrelated noise noise that presents all the time whether there is a signal or not

44

1.7.1 Uncorrelated noise

2 general categories of uncorrelated noise :

1. External noise noise that generated outside the device or circuit.

Atmospheric noise

- naturally occurring electrical disturbances that originate within earths atmosphere such as

lightning.

- also known as static electricity.

Extraterrestrial noise

- consists of electrical signal that originate from outside earths atmosphere and therefore also

known as deep-space noise.

- 2 categories of extraterrestrial noise.

i solar noise noise that generated directly from the suns heat.

ii cosmic noise / black-body noise noise that is distributed throughout the galaxies.

Man-made noise

- noise that is produced by mankind.

- source : spark-producing mechanism (commutators in electrical motors, automobile ignition

systems, ac power generating/switching equipment, fluorescent lights).

45

1.7.1 Uncorrelated noise

2 general categories of uncorrelated noise :

2. Internal noise noise that generated within the device or circuit.

Shot noise

- caused by the random arrival of carriers (holes and electrons) at the output element of an

electronic device.

- shot noise is randomly varying and is superimposed onto any signal present.

Transit-time noise

- irregular, random variation due to any modification to a stream of carriers as they pass from

the input to the output of a device.

- this noise become noticeable when the time delay takes for a carrier to propagate through a

device is excessive.

- noise that is produced by mankind.

- source : spark-producing mechanism (commutators in electrical motors, automobile ignition

systems, ac power generating/switching equipment, fluorescent lights).

46

1.7.1 Uncorrelated noise

2 general categories of uncorrelated noise :

2. Internal noise noise that generated within the device or circuit.

- associated with the rapid and random movement of electrons within a conductor due to

thermal agitation.

- also known as Brownian noise, Johnson noise and white noise.

- uniformly distributed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

- a form of additive noise, meaning that it cannot be eliminated, and it increase in intensity

with the number of devices and with circuit length.

- the most significant of all noise sources

- thermal noise power can be defined as follow :

N KTB (6.1)

B : bandwidth (Hertz)

T : absolute temperature (kelvin) .......... T = C + 273

47

1.7.1 Uncorrelated noise

Thermal / random noise

- equivalent circuit for a thermal noise source when the internal resistance of the source R 1 is

in series with the rms noise voltage VN

- for a worst case and maximum transfer of noise power, the load resistance R is made equal

to the internal resistance. Thus the noise power developed across the load resistor :

N KTB

VN / 2

2

VN 2

(6.2)

R 4R

thus rms noise voltage can be define as

VN 4RKTB

(6.3)

48

1.7.2 Correlated noise

a form of internal noise that is correlated to the signal and cannot be present in a

circuit unless there is a signal.

produced by a nonlinear amplification resulting in nonlinear distortion.

there are 2 types of nonlinear distortion that create unwanted frequencies that

interfere with the signal and degrade the performance :

1. Harmonic distortion

amplification.

harmonics are integer multiples of the original signal. The original signal is the

first harmonic (fundamental harmonic), a frequency two times the fundamental

frequency is the second harmonic, three times is the third harmonic and so on.

Distortion measurements :

49

1.7.2 Correlated noise

1. Harmonic distortion

distortion measurements :

- Nth harmonic distortion = ratio of the rms amplitude of Nth harmonic to the rms amplitude

of the fundamental.

- Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

vhigher

%THD 100 (6.4)

vfundamental

where

50

1.7.2 Correlated noise

2. Intermodulation distortion

intermodulation distortion is the generation of unwanted sum and difference

frequencies produced when two or more signals mix in a nonlinear device (cross

products).

unwanted !

51

1.7.3 Other type of noise

1. Impulse noise

characterized by high amplitude peaks of short duration (sudden burst of irregularly

shaped pulses) in the total noise spectrum.

common source of impulse noise : transient produced from electromechanical

switches (relays and solenoids), electric motors, appliances, electric lights, power

lines, poor-quality solder joints and lightning.

2. Interference

electrical interference occurs when information signals from one source produces

frequencies that fall outside their allocated bandwidth and interfere with information

signal from another source.

most occurs in the radio frequency spectrum.

52

1.8 Noise Parameters

1.8.1 Signal-to-noise Power Ratio

signal-to-noise power ratio (S/N) is the ratio of the signal power level to the

noise power level and can be expressed as

S Ps

(6.5)

in logarithmic function

N Pn

S Ps

(dB) 10 log (6.6)

N Pn

in terms of voltages and resistance

S Vs 2 / Rin

(dB) 10 log 2 (6.7)

N Vn / Rout

in the case Rin = Rout, (6.7) can be reduced to

S Vs

(dB) 20 log (6.8)

N Vn

53

1.8.2 Noise Factor and Noise Figure

Noise factor is the ratio of input signal-to-noise ratio to output signal-to-noise

ratio

( S / N )in

F (6.9)

( S / N )out

Noise figure is the noise factor stated in dB and is a parameter to indicate the

quality of a receiver

( S / N )in

NF 10 log F 10 log (6.10)

( S / N )out

Noise Figure in Ideal and Non-ideal Amplifiers

- an electronic circuit amplifies signal and noise within its passband equally well

- in the case of ideal/noiseless amplifier, the input signal and the noise are

amplified equally.

- meaning that, signal-to-noise ratio at input = signal-to-noise ratio at output

54

1.8.2 Noise Factor and Noise Figure

Noise Figure in Ideal and Non-ideal Amplifiers (continue)

- in reality, amplifiers are not ideal, adds internally generated noise to the

waveform, reducing the overall signal-to-noise ratio.

- in figure (a), the input and output S/N ratios are equal.

- in figure (b), the circuits add internally generated noise Nd to the waveform,

causing the output signal-to-noise ratio to be less than the input signal-to-noise

ratio.

55

1.8.2 Noise Factor and Noise Figure

Noise Figure in Ideal and Non-ideal Amplifiers (continue)

- in figure (b), the circuits add internally generated noise Nd to the waveform,

causing the output signal-to-noise ratio to be less than the input signal-to-noise

ratio.

56

1.8.2 Noise Factor and Noise Figure

Noise Figure in Cascaded Amplifier

- when two or more amplifiers are cascaded as shown in the following figure,

the total noise factor is the accumulation of the individual noise factors.

- Friss formula is used to calculate the total noise factor of several cascade

amplifiers

F 2 1 F 3 1 FN 1

FT F 1 ... (6.11)

A1 A1 A2 A1 A2... AN

57

1.8.2 Noise Factor and Noise Figure

Noise Figure in Cascaded Amplifier (continue)

- the Total Noise Figure

NFT 10 log FT (6.12)

be converted to noise factors !!!

58

1.9 Examples

Ex 1 : Convert the following temperatures to Kelvin :

100 C, 0 C and -10 C.

59

1.9 Examples

Ex 1 : Convert the following temperatures to Kelvin :

100 C, 0 C and -10 C.

373.15 K

273.15 K

263.15 K

60

1.9 Examples

Ex 2 : For and electronic device operating at a

temperature of 17 C, with a bandwidth of 10 kHz,

determine

a. thermal noise power in watts and dBm.

b. rms noise voltage for a 100 load resistance.

61

1.9 Examples

output signal power of 10 W and

output noise power of 0.01 W,

determine the signal-to-noise power

ratio.

62

1.9 Examples

output signal voltage of 4V, an

output noise voltage 0.005 V and an

input and output resistance of 50 ,

determine the signal-to-noise power

ratio.

63

1.9 Examples

Ex 5 : For a non-ideal amplifier with a following parameters, determine

a. input S/N ratio (dB)

b. output S/N ratio (dB)

c. noise factor and noise figure

Input noise power = 2 x 10-18 W

Power gain = 1000000

Internal noise Nd = 6 x 10-12 W

64

1.9 Examples

Ex 6 : For 3 cascaded amplifier stages, each with a noise figures of 3 dB and

power gain of 10dB, determine the total noise figure.

65

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