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Water

PROBLEMATIC
The water situation is studied since a long time.
Our only resource today is groundwater, fragile quantity
wise and quality wise.
No final decision on the way to proceed about water
sourcing has been fixed so far.
We still have serious uncertainty about the sources to be
used to ensure safe and reliable water supply.
In the frame of a developing city, it is high time to reach
decisions.
A lot of uncertainty prevail:
Urban design & urban planning
Population growth
Speed of growth and development
Individual consumption
Safety of groundwater resources
Methodology of the study
1st step:
To define the context
To look at all the potential water resources
To frame the uncertainties within reasonable limits
To define comparison factors
To analyse the potential and implication for each
possibility
To compare between all the possibilities
To generate a synthesis to help in the decision
making process .

2nd step
To develop further the most promising solution
Context
All the resource today is coming from the
groundwater
The upper aquifer (Cuddalore) is not water tight
Bore wells tap multiple aquifers
Groundwater is depleting
Groundwater threatened by seawater intrusion
Runoff water offer a large scope as a resource
All the resource today is coming from the groundwater
The upper aquifer (Cuddalore) is not water tight
Bore wells tap multiple aquifers
Groundwater is depleting
Groundwater threatened by seawater intrusion
Doctor Aude Vincent:
HYDROLOGICAL AND
HYDROGEOLOGICAL STUDY
Water level map of the OF THE COASTAL
SEDIMENTARY BASIN OF
Vanur aquifer KALUVELLI-PONDICHERRY
(TAMIL NADU, INDIA)

5 km N 0
N
5m
10 m

15 m

-30

Baie du
Bengale

-57

1950 2006
WATER CYCLE
Runoff water offer a large scope as a resource
The potential water resources

Groundwater
Rainwater
Wastewater
Seawater desalinization
Groundwater desalinization
Potential water resources: main points of evaluation
Groundwater: Wastewater:
Infrastructure already existing A part only of the water consumption
Fragile because of general degradation High risk for cross contamination.
Running cost and maintenance easy Well adapted to local solution
and cheap Running cost and maintenance
Rainwater: relatively complex
Yearly available in very large quantity Seawater desalinization:
but highly fluctuating Unlimited resource
Can be collected using topographic Social issues to be addressed
conditions. Running cost and maintenance
Must be part of planning and complex, costly
development issues immediately.
Groundwater desalinization:
Not depending on any larger territory
than Auroville very large resource
Running cost and maintenance well- Cheaper than seawater
known, Cheapest Social issues
Can be integrated at any stage
Running cost and maintenance
relatively complex and costly
Evaluation
Evaluation table: 4 stars best, 1 star worth
Conclusion on resources
All resources can be part of the sourcing system.
Multi sourcing is a necessity
Groundwater is already used but very fragile.
Groundwater desalination seems a worthy solution
compared to seawater desalination
Rainwater harvesting solution offers best scores. It is
hence studied further below.
To frame the uncertainties within
reasonable limits

Time frame
Population
Water consumption
Runoff
Limit of validity of a resource from the
quantitative point of view
Time frame
Implementation in accordance with very long term forecasting may lead to
technical solutions totally outdated when they would become necessary,
because of the fast technological evolution.
Accordingly, it makes a lot of sense to reflect on very long term principles,
but to stay on shorter time frame for the technical solutions.
Proposed solutions should fit with
practicality
reasonable time frame
be a sustained asset for the now as well as the long term.
To Invest in long-term related infrastructure may overload the present
population with financial demand

Conclusion: By retrospectively looking at the past and learning from it, it


seems very reasonable to limit practical horizon to a 20 years time period
from now or the year 2030.
Population
Population Growth in Auroville following different scenario
55 000

50 000

45 000

Targeted Date : 2030


40 000

35 000
Population

30 000

25 000
22 186
20 000

15 000 15 473 5% 7%

10 000 10% 12%


8 900

5 000 6 103

0
2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2022

2024

2026

2028

2030

2032

2034

2036

2038

2040

2042

2044

2046

2048

2050

2052

2054

2056

2058

2060

2062

2064

2066

2068

2070

2072

2074
by 2030 Aurovilles population will reach
6,100 people for a growth rate of 5%
22,200 people for a growth rate of 12%
Water consumption

Hence, the retained values for this study are :


160lcd (lowest value)
215lcd (highest value)
Runoff in Aurovilles urbanizing context

Hence, the retained values for this study are :


35% runoff for low population/ low imperviousness
54% runoff for high population/ high imperviousness
Limit of validity of a resource from the
quantitative point of view
The level of complexity requires that the volume is large enough to justify
the choice for a particular resource.

Investment for large infrastructure is done


because it is acting on public safety
because it is fulfilling a function on the daily life of the targeted population.
Hence, a water resource system must fulfill 2 criteria:
to run for the longest possible period during the year
to run with the smallest possible interval between standby period.

It is fixed arbitrary that such a limit in the context of this study should be to
supply the targeted population for at least half a year (180 days).

Below this value investment, maintenance and operation may become too
costly to justify such choice.
Limits for the study: Synthesis

Conclusion
A 20 years time frame is a reasonable limit for planning
Even by using large fresh water consumption values, rainwater
harvesting offers a very large scope as a resource
Auroville as a developing city will offer larger scope for water
harvesting through time.
Methodology of the study
1st step:
To define the context
To look at all the potential water resources
To frame the uncertainties within reasonable limits
To define comparison factors
To analyses the potential and implication for each possibility
To compare between all the possibilities
To generate a synthesis to help in the decision making
process .

2nd step
To develop further the most promising solution
Potential from rainwater and surface water

Ground water recharge


Roof rainwater harvesting
Catchment in existing Irumbai tank
Catchment in artificial ponds made in canyons
Catchment in Matrimandir Lake
Rainwater: main points of evaluation
Ground water recharge Running cost and maintenance relatively
complex
Cost effective in east part of Auroville but
limited scope on west part Catchment in artificial ponds
Recharge potential will drop through in canyons
development (impervious area)
Costly
Already largely practiced but scope for
improvement due to future development. Large excavation required
Become then a groundwater resource and Exceeding water mainly lost to the sea
will help to maintain it but becomes Running cost and maintenance complex
vulnerable.
Catchment in Matrimandir
Roof rainwater harvesting Lake
Costly because of the rainfall pattern (large Cheap as only the drainage system is to be
storage required to optimize collection) considered
Connection to municipal supply difficult Practical value generated for Matrimandir
Can be developed along the development Lake
process Exceeding water could be recharged in
Running cost and maintenance complex groundwater table as the best possible
location
Catchment in existing Irumbai Social issues cannot be neglected
tank Becomes a multi-purpose solution:
Cheap drainage, esthetical, symbolic, supply
Social issue Important evaporation losses
It is a source of irrigation for agriculture Running cost and maintenance relatively
High losses by evaporation and limited complex
storage
Pollutant from agricultural activities difficult
to avoid
Rainwater: synthesis
Evaluation table: 4 stars best, 1 star worth
Rainwater: Conclusion

All solutions can be part of the sourcing system.


Open storage system is generating important losses
because of high evaporation rate.
The Catchment in Matrimandir Lake solution offers
the best score.
Are we able to make choices?
Multi sourcing?
Rain water as a resource?
Matrimandir Lake as major part of the water
system?
Integration in planning and development
issues?
Thanks a lot for
A Sustainable and Harmonious
Future!