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Program StudiTeknik

Physiography of Indonesia Perminyakan Dr. Ir. Eko Widianto, MT


FakultasTeknologi Kebumian dan Energi Semester Genap_2014 - 2015
UniversitasTrisakti
LECTURE MATERIALS
1 INTRODUCTION: Definition, Level Petroleum Investigation, Role of Geophysical Methods

2 Fundamental of Seismic Method


3 Seismic Acquisition
4 Seismic Processing
5 Seismic Structural Interpretation
6 Seismic Stratigraphic Interpretation
7 Seismic Interpretation Exercise (2X)
8 Review of Gravity Method
9 Paradigm Shift in Gravity Data Utilization
10 Gravity data analysis for Oil and Gas Exploration
11 Gravity Data analysis for Reservoir Monitoring
2
Summary
Sequence stratigraphy: an integrated framework
- for petroleum systems analysis and
- predictive models for prospect generation

Sequences are controlled by a complex interaction


of tectonism, eustasy, sediment supply and climate

Several approaches exist, differing mainly in terms of


principal bounding surfaces; one or another may be
best for a particular basin or setting

From a Best Practices standpoint, we recommend


using the most reasonable and practical approach
Stratigraphic Analysis
Controls on Stratigraphic Architecture
Shoreline Movements
Alternative Packages
Type-1 Exxonian Sequence

Highstand

Transgressive
Lowstand Wedge
Eustasy
Lowstand Fan
F R

Systems Tracts
Scale of Stratigraphic Correlation

Using Outcrops or Cores High cm Very


60 Local
Visually correlate laminae 40
and beds 20

Units are centimeters thick 0

Using Well Logs

Areal Extent
Well A Well B Well C
12

Resolution
Pattern correlation of log 9

markers 6

Units are meters thick 3

0
meters

Using Seismic Data meters


300
Seismic correlation of 200
bedsets and larger units 100
Units are tens to hundreds 0 Basin-
of meters thick Low wide

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
The STRENGTHS of Seismic Data

Good areal coverage


Able to image major depositional units
Able to identify potential source, reservoir,
and seal units
Provides a stratigraphic framework within
which other data can be understood
Well data Vail et al., 1977a

Basin fill history


HC systems

AAPG1977 reprinted with permission of the AAPG


whose permission is required for further use.
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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
The WEAKNESSES of Seismic Data
Limited vertical and lateral resolution: cant
resolve small features
Stratigraphic interpretation is limited by the
quality of the seismic data/imaging
Seismic responses are non-unique e.g., low
amplitude could be a massive sand or a thick
shale
In new areas, we often have to jump correlate
from adjacent outcrops or basins
Post-depositional erosion and/or structuring can
hamper stratigraphic correlations and paleo-
depositional reconstructions
Typically we cant see hydrocarbons
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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Two Methods for Correlating

There are two basic ways to correlate


stratigraphy:
By rock type i.e., Lithostratigraphy

By age-equivalence i.e., Chronostratigraphy

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Lithostratigraphy

Units are defined based on lithology


Rock units vary in space and time
Boundaries are subjective, and not physical
since lateral facies changes are gradational

A Sand
B Sand
B Sand

X Nonmarine Member
X Member
non-marine
A Sand
Z Shale Z Shale

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Chronostratigraphy

Units defined based on time-equivalent stratal


surfaces, natural stratigraphic subdivisions
Chronozones vary in space but not time
Correspond to physical boundaries, which can
generate reflections

Time Unit 1

Unit 3
Time Unit 2
Unit 2
Time Unit 3
Unit 1

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Question ???

What Do We Observe on Seismic Sections?


Lithostratigraphic Units, or
Chronostratigraphic Units?
A Thought Experiment:
What geometry would we observe for a prograding
system

B Sand Unit 3
X Nonmarine Member Unit 2

Unit 1
A Sand
Z Shale

Lithostratigraphic? Chronostratigraphic?
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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Answer !!!

In a prograding depositional system, reflections


parallel stratal surfaces and therefore have time or
chronostratigraphic significance.

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Seismic Example of Angular Discordance

There is angular discordance between


reflections at the yellow line

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Terminations: Base of a Sequence

Older
Older
Beds
Beds

Onlap Downlap
A base-discordant relationship A base-discordant relationship
in which younger strata in which younger inclined strata
terminate progressively against terminate progressively against
a surface of greater inclination a surface of lower inclination

NOTE: These definitions are based on observed geometric relationships, not


on inferred depositional processes

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Terminations: Top of a Sequence

Younger Younger
Beds Beds

Erosion Toplap
A top-discordant relationship in A top-discordant relationship in
which strata terminate along an which strata terminate against a
unconformity surface due to surface mainly as a result of
post-depositional erosion non-deposition (bypass)

NOTE: These definitions are based on observed geometric relationships


AND some inference about depositional processes

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Seismic Sequence
Mitchum et al., 1977a

Overlying Truncation
Toplap Unconformity

Underlying
Unconformity
Onlap

Downlap Internal
Convergence
AAPG1977reprinted with permission of the AAPG whose permission is required for further use.

A depositional sequence is a relatively conformable succession of


genetically related strata bounded at its top and base by
unconformities or their correlative conformities.

A seismic sequence is a depositional sequence identified on a


seismic section

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
What Is Seismic Facies Analysis?

Input: Seismic Data (2D or 3D)


Seismic Stratigraphic Analysis
Define key stratigraphic intervals
Seismic Sequence Analysis

Determine the rock types within each interval


Seismic Facies Analysis

Product: Prediction of Rock Types


Sand within reservoir intervals
Shale in overlying seal intervals & source intervals

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Definitions

Seismic Facies Unit


a mappable, three dimensional seismic unit
composed of groups of reflections whose
parameters differ from those of adjacent facies
units.
Seismic Facies Analysis
the description and geologic interpretation
(environmental setting, lithofacies, etc.) of seismic
reflection parameters.
Mitchum et al., 1977a

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Reflection Features Used in Mapping

Feature Significance
Seismic Impedance Contrasts
Amplitude (significant stratal surfaces)
Bed Spacing / Tuning
Fluid Content

Reflection Depositional Processes


Geometry

Reflection Lateral Stratal Continuity


Continuity Depositional Processes

Wavelet Bed Thickness


Frequency Fluid Content

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Seismic Facies Analysis

Seismic Sequence Analysis Mitchum et al., 1977b


Key Stratigraphic Units AAPG1977reprinted with permission of the AAPG
whose permission is required for further use.
Are Broken Out

Seismic Facies Analysis

Geometric Relations Other Seismic Features


are Captured through are Extracted as
ABC Mapping Seismic Attributes

Carb.
Interpretation/Prediction Slope Shelf
Edge
Patterns are used to Interpret EODs Reef Carbonate
Lithologies / stacking are predicted Shelf

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Posting Geometric Observation

The ABC Method


Tr = Truncation On = Onlap

A - B
Tp = Toplap Dn = Downlap
C = Concordant C = Concordant

C
p = parallel m = mounded ob = oblique progradation
sub = subparallel w = wavy sig = sigmoid progradation
div = divergent rf = reflection free sh = shingled

A = Termination Pattern at the Upper Sequence Boundary


B = Termination Pattern at the Lower Sequence Boundary
C = Internal Reflection Pattern
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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Internal Reflection Patterns

Stratified Unstratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Parallel Sigmoid Mounded Chaotic


Subparallel Oblique Hummocky Reflection
Divergent Combination Deformed Free
Shingled

For examples, see AAPG Memoir 26

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Simple Stratified Internal Configurations

Parallel - Even
Stratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Subparallel Divergent

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Progradational Internal Configurations

Shingled
Stratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Sigmoid Oblique

Upbuilding (Aggradation) Outbuilding


(Progradation)

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Complex Internal Configurations
Mounded

Stratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Hummocky Deformed

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
The Classic Method - An Example

C -On T -C T -Dn C -Dn C -C


P Ob Ob P P

Line B

Each Line is Subdivided into Seismic Facies Units


where Each Unit Differs from its Neighbors
Here Facies Units are based on Reflection Geometries

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
ABC Codes Posted on a Map

Line A
C -C
P
10
Line B
10 20 30 40 50
C -On T -C T -Dn C -Dn C -C
P Ob Ob P P
20

T -C
Div

Line C 30

10 20 30 40 50
C -On T -C T -Dn C -Dn C -C
P Ob Ob P P
40

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Facies Synthesis

Line A
C -C
P
10
Line B
10 20 30 40 50
C -On T -C T -Dn C -Dn C -C
P Ob 20 Ob P P
Wedge
T -C
Div Zone of
Line C 30Progradation Sheet
10 20 30 40 50
C -On T -C T -Dn C -Dn C -C
P Ob Ob P P
40

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Depositional Environments

Line A
10
Line B
10 20 30 40 50

Non-Marine 20
Marginal
Marine Slope
Line C 30 Basin
10 20 30 40 50

40

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Inferred Lithology - Prediction

Facies Model Prediction


Crevasse Splay
Sea Level
Channel Fill
Proximal
Distributary
Mouth Bar

Delta Front Sandstone Distal


Distributary
Delta Front Siltstone Mouth Bar
Pro-Delta Shales
Delta Front
Offshore Clay
Prodelta

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Time for Another Exercise

Woodbine: Onshore East Texas

Line 1a
Line 1

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC


Ramsayer, 1979
whose permission is required for further use.

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Line 1
Well C Well D

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC Ramsayer, 1979


whose permission is required for further use.

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L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
ABC-Coded Map

Well C

Well D

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC Ramsayer, 1979


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
ABC Synthesis

Well C

Well D

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC Ramsayer, 1979


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis
Interpreted Depositional Environments

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC Ramsayer, 1979


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 Stratigraphic Analysis