You are on page 1of 34

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

is a lifesaving technique useful in


many emergencies, including heart
attack or near drowning, in which
someone's breathing or heartbeat has
stopped.
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is a
technique of basic life support for
oxygenating the brain and heart until
appropriate, definitive medical
treatment can restore normal heart
and ventilatory action.
To maintain an open and clear airway
(A).
To maintain breathing by external
ventilation (B).
To maintain Blood circulation by external
cardiac massages (C).
To save life of the Patient.
To provide basic life support till medical
and advanced life support arrives.
Cardiac Arrest
Ventricular fibrillation (VF)
Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
Asystole
Pulse less electrical activity
Respiratory Arresst
This may be result of following:
Drowning
Stroke
Foreign body in throat
Smoke inhalation
Drug overdose
Suffocation
Accident, injury
Coma
Epiglottis paralysis.
To restore effective circulation and
ventilation.
To prevent irreversible cerebral
damage due to anoxia. When the
heart fails to maintain the cerebral
circulation for approximately four
minutes the brain may suffer
irreversible damage.
SEQUENCES OF PROCEDURES
PERFORMED TO RESTORE THE
CIRCULATION OF OXYGENATED BLOOD
AFTER A SUDDEN PULMONARY AND/OR
CARDIAC ARREST

CHEST COMPRESSIONS AND PULMONARY


VENTILATION PERFORMED BY ANYONE
WHO KNOWS HOW TO DO IT, ANYWHERE,
IMMEDIATELY, WITHOUT ANY OTHER
EQUIPMENT
Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 108
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
APPROACH SAFELY!

Approach safely
WATCH
OBSERVE Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 108
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
CHECK RESPONSE

Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 112
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
CHECK RESPONSE

Shake shoulders gently


Ask Are you all right?
If he responds
Leave as you find him.
Find out what is wrong.
Reassess regularly.
SHOUT FOR HELP

Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 112
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
OPEN AIRWAY

Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 112
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
OPEN AIRWAY

Head tilt and chin lift


- lay rescuers
- non-healthcare rescuers

No need for finger sweep


unless solid material can be seen
in the airway
OPEN AIRWAY

Head tilt, chin lift + jaw thrust


CHECK BREATHING

Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 108
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
CHECK BREATHING

Look, listen and feel


for NORMAL
breathing

Do not confuse
agonal breathing with
NORMAL breathing
Occurs shortly after the heart stops
in up to 40% of cardiac arrests

Described as barely, heavy, noisy or


gasping breathing

Recognise as a sign of cardiac arrest


Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 108
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
30 CHEST COMPRESSIONS

Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 108
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
CHEST COMPRESSIONS
Place the heel of one hand in
the centre of the chest
Place other hand on top
Interlock fingers
Compress the chest
Rate 100 min-1
Depth 4-5 cm (1.5 to 2 inch)
Equal compression :
relaxation
When possible change CPR
operator every 2 min
RESCUE BREATHS

Approach safely
Check response
Shout for help
Open airway
Check breathing
Call 112
30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
Pinch the nose
Take a normal breath
Place lips over
mouth
Blow until the chest
rises
Take about 1 second
Allow chest to fall
Repeat
RECOMMENDATIONS:
- Tidal volume
500 600 ml

- Respiratory rate
give each breaths over about 1s with enough
volume to make the victims chest rise

- Chest-compression-only
continuously at a rate of 100 min
CONTINUE CPR

30 2
Coronary vessel injury
Diaphragm injury
Hemopericardium
Hemothorax
Interference with ventilation
Liver injury
Myocardial injury
Pneumothorax
Rib fractures
Spleen injury
Sternal fracture
Adrenaline
Adrenaline (epinephrine) is the main drug used
during resuscitation from cardiac arrest.
Atropine
Atropine as a single dose of 3mg is sufficient to
block vagal tone completely and should be used
once in cases of asystole. It is also indicated for
symptomatic bradycardia in a dose of 0.5mg -
1mg.
Amiodarone
It is an antiarrhythmic drug.
Maintains airway patency with use of airway
adjuncts as required (suction, high flow
oxygen with O2 or bag valve mask
ventilation).
Assist with intubation and securing of ETT
Inserts gastric tube and/or facilitates gastric
decompression post intubation as required.
Assists with ongoing management of airway
patency and adequate ventilation
Supports less experienced staff by
coaching/guidance e.g. drug
preparation
If a shockable rhythm is present
(VF/VT) ensure manual defibrillator
pads are applied and connected.
If CPR is in progress, prepare and
independently double check and label 3
doses of adrenaline
Prepare and administer IV fluids
Document medications administered
(including time)