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CONCEPT OF POLITICAL

SCIENCE, STATE, POLITICS,


GOVERNMENT, GOVERNANCE
AND ADMINISTRATION
POLITICAL SCIENCE
It is the systematic study of and reflection upon
politics.
Politics usually describes the processes by which
people and institutions exercise and resist power.
Political Science is the systematic study of the
state and government.
The word political is derived from the Greek polis,
meaning a city, of what today would be equivalent
of sovereign state.
Scope of Political Science:
Political theory
Public Law
Public Administration
Political Theory




Public Law





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Public Administration
Attention is focused upon ..................................



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Today, legislative bodies have been forced to delegate
greater discretion to executive ..





Concepts of State
Meaning of the State
State is a community of persons more or less numerous,



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Elements of State:
1. People
2. Territory
3. Government
4. Sovereignty
5. Recognition
People
This refers to the mass of population living within the state.
There is no requirement as to the number of people




The smallest state is Vatican.
China has the largest population.
Territory
Components of Territory:
1. Terrestrial/land mass
2. Aerial
3. Fluvial
4. Maritime Domain
Government
It refers to the agency through which the . .


Sovereignty
It is the supreme power of the state to command and
enforce


.
Two manifestations of Sovereignty:
1. Internal or the power of the state ;
2. External or the freedom of the state to carry out its activities



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Characteristics of Sovereignty:
Permanence;

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Exclusivity;
..
Comprehensiveness;


Absoluteness;



Individuality;

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Inalienability;


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Imprescribility



Recognition
1.Legal sovereignty is the possession of unlimited power to


...
2.Political sovereignty is the sum total of all the influences
in a state


GOVERNANCE
Manner of government: the system or manner of
government;

..;
Authority: ..
ADMINISTRATION
It means the management of the affairs of a

...
GOVERNMENT
Forms of Government:
The principal forms are the following:
1. As to number of persons ..;
2. As to extent of powers exercised by
;
3. As to relationship between the executive and the
;
4. As to source ..:
1. As to number of persons exercising sovereign
powers:
A1. Government by one:
Monarchy or one in which the supreme and final authority.


Monarchy, form of government in which one person has the


...
Monarchies are further classified into:
Monarchs include
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Two types of monarchical government:
1. Absolute Monarchy or one in which the
; and
2. Limited monarchy or one in which the ruler rules in
..
The power of the monarch varies from absolute to very
limited; ...
.
A2. Authoritarian or one in which the supreme power of the
.
1. strict and demanding obedience:
.................................................................................;
2. demanding political obedience: belonging to or believing in a


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B. Government by few:
B1. Aristocracy or one in which political power is exercised by few
privileged class.
People of highest social class: ...
..
Superior group: .
..
Government by elite:
..
State run by elite: ..
B2. Oligarchy
1. small governing group: .

.;
2. entity ruled by oligarchy: ..
.;
3. government by small group: .

Sources of their power:
By birth
By wealth
By wisdom
In an aristocracy, although the power of government is


...
Whenever the interests of the people as a whole are made




C. Government by many
1. Democracy or one in which political power is exercised by the
majority of the people. It is further classified into:
Direct or pure democracy or one in which the will of the state is formulated or


....
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Indirect, representative or republican democracy or one in which the will of




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2. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national
government:
A. Unitary government or one in which the control

..;
B. Federal government or one in which the powers of government


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Federal states, such as the U.S. and Switzerland, comprise unions of



...
In unitary states, such as the United Kingdom and Belgium, the
constituent subdivisions of the state are subordinate to the authority of
the national government.
Countries with federal political systems have both a central
government and governments based in smaller political units,
usually called states, provinces, or territories.

.
In a federal system, laws are made both by state, provincial, or
territorial governments and by a central government.
In the United States, for example, people who live in the
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..................................................................................................................
Federal political systems divide
..................................................................................................................
Central governments decide issues that concern the whole country,



In unitary systems, with laws giving virtually all authority to
the central government.
The central government may delegate duties to cities or other

...
The central government in a unitary system is much more


3. As to relationship between the executive and the
legislative branches of the government:
A. Parliamentary government or cabinet government is one


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B. Presidential government or one in which the state makes

....
Distinctions between Presidential & Parliamentary
In parliamentary governments, of which the United Kingdom,


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In presidential governments, such as in the U.S., the executive is


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4. As to source of power or authority:
A. De facto is one not so constituted or founded with the


...
B. De Jure is one which is constituted or founded in

.
C. Hereditary & Elective.
Checks and Balances, the doctrine and practice of




The system of checks and balances is a basic feature of the
United States government.
The first check comes from the fact that different branches of


...
For example, the president can veto an act of Congress.

.


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Separation of Powers, the doctrine and practice of dividing

...
A government of separated powers assigns different political
and legal powers to the legislative, executive, and judicial
branches.
The legislative branch has ..
The executive branch has the authority to administer the


...........
The judicial branch has the power to try cases brought to court



A government of separated powers is less likely to be


...
A separation of powers can also make a political system



The separation of powers also prevents one branch of

.
Most democratic systems have
..
POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES
Liberalism, attitude, philosophy, or movement that
has as its basic concern the development of
personal freedom and social progress.



.
For example, in countries in which the political and


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In countries in which a state church exists or a


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In domestic politics, liberals have opposed feudal



...
In international politics, liberals have opposed the
domination

.
In economics, liberals have attacked monopolies and


.
In religion, liberals have fought against church



.
Conservatism, a general state of mind that is averse
to rapid change and innovation and strives for
balance and order, while avoiding extremes.
Originally conservatism arose as a reaction against the
Age of Enlightenment.

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Conservatism emphasizes the merits of the



Democracy (Greek demos, the people; kratein, to
rule), political system in which the people of a
country rule through any form of government they
choose to establish.
In modern democracies, supreme authority is


...
The representatives may be supplanted by



Socialism, economic and social doctrine, political
movement inspired by this doctrine, and system or
order established when this doctrine is organized in
a society.
The socialist doctrine demands state ownership






The doctrine specifically advocates nationalization of

.
It places special emphasis on the nationalization of
monopolized .
.
It also advocates state ownership of corporations in


.
Capitalism, economic system in which private
individuals and business firms carry on the
production and exchange of goods and services
through a complex network of prices and markets.


....




Third, owners of land and capital as well as the
workers .

.
This principle, called consumer sovereignty, reflects
the idea that under capitalism producers will be

.
Fourth, under this system a minimum of government

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Communism, a theory and system of social and
political organization that was a major force in world
politics for much of the 20th century.
As a political movement, communism sought to



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In theory, communism would create a
...................................................................................
...................................................................................
In practice, communist regimes have taken the form



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