You are on page 1of 16

MALARIA

Dr KABERA Ren
UNSOS Medical Officer
Beledweyne/Somalia
Introduction
Clinical features
Diagnosis
Treatment
References

PLAN

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Definition

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and


other animals caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the
Plasmodium type. The disease is most commonly transmitted by an
infected female Anopheles mosquito.

The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria"bad


air"; the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its
association with swamps and marshland

INTRODUCTION

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


The 5 Plasmodium species known to cause Malaria in humans are P falciparum,
P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi.

The female anopheles mosquito is transmitting the disease

INTRODUCTION

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Pathophysiology

INTRODUCTION
Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017
History
Existence of the parasite responsible for P. falciparum malaria has been in for
50,000100,000 years
Some evidence suggests that the P. falciparum malaria may have originated
in gorillas
1829 Malaria in English literature
1880 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran(France): Malaria parasites
1881 Carlos Finlay (Cuba) : Transmission by mosquitoes
1894 Sir Ronald Ross (Scotland) : complete life-cycle of the malaria parasite

INTRODUCTION
Malaria/Dr Rene

Charles Louis AL
History
The treatment of malaria by Indigenous people of Peru with cinchona tree containing
quinine
1820 Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaim Caventou (France) extracted
quinine from cinchona tree
1970 Tu Youyou (China) discovered Artemisinin
1967 first works on Malaria vaccines
2015 the first approval of Malaria Vaccine by EU RTS,S (Mosquirix)
2018 first WHO pilote vaccine Programme of Mosquirix in Africa (Kenya, Ghana and
Malawi)

INTRODUCTION

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Epidemiology
In 2015 , 212 million new cases of malaria worldwide
90% cases of malaria in Africa, followed by the South-East Asia Region (7%) and the Eastern
Mediterranean Region (2%).
Eradicated in US Europe and other places recently in Sri Lanka
In 2015, 429 000 malaria deaths, malaria killed 303 000 (70%)under-fives globally, including 292 000 in the
African Region
Some progress :
From 2000 to 2015 Malaria incidence rate fell 37% and mortality rate fell by 60%
Malaria Global financing : from US$871 million in 2005 to US$ 2.9 billion in 2015
Somalia 2010, about 9500 malaria cases were reported compared to over 49 000 cases reported in 2006
(WHO)

INTRODUCTION

Malaria/Dr Ren 9/24/2017


Epidemiology

INTRODUCTION
Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017
Signs and symptoms
Simple malaria
Headache, Fatigue, Malaise, Shaking chills, Arthralgia, Myalgia
Paroxysm of fever, shaking chills, and sweats
Severe malaria
Anorexia and Lethargy
Nausea and vomiting
Diarrhea
Jaundice
Coma

CLINICAL
Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017
Complications
Cerebral malaria(Coma ,Convulsions)
Pulmonary edema
Anemia
Renal problems.
(Infected Red blood cells adhere to endothelial cells of blood vessels)

CLINICAL

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Differential diagnosis
Viral disease
Dengue fever
Typhoid fever
Influenza
Encephalitis
Meningitis
Sepsis

DIAGNOSIS

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Specific tests
Malaria rapid test
Thick Blood smear on microscope
Other tests
- Full Blood Count (Hb,Hct,,,)
- AST,ALT
- Glycemia
- Urea creatinine and elecrolytes
- CSF Analysis (LP)
- CXR,U/S

DIAGNOSIS

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Prevention
Vector control measures-Spraying and Fumigation (BLW monthly)
Insecticide Treated Mosquitos nets (ITNs)
Chemoprevention (Pregnant women, Travelers)
Repellent body Sprays
From 2018 Malaria Vaccine RTS,S (Mosquirix)
Curative
Coartem (Artemether and Lumefantrine),Quinine, Mefloquine
(Lariam),Artesunate ,Chloroquine, Fansidar(SP), Atovaquone-proguanil
(Malarone)

TREATMENT

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


Medscape : Malaria 2017
WHO : Malaria 2017
CDC : Malaria 2017
UNICEF : Malaria 2017
RTS,S Vaccine - Malaria vaccine initiative (MVI) ,GlaxoSmithKline,
Melinda and Gates foundation
Beledweyne UNSOS Medical Reports 2017

REFERENCE

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017


End

THANK YOU

Malaria/Dr Rene 9/24/2017