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Research Proposal

Design of Engineered Cementitious Composite


P. Jayasheel Varma ID. No. 2016H143023H
Under the guidance of Prof. P. N . Rao
BITS Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC:

By nature concrete is brittle and its brittleness increases with increase in


its strength.
This poses great danger and limits its direct usage in the structural
applications.
Seeing on the seismic side ductility plays a key role and to impart it
traditionally, high amount of steel is required which increases the cost of
the structure.
These above issues are discussed since they point to develop a cost
effective high ductility cementitious material which led to the invention of
Engineered Cementitious composite (ECC).

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


INTRODUCTION Cont.

In terms of material constituents, ECC utilizes similar ingredients as fibre


reinforced concrete (FRC).
It contains water, cement, sand, fibre, and some common chemical additives
such as silica fume and admixture.
Coarse aggregates are not used as they may adversely affect the unique
ductile behaviour of the composite.
A typical composition employs w/c ratio and sand/cement ratio of 0.5 or
lower.
In general, 2% or less by volume of discontinuous fibre is sufficient.
Various fibre types can be used in ECC, but the detail composition must obey
certain rules imposed by micromechanics considerations.
On the economic and the micromechanics considerations, poly vinyl alcohol
is most widely used.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPOSED
RESEARCH:
The term engineered itself suggest that it can be nurtured according
to requirement of an engineer .
Potential to substitute RCC in construction practice.
Main quality of ECC is the induction of ductility into the concrete.
A part from ductility, it can also address the co2 emissions which is a
serious threat to the environment.

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EXPECTED OUTCOME:
Standard design of a M25 ECC.
Self Compacting in nature.
Incorporation of GGBS instead of silica fume.
Optimization of amount of the constituent materials of ECC

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


SCHEDULE OF WORK:

S. No Identifiable milestones of progress Months from


start
Task 1 Detailed literature review from reputed journals 1

Task 2 An in depth look into micromechanics design theory related to 2


ECC
Task 3 Formulate the methodology for the experimental procedure 5

Task 4 Schedule of casting to be done 6

Task 5 Casting of the various elements such as cubes, beams starts 9

Task 7 Loading tests on the elements that have been casted starts 10
Task 8 Documentation of final report 11

Task 9 Submission of final report 12

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


BUDGET:

Year

Total equipment cost (normally over 80%):(if 9 Lakhs


not available)

Supplies: 1 Lakh

Manpower cost: 25,000

Contingencies (up to Rs. 50,000): 25,000

Total (normally less than 20%): 1 Lakh

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Research Practice
Engineered Cementitious Composite
P. Jayasheel Varma ID. No. 2016H143023H
Under the guidance of Prof. P. N . Rao
BITS Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
LITERATURE REVIEW

Improved fibre distribution and mechanical properties of engineered


cementitious composites by adjusting the mixing sequence
Zhou et al.,(2002)
Innovative approach was employed to improve the fibre distribution
by adjusting the mixing sequence.
A set of samples mixing in standard procedure and another set with
different procedure were considered for different water to powder
ratios.
Experimental analysis were carried out for standard and different
mixing sequences.
Compared with the standard mixing sequence, the adjusted mixing
sequence found to be effective.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

Numerical study on steady-state cracking of composites


Enhua Yang , Victor C. Li (2009)

Theoretical study was performed on the saturated cracking of ECC.


Simulation of the behaviour of crack extension is done in the FEA
software DIANA.
Numerical results were verified with the experimental results

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Self-Compacting ECC(Inventors: V. C. Li & H.J. Kong, US
Patent No. 6,809,131. Issued on October 26, 2004)
Self compacting ECC is invented by optimizing the micro
mechanical parameters of the ECC.
Different tests of workability were conducted.
Mechanical tests were also conducted.
Fibres seen to be hindrance to workability.
Optimization of fibre content seen to be effective.
Rheological properties seen to be controlled by using the
plasticizers

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


METHODOLGY
Generally for most of the construction purpose mix design M25 is
used and there is no standard literature for the its ECC design.
On considering this, mix design can be formulated for ECC.
Incorporation of GGBS instead of the silica fume.
Validation of design by comparison with the traditional concrete.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


REFERNCES
Li, V.C. and Kanda, T., "Engineered Cementitious Composites for Structural Applications",
Innovations Forum in ASCE J. Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 66-69, May
1998.
Kanda, T. and V.C. Li, "New Micromechanics Design Theory for Pseudo Strain Hardening
Cementitious Composite," ASCE J. of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 125, No. 4, pp. 373-381,
1999.
Nelson, P.K., V.C. Li, and T. Kamada, "Fracture Toughness of Micro-Fiber Reinforced
Cement Composites," ASCE J. Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp.384-391,
2002.
Li, V.C., T. Horikoshi, A. Ogawa, S. Torigoe and T. Saito, Micromechanics-based Durability
Study of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Engineered Cementitious Composite (PVA-ECC), ACI Materials
J., Vol. 101, No. 3, pp. 242-248, 2004.
Wang, S. and Li, V. C., "Engineered Cementitious Composites with High-volume Fly Ash",
ACI Material Journal, Vol 104, No. 3, May-June, 2007, pp. 233-241.
Yang, E.H., Y. Yang, and V.C. Li, "Use of High Volumes of Fly Ash to Improve ECC
Mechanical Properties and Material Greenness," ACI Materials J., Vol.104, No.6, pp.620-628,
Nov-Dec 2007.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Sahmaran, M., and V.C. Li, "Durability Properties of Micro-Cracked ECC Containing High
Volumes Fly Ash,", J. Cement and Concrete Research, 39, 1033-1043, 2009.
Kan, Li-Li, H.S. Shi, A.R. Sakulich, and V.C. Li, "Self-Healing Characterization of Engineered
Cementitious Composites (ECC)", ACI Materials J., Vol.107, No.6, Nov-Dec 2010, pp.617-624.
Sahmaran, M., Ozbay, E., Yucel, H.E., Lachemi, M., and V.C. Li, "Effect of Fly Ash and PVA
Fiber on Microstructural Damage and Residual Properties of Engineered Cementitious
Composites Exposed to High Temperatures; J. of Materials in Civil Engineering, 23(12), 1735-
1745, December 2011.
Santosh Kumar Karri, G.V. Rama Rao, P.Markandeya Raju, The Strength and Durability Studies
on GGBS Concrete, volume 2, Issue 10, October 2015.
Liu, H., Zhang, Q., Gu, C., Su, H., and Li, V.C., "Influence of micro-cracking on the permeability
of Engineered Cementitious Composites, J. Cement and Concrete Composites, 72, 104-113, 2016.
Yongxing Zhang, Naoshi Ueda, Hikaru Nakamura, and Minoru Kunieda., Behavior Investigation
of Reinforced Concrete Members with Flexural Strengthening Using Strain-Hardening
Cementitious Composite, ACI Structural J., Vol.114, No.2, Mar-Apr 2017, pp.417-426.
Li, V.C., "Bendable concrete, Innovation in Construction (iCon), Research Journal 2016, 11-15,
2016.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LAB COMPONENT

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LAB COMPONENT

STEEL STRUCTURES LAB OBJECTIVE

To understand the practical behaviour of the steel and to correlate with the
background literature.

To make an arrangement for test of different varieties of steel.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


TENSILE STRENGTH

REQUIREMENTS:
As steel is strong in the tension, it is obvious to determine its
strength.
To know the practical implications in determining the strength.
To draw a stress strain curve and to define various parameters.

EQUIPMENT:
Universal Testing Machine.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Quotation

Universal Testing Machine cost 8,50,000.00


Model UTES 20 HGFL TS (SERVO Control)
Make FIE
Capacity 0-200 kN
VENDOR:
Canan Testing Services
https://5.imimg.com/data5/SN/NF/MY-4195733/touch-screen-computerised-universal
testing-machine.pdf

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


HARDNESS

REQUIREMENTS:
To find the ultimate tensile strength of the steel specimen
To compare the empirically obtained tensile strength of the steel with
their actual ultimate tensile strength obtained from tensile test.

EQUIPMENT:
Rockwell Hardness Tester.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Quotations

Rockwell cum Brinell hardness Tester cost 40,000.00


VENDOR
Aim Measure Care
http://www.aimmeasurecare.com/hardness-tester.html#rockwell-cum
brinell-hardness-tester

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


IMPACT TEST

REQUIREMENTS:
To find the energy absorbed in fracture.
To compare with the different specimens and their
corresponding modulus of rupture.

EQUIPMENT:
Impact testing machine.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Quotation

Impact Testing Machine cost 90,000.00


Model : RI-300 E
Capacity : 300J (Charpy Test) & 168 J for IZOD Test
Capacity 0-200 kN
VENDOR
Ratnakar Enterprises
http://4.imimg.com/data4/OK/FU/MY-553814/digital-impact testing-machine.pdf

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
OVERVIEW

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

3. METHODOLOGY

4. WORKS DONE

5. FURTHER PLAN

6. LAB COMPONENT

7. SUMMARY

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Engineered Cementitious Composites for Structural Applications

V.C Li and Kanda (1998)

An overview about the ECC is described regarding its properties


in terms of the constituents and the behaviour.

Difference between FRC and ECC was also mentioned and also the
attainment of its unique ductile nature.

Application studies and experimental studies were discussed.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.
2. A New Micromechanics Design Theory For Pseudo Strain Hardening
Cementitious Composite

Kanda and V.C. Li (1999)

They formulated the basic design theory for the ductile Random Short
Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites (RSFRCC) with pseudo strain
hardening (PSH) behaviour.

Bridging law that describes the relationship between crack bridging


stress due to fibre, and Crack Opening Displacement (COD) is formulated
and also there is combination of energy approach for PSH condition.

There was the experimental side in which two poly vinyl alcohol fibres of
different diameters were used and the results were used for the theory
validation.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.
3. Fracture Toughness Of Micro Fibre Reinforced Cement Composite

Nelson et al.,(2002)

They investigated the influence of fibres in the fracture process in


composites ahead of crack tip in the frontal process zone (FPZ)

Different fibres such as the polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),


and refined cellulose (RC) were investigated as the reinforcing material.

Both the mechanical fracture toughness testing and the acoustic


emissions technique were used and five types of zones were defined.

By observation of results both PVA and PP effectively postponed the


development of microcracks while PA not performed.

Acoustic emission (AE) data was also employed to check the


overestimate of fracture toughness and result found to be matching.
BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

4. Micromechanics-Based Durability Study of Polyvinyl Alcohol-


Engineered Cementitious Composite

V.C. Li et al;(2004)

They studied the durability of PVA based ECC under the hot conditions
at different intervals.

Both the theoretical study and the experimental studies were done.

Fibre nominal strength and composite uniaxial tensile test were


performed in order to define the tensile stress-strain relations.

The result is that after the long-term hot water immersion there is a
reduction in the strain value.

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LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

GAPS IN THE LITERATURE


Though it is an accelerated test, it takes a relatively long time to develop a
good material durability performance data base
the information is difficult to use in addressing the source or mechanism of
deterioration and also limited to one type.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

5. Engineered Cementitious Composites with High-Volume Fly Ash


Wand and Li (2007)
This literature gives the report about the mechanical performance of ECCs
incorporated with high volume fly ash and bottom ash.
ECC guidelines were discussed back again and two sets of investigation were
done
The influence of fly ash content on the micromechanics parameters and the
effect of various types of ashes on the composite behaviour, in particular
tensile behaviour, were evaluated.
Stress strain relations were plotted with the different fly ash components.
With increase in the fly ash content the strain hardening is also being
increased.
GAP: This study is limited to the tensile ductility.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

6.Use of High Volumes of Fly Ash to Improve ECC Mechanical Properties


and Material Greenness
Yang et al;(2007)
This paper gives the idea about development of Engineered cementitious
composites (ECC) with ultra-high volumes of fly ash (HVFA) replacement
(up to 85% by weight) of Cement.
E.C.C parameters were taken in to account and the experimental test were
carried out.
The compressive strength, tensile strain capacity (percent) and the residual
crack width were seen for different days.
Increase in the fly ash content reduces the compressive strength and the
same tensile strain-hardening behaviour and high fly ash tends to reduce
the crack width.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

7. Self-Healing Characterization of Engineered Cementitious Composite


Materials
Li et al;(2010)
This paper investigates the self-healing behaviour of engineered
cementitious composite (ECC) materials.
Various type of observations are done on the development of crack.
Self healing is observed in different type of the crack widths.
PVA fibres seen to be the nucleation sites for the self healing and the
phenomenon occurs due to the self controlled crack width.
Various chemical compounds in different crack width were
responsible for the self-healing.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

8. Durability properties of micro-cracked ECC containing high


volume fly ash
Sahmaran and Li(2009)
This presents the durability of the Engineered cementitious composite
(ECC) that contain high percentage of class-F fly ash(FA).
Composites of different contents of fly ash( 55% and 70% by weight)
are considered and accelerated aging was done. Then tested for the
durability.
On considering the experimental results specimen 2 has tighter crack
width when compared to the specimen 1 and also it depend on the type
of curing.
There is also slight reduction in the ultimate strain and strength
capacities and mechanical performance is not significantly influenced by
FA content.
GAP: This is limited to only certain proportions of the fly ash to the cement
content.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

9. Influence of micro-cracking on the permeability of engineered


cementitious composites
Liu et al;(2016)
This paper gives an experimental study about the permeability of water
under constant tensile load and also analytical model is developed in
order to predict the permeability property.
Two samples of normal ECC and CR-ECC were taken, tested under
tensile loading and permeability is calculated.
Special loading device seems to be effective in measuring permeability
and it seems with CR-ECC tighter crack exhibits significantly lower
permeability than the normal ECC with tight crack width.
GAP: This paper just gives a laboratory kind of understanding in terms of
permeability where there can be further analysis in order to use ECC in the
hydraulic structure

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LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

10. Behaviour Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Members with Flexural


Strengthening Using Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composite
Zhang et al;(2017)
They investigated both by experimentally and numerically of attainment of
the flexural strength using SHCC.
Specimens of different layers of 10, 30 and 50mm thickness were
experimentally tested and numerically investigated by finite element
method.
For a thinner SHCC layer, multiple fine cracks were developed and for
thicker layer not evenly distributed.
In the numerical approach, multiple fine cracks in the SHCC layer adjacent
to the localized cracks are placed in an unique manner and tensile
behaviour for the SHCC layers elements is obtained from numerical
simulation.

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LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

11. Effect of Fly Ash and PVA Fibre on Microstructural Damage and Residual
Properties of Engineered Cementitious Composites Exposed to High
Temperatures
Sahmaran et al;(2011)

There had been a experimental investigation on the ECC mixtures with


FA/C ratios 1.2 and 2.2 by weight and exposed to the elevated
temperatures up to 8000c.
By observations after the experiment in range of (200 to 400C) there has
been a sharp reduction in strength and there was no spalling of ECC
specimens after cooling from 8000c.
Increase in the FA content is feasible to increase allowable working
temperatures.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.

12. The Effect Of Fly Ash On The Fluidity Of Cement Paste, Mortar, And
Concrete
Li et al;
This article gives the level of impact on the fluidity of cement paste,
mortar and the concrete with the addition of ultra-fine fly ash.

Based on the various set of parameters such as fluidity of both cement


and mortar and workability of concrete, with increase in fineness there
has been reduction in the water requirement.

Usage of ultra- fine fly ash increase the slump and reduce the slump loss
of the concrete.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


LITERATURE REVIEW Cont.
13. Strength and Durability Studies on GGBS Concrete
Kumar et al;(2015)
They investigated the partial replacement of OPC with the GGBS in the
concrete for different mix proportions of concrete.
As the content of GGBS increases, workability was also increased.
Compressive strength, Tensile strength and Flexural strength were also
increased and they are at maximum level at 40% replacement of the GGBS.
Coming to the durability aspect, GGBS concrete is susceptible to
hydrosulphric attack.

GAP: Combinations of GGBS with the admixtures.

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WORK DONE
Trail mix proportion of the concrete of grade M25 was
calculated and it was being 1:1.227:2.2159 with a water-
cement ratio 0.4
3 cubes, 3 cylinders and 3 beams of standard sizes were
casted and kept in curing for 28 days.
Cement mortar (replacement of OPC with Fly Ash and
GGBS) were taken in different combinations.
Standard size cement cubes were casted and kept in
curing for 28 days.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


WORKS TO BE DONE

Formulate the design for ECC M25.

Cubes, cylinders and beams were to be casted using


ECC.

Comparison with the traditional one.

BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus