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III

Gulf Professional Publishing

Acknowledgement

Mr. Ali Fikret

Radial Flow of

Incompressible Fluids

All fluids move toward the producing well from all

directions

The pressure in the formation at the wellbore must

be less than the pressure in the formation at some

distance from the well

The pressure in the formation at the wellbore of a

producing well is know as the bottom-hole flowing

pressure (flowing BHP, Pwf)

The formation is considered to have a uniform

thickness (h) and a constant permeability (k)

The flow rate (q) must be constant at all radii

Due to the steady-state flowing condition, the

pressure profile around the wellbore is maintained

constant with time

-------------- (25)

q = flow rate at radius r, bbl/day

k = permeability, md

= viscosity, cp

0.001127 = conversion factor to express the equation in field units

Ar = cross-sectional area at radius r

Radial flow model

At any point in the reservoir the cross-sectional

area across which flow occurs will be the surface

area of a cylinder, which is 2rh,

surface unit, use the following

where

Bo = the oil formation volume factor res bbl/STB

Qo = the oil flow in STB/day

Integrating the above equation between two radii,

r1 and r2, when the pressures are p1 and p2

yields:

------------ (26)

For incompressible system in a uniform formation, Equation

(26) can be simplified to (i.e. Q is const):

Integrate:

The steady state radial flow equation in field

units :

External

pressure (psi)

Permeability Height

(mD) (ft) Bottom hole

flowing Pressure

at (psi)

--------- (27)

Wellbore

Oil flow rate External or radius(ft)

(STB/d) Viscosity Oil formation volume drainage

(cp) factor (Bbl/STB) radius(ft)

The external (drainage) radius (re) is usually

determined from the well spacing by equating the

area of the well spacing with that of a circle

OR --------- (28)

conversion factor

radius r to give:

--------- (27)

----------- (29)

Example

An oil well in the Nameless Field is producing at a stabilized rate of

600 STB/day at a stabilized bottom-hole flowing pressure of 1800 psi.

Analysis of the pressure buildup test data indicates that the pay zone

is characterized by a permeability of 120 md and a uniform thickness

of 25 ft. The well drains an area of approximately 40 acres. The

following additional data is available:

rw = 0.25 ft A = 40 acres

Bo = 1.25 bbl/STB o = 2.5 cp

Calculate the pressure profile (distribution) and list the pressure drop

across 1 ft intervals from rw to 1.25 ft, 4 to 5 ft, 19 to 20 ft, 99 to 100 ft,

and 744 to 745 ft.

Solution

Step 1. Rearrange Equation (27) and solve for the

pressure p at radius r.

Step 2. Calculate the pressure at the designated radii.

r, ft p, psi Radius Interval Pressure drop

0.25 1800

1.25 1942 0.251.25 1942 1800 = 142 psi

4 2045

5 2064 45 2064 2045 = 19 psi

19 2182

20 2186 1920 2186 2182 = 4 psi

99 2328

100 2329 99100 2329 2328 = 1 psi

744 2506.1

745 2506.2 744745 2506.2 2506.1 = 0.1 psi

for the calculated data.

?

Radial Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids

Replace the flow rate term with slightly compressible

rate

where qref is the flow

rate at some reference

pressure pref

OR

rate at a reference

pressure pref

Choosing the bottom- hole flow pressure pwf as the

reference pressure and expressing the flow rate in STB/day

gives:

----------- (33)

Where

co = isothermal compressibility coefficient, psi1

Qo = oil flow rate, STB/day

k = permeability, md

Example

The following data are available on a well in the Red River Field:

pe = 2506 psi pwf = 1800

re = 745 rw = 0.25

Bo = 1.25 o = 2.5

co = 25 106 psi1 k = 0.12 Darcy h = 25 ft.

Assuming a slightly compressible fluid, calculate the oil flow rate.

Compare the result with that of incompressible fluid.

Solution:

For a slightly compressible fluid, the oil flow rate can be

calculated by applying Equation (33):

Assuming an incompressible fluid, the flow rate can be

estimated by applying Darcys equation, i.e., Equation (27):

incompressible is slightly higher!

Implication in designs??

Radial Flow of Compressible Gases

form:

----------- (34)

r = radial distance, ft

h = zone thickness, ft

g = gas viscosity, cp

p = pressure, psi

0.001127 = conversion constant from Darcy units to field units

The gas flow rate is usually expressed in scf/day

Applying the real gas equation-of-state to both

conditions to get:

OR

----------- (35)

where psc = standard pressure, psia

Tsc = standard temperature, R

Qg = gas flow rate, scf/day

qgr = gas flow rate at radius r, bbl/day

p = pressure at radius r, psia

T = reservoir temperature, R

z = gas compressibility factor at p and T

zsc = gas compressibility factor at standard condition 1.0

Combining Equations 34 and 35 yields:

----------- (36)

pwf) to any point in the reservoir (r and p) to give:

----------- (37)

Imposing Darcys Law conditions on Equation (37)

Steady-state flow which requires that Qg is constant at all radii

Homogeneous formation which implies that k and h are

constant

Combining the above relationships yields:

-------- (38)

m(p) or

-------- (39)

in terms of the real gas potential

OR

-------- (40)

Equation (40) indicates that a graph of vs. ln r/rw yields

a straight line of slope (QgT/0.703kh) and intercepts w

(Figure 2). The flow rate is given exactly by

-------- (41)

-------- (42)

Figure 2.

Graph of vs. ln (r/rw).

w = real gas potential as evaluated from 0 to Pwf, psi2/cp

k = permeability, md

h = thickness, ft

re = drainage radius, ft

rw = wellbore radius, ft

Qg = gas flow rate, scf/day

The gas flow rate is commonly expressed in Mscf/day

-------- (43)

where Qg = gas flow rate, Mscf/day.

initial reservoir pressure pe as:

-------- (44)

Approximation of the Gas

Flow Rate

Removing the term outside the integral as a

constant

the zg is considered constant only under a

pressure range of < 2000 psi

Equation (43) can be rewritten as:

Removing the term and integrating gives:

-------- (45)

k = permeability, md

that is defined by the following expression:

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