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BASIC ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES

VOLTAGE
CURRENT
RESISTANCE
VOLTAGE

Voltage, symbolized by V, is defined as energy or work per


unit charge.

Where: V is voltage in volts (V),


W is energy in joules (J),
Q is charge in coulombs (C)

Some sources use E instead of V to symbolize voltage, but


we use V.
VOLTAGE

Voltage provides energy to electrons, allowing them


to move through a circuit. This movement of
electrons is the current, which results in work being
done in an electrical circuit.

VOLT
One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between two
points when one joule of energy is used to move one
coulomb of charge from one point to the other.
VOLTAGE SOURCE
A voltage source provides electrical energy or
electromotive force (emf), more commonly
known as voltage. Voltage is produced by means
of chemical energy, light energy, and magnetic
energy combined with mechanical motion.
CURRENT

Electrical current is the rate of flow of charge. Current in


a conductive material is determined by the number of
electrons (amount of charge) that flow past a point in a
unit of time.

Where: I is current in amperes (A),


Q is charge in coulombs (C),
t is time in seconds (s).
CURRENT

Electrical current is the rate of flow of charge.

If a voltage is placed across a conductive or


semiconductive material, one end becomes
positive and the other negative,
AMPERE
One ampere (1 A) is the amount of current that exists
when a number of electrons having a total charge of one
coulomb (1 C) move through a given cross-sectional
area in one second (1 s).
CURRENT SOURCE
The Ideal Current Source
As you know, an ideal voltage source can provide a
constant voltage for any load. An ideal current source
can provide a constant current in any load. Just as in
the case of a voltage source, the ideal current source
does not exist but can be approximated in practice.
RESISTANCE
Resistance is the opposition to current.
The property of a material to restrict or oppose the flow
of electrons is called resistance, R.

Resistance is expressed in ohms, symbolized by the Greek


letter omega ().

OHM
One ohm (1 ) of resistance exists if there is one ampere (1
A) of current in a material when one volt (1 V) is applied
across the material.
RESISTOR

A component that is specifically designed to have a certain amount


of resistance is called a resistor. The principal applications of
resistors are to limit current in a circuit, to divide voltage, and, in
certain cases, to generate heat. Although resistors come in many
shapes and sizes, they can all be placed in one of two main
categories: fixed or variable.

Fixed Resistors
Fixed resistors are available with a large selection of resistance values
that are set during manufacturing and cannot be changed easily.
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
SEATWORK
1

2
3
4

6
ANSWERS
1. a. 10 ohms 5%
b. 5.1 M 10%
c. 68 ohms 5%

2.

3. b, d, l, f, a
4.
ANSWERS
5. a. 28700 ohms 1%
b. 60.4 ohms 1%
c. 9310 ohms 1%

6.
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you very
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