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CHAPTER 16

American Foreign Policy


Learning Objectives
16.1 Discuss the formal powers of Congress and the president to conduct foreign
policy under the Constitution.
16.2 Trace the history of U.S. foreign policy, comparing isolationism, pacifism, and
expansionism.
16.3 Describe Americas approach to the Cold War, including theories of
containment.
16.4 Discuss current foreign policy in the Middle East, including the ongoing war on
terrorism.
16.5 Explain how foreign and military policy is conducted by the president, the State
Department, the National Security Council, and various intelligence agencies.
16.6 Describe how members of Congress, interest groups, and public opinion
influence foreign policy.
16.7 Define the preemption doctrine and explain how it has been used to justify
aggressive military actions in the Middle East.
16.8 Evaluate the state of RussianU.S. relations, the nature of U.S. foreign aid,
and the role of the United Nations.

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The Constitutional Framework of
American Foreign Policy
Not a strong consensus about
which foreign policies to pursue
Articles I and II-Congress to declare
war and raise armies and Article II,
the president's role as commander
in chief of the armed forces, also to
negotiate treaties
Two presidencies theory
3 War Powers Resolution
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The Constitutional Framework of
American Foreign Policy
Though Constitution gives Congress
primary authority over foreign and
military affairs, Congress has proven no
match for modern presidents on the
world stage.
Two presidencies theory (Wildavsky)-
more powerful presidency in foreign
affairs and a more limited presidency in
the domestic sphere
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The Constitutional Framework of
American Foreign Policy

(Congress will try and assert its authority in


this realm though)
War Powers Resolution (1973)-Restricts the
power of the president to engage in war. If he
puts troops in another country should contact
the Congress beforehand and has up to 60
days until such time Congress can elect to
refuse to appropriate money for the
continuation of the military exercises
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The Constitutional Framework of
American Foreign Policy

Exceptions when Congress declares


war or when they specifically grant the
president permission use armed forces
or when the nation under attack. Then
president doesn't have to worry about
restrictions to his presidential power

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The Constitutional Framework of
American Foreign Policy

Many presidents have either evaded or


ignored the War powers Resolution
because they think it infringes on the
president's war powers. No court
settlement to date has satisfied the
question as to whether the president
has to comply with this resolution
President key actor in foreign affairs/20 th
7 century
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The Constitutional Framework of
American Foreign Policy

Nation-State
Defined territory and organized
government
Other nations recognize its independence
Other nations respect the rights of
government to exercise authority within
its boundaries

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
The Isolationist Tradition and the
Monroe Doctrine
Isolationism-opposes intervention in
distant wars and involvement in
permanent military alliances
Pacifism-refuses to sanction any military
conflict and that opposes all war making
19th Century-bordered the nation or lay
within Us Boundaries
1812(Britain), 1846 (Mexico), 1898
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9
(against Spain in the Caribbean
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
The Isolationist Tradition and the
Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine- (1823) US foreign
policy that proclaimed North and South
America unavailable for future
colonization by any European power and
that declared that any such colonization
would be viewed as an act of war on the
United States

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
The Isolationist Tradition and the
Monroe Doctrine
Early 20th Century the threat of European
imperialism and invoking the Monroe
Doctrine,the United States prevented
European nations from interfering in the
affairs of debt-ridden Latin American
countries by taking over the struggling
economies of the Dominican
Republic(1907), Nicaragua (1911),
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occupied Haiti(1915), and Panama Canal
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Expansionism and the Birth of a
Superpower
Manifest destiny
Internationalism
Marshall Plan

MPI/Getty Images
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Expansionism -Doctrine that favors a
country expanding its own territory and
influence (North American continent)
Manifest destiny: US policy of the mid-
19th century that advocated acquiring
lands and occupying the entire American
continent form one ocean to the other

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Louisiana Purchase (1803) doubled the
land size of the United States
Annex Florida after conquering Spanish
holdings (1817-1819)
Great Britain (1840's) Maine and Oregon
territories
Texas (1845) California, Nevada, Utah
and parts of New Mexico, Colorado and
Wyoming

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Isolationism didn't preclude US from
setting sights on territories in the Pacific
Ocean and the Caribbean
Congress annexed Hawaii (1890), didn't
become a state until 1959
Spanish American War- free Cuba from
Spain
Philippine-American War (1898-1902)
(Gave it back later)

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Though major player on the world stage,
the US remained privately separate from
the rest of the world militarily
Outbreak of World War I in 1914,
President Wilson maintained neutrality
from 1915-1917 until finally got into the
war because of German submarines
attacks on US vessels. (Great Britain,
France, Italy, and Russia)

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
After World War I-European Allies owed
more than $ 11 billion to the United States
making America a creditor nation for the
first time in its history. Wilson (1919) Treaty
of Versailles Reparations and League of
Nations to arbitrate disputes but failed.
At the conclusion of WWI, Americans
tended to lean towards isolationists policies
Lend lease program to Britain in the late
30's-early 40's (right before our entrance
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into WWII)
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
American isolationism prevailed in the years
between the two world wars
(1941-1945) World War II (United States,
Britain, Russia/ Germany, Japan, and Italy)
After World War II:
Foreign policy from isolationism to
Internationalism
Internationalism- active participation of the
nation in collective arrangements that secure
the political independence and territorial
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boundaries of other countries
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Expansionism and the Birth of a
Superpower
Truman Doctrine
Containment
Domino theory

Bettmann/CORBIS
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Expansionism and the Birth of a
Superpower
Cold War
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO)
Warsaw Pact

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Truman Doctrine (Became president in
1945 just as the war was ending. Late
1940's. Money and resources were
provided to support and sustain non-
communist governments in areas
strategically vital to the United States.
Cold War- ideological differences
between the United States and the
USSR. Economic warfare, arms build up
21
and tense diplomatic talks(lasting from
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the 1940s throughout the late 80s.


The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
American foreign policy during the cold
War generally adhered to a policy of
containment.
Containment: US. Foreign policy that
sought to restrict Soviet power ( and
communist influence to its existing
geographical sphere

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Before, Soviets waged on the
perimeters of Soviet influence- Eastern
Europe,Berlin, China, Indochina, and
Korea.
In the 1950's Soviet's leapfrogged the
old lines to push their cause into Cuba,
Egypt, the Congo, Indonesia, and
elsewhere in the developing world, well
behind the American wall of containment
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
United Nations (192 member states)-
to promote and maintain international
security and peace
Security Council (UN) Authorize
economic sanctions or military force.
Five permanent members (China,
Russia, US, France, and Great Britain)
and 10 non permanent rotating
members. Absolute right to veto
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decisions of the Security Council.
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Countries not always in agreement


The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Nevertheless, General Assembly retains
the exclusive power to enforce
Security council decisions
World Health Organization, GATT (later
known as World Trade Organization;
WTO) and International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and World bank

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO)- a military, political, and
economic alliance of nations formally
bound to protect self-determination and
open trade in Western Europe. The
Soviet Republic (USSR) was asked to
join but they refused.
Warsaw Pact-Formal alliance of nations
within the Soviet sphere during the Cold
26
War (East Germany, Poland,
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Czechoslovakia Hungary, etc)


The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Marshall Plan (1947) US provided loans
and aid to Western European that had
been ravaged by World War II
Sputnik- the world's first satellite,
launched by the Soviet Union. (1957)

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962)-
Almost led to a nuclear war with the
missiles, placed by Russia in Cuba (90
miles) from the US
Domino theory-Communist takeover of
countries in Southeast Asian and
elsewhere would be followed by
subsequent communist takeovers of
nearby countries (Taiwan, India, Iran,
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and possibly other nations as well)
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Korea and Vietnam Wars spurred by
US government fears of total communist
takeovers. ( Truman halting MacArthur
in Korea because of China and another
war)
Vietnam 58,000 Americans dead/$167
billion and yet lost to South Vietnam to
the North Vietnamese in 1975.
(Politicians fighting the war instead of
29
fighting to win and brings in the concern
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of proportionality vs war to win)


The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Damage to domino theory and now any
interventions call for a direct threat to
America's strategic interests abroad or
at home and an exit strategy. (Colin
Powell)

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
During the 70's we SALT I & II meetings
to set restrictions on nuclear weapons.
Nixon going to China.
Detente- a period of improved
communications and visible efforts to
relieve tensions between the two
superpowers ( space, Olympics)
Short lived with confrontations in Third
World Country/invasion of Afghanistan
31
by the Russians in 1979
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Middle East
Israel as a nation and a democratic ally
Tens of thousands of Palestinian
refugees uprooted from their homes in
the years following Israel's occupation of
former Palestinian territory
Recognition of the Israel as a
state(1948)
Jimmy Carter -Israel and Egypt (1978)
32 Anwar Sadat and Menachim Begin
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
President Carter (mid 70's ) Emphasis
on Humanitarian and human rights.
Successful mediation of disputes
between Israel and Egypt in 1978
(Anwar Sadat and Menachim Begin)
Iran Hostage Situation

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Ronald Reagan (1980)'s starts the
Strategic Defense Initiative- a theoretical
antimissile system based on the use of
lasers and particle beams to shoot down
Soviet nuclear missiles in outer space
Now critical for our defense and for
other countries' defenses (Poland and
Czechoslovakia, removed by President
Obama to garner favor with the
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Russians)
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Reagan Doctrine: A corollary to the
policy of containment calling for the
United States to offer military aid to
groups attempting to overthrow
communist governments anywhere in
the world
Eventually would be fine tuned to state
groups with the goal of democracy with
the overthrows
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Reagan was adamant regarding our
buildup of weapons and not backing
down with the Russians.
State Department thought it was
horrible Reagan used the term the evil
empire and thought his rhetoric would
exacerbate foreign policy. His insistence
however, along with Gorbachev,
realizing that the USSR could no longer
36
fight a bread and butter war any longer
and had to choose.
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
The disintegration of the Soviet Empire
came from the economic collapse of the
Communist economic system
Perestroika- The Russian word for
economic restructuring. Gorbachev
reduced central planning and began
adding free-market features to the
nation's socialist economy

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Glasnost openness. Introduced
reforms allowing Soviet citizens
unprecedented freedom of political
expression and ordered that free,
competitive elections be held to
choose a Congress of People's
Deputies, an elected legislature, that
would actually play a role in the
governing process
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Gorbachev proposed new thinking
in foreign and defense policy to ease
tensions with the West and reduce
Soviet commitments abroad. Gorbachev
declared that the Soviet Union would not
intervene militarily in the internal affairs
of other nations and ordered the
withdrawal of Soviet military units from
Afghanistan
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
In 1991, the former Soviet-bloc
countries, 10 former Soviet republics,
including Russia, declared their
independence.
Following the end of the Cold War, U.S.
leaders redirected their foreign policy
thinking toward a new world order
characterized by conflict in the Third
World, a war on terrorism, and rogue
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nations
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
New World Order- George H. W. Bush
spoke of the onset of a new world order
in which numerous nations would work
together for the purpose of securing
collective peace, security, freedom, and
the rule of law.
China(1/5 of the world's population) so
Bush and Clinton advocated for the
liberalization of global trade.
41
More resources freed up for trade and
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Middle East and North Korea
George H.W. Bush with Yassar Arafat
Persian Gulf War with the invasion of
Kuwait by Iraq's Saddam Hussein
Clinton administration- Oslo accords of
1993 called for the exchange of Israeli territory
and ultimate Palestinian self-determination.
Would have been a very good agreement but
Yassar Arafat delayed and Yitzhak Rabin was
assassinated(by hard liners in Israel) because
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people in Israel would be losing land.
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
North America Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)- which lifted trade barriers
such as protective tariffs and investment
restrictions between the United States,
Canada, and Mexico
With the US economy increasingly
intertwined with the global economy,
economic relations with East Asia,
Europe, and other countries in the
43
Western hemisphere continue to be a
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central factor in American foreign policy


The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Other economic concerns do not
eliminate other interests-tragic human
rights abuses in Somalia and Bosnia
requiring humanitarian grounds in
those countries
Some criticism for just giving limited aid
but no military assistance. American
interventions in the Balkans and
Somalia in the 1990's limited by fears
44
that increased US involvement similar to
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Vietnam
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
The U.S. Government Confronts the
Middle East
Vietnam syndrome

Sean Adair/Reuters/Corbis Wire/Corbis


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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
What happened before 9/11?
Not an isolated incident but holdovers
from the Persian Gulf War in 1991
Khobar Towers (June 25, 1996)
Embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania
(August 7, 1998)
USS Cole (October12, 2000)
9/11

46
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Navigating the New World Order
After the September 11 Attacks
Iraqi invasion
Continued terrorism
Nuclear threat in North Korea-Six
member talks with China putting
pressure on North Korea
Land in Gaza given but West Bank
47
still up in air because of settlements
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
War through Afghanistan quick and decisive
Concern of Saddam with the weapons of
mass destruction and helping terrorist groups
Many Democrats and other countries prior to
Bush wanting to go into Iraq had agreed to the
need to address this problem and that
Saddam (via intelligence) was noted to have
weapons as well as chemical and biological
weapons
Discrepancies between UNSCOM and The
Iraqi Study Group
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Questions afterwards when none were found
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Iraqi Invasion
Many though the weapons were
transferred to Syria while discussions
leading up to the invasion in March
Clapper (Director of National
Intelligence, Georges (Saddam's Air
Force general and Ya'lom from Israel)
Recent New York Times (2015) article
concerning the chemical shells though
49 might be from earlier period (After the
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Iraqi Invasion
Though weapons of mass destruction were
not found, the mechanism for resurgence of
their chemical and biological regeneration
would have been very easy (Condi
Rice/National Security Adviser to George
Bush)
Bush with Iraq invasion had both removed a
brutal dictator, Saddam Hussein, from power
and restored a democratic government with
duly held elections to the previously
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oppressed nation.
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Iraqi Invasion
Gaddafi also gave up weapons
Others think it provoked a backlash from the
residents in those countries and that
democracy would not work with three
sectarian tribes (Kurds, Sunni's and Shiah's)
Failure of the US military's failure to contain
rebel insurgents, even after taking control of
Baghdad, invited comparisons to guerrilla war
in North Vietnam.
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Al Qaeda increased in numbers
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Iraqi Invasion
Surge in 2008 brought some normalcy to
area and many territories were taken back
from earlier periods
President Obama
Iranian youth group vs the Mullah's in 2009
Removed Strategic missile defenses from
Europe to appease Russia

52
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Increased troops in Afghanistan, still some
troops present in advisory capacity
Osama Bin Laden assassination
Withdrew forces from Iraq and some question
as to whether enough troops in the region to
secure area. Question as to 3000 vs 10,000
troops and negotiations faltered
Concern that progression in Iraq disappeared
because of the influence of Iran and the lack
of troop placement. Others applauded the
retrenchment of troops.
53
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Red line in Syria with chemical weapons on
its citizens by Bashar al-Assad and still
confusion as to the mix of Al Qaeda and ISIS
fighters
Reset button with Russia-Annexation of
Crimea and engagement in to the Ukraine
Russia with China trade agreements with
Iran, contrary to US interests
ISIS, horrific and brutal killings of women,
Christians, and resurgence in Iraq with
capturing land that was successfully taken
54
during the surge
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Current policy involves drone attacks but to
avoid boots on the ground
Iran Question whether they should have
enriched uranium to be used for energy as
well as being a sovereign nation that should
be able to have this uranium without
interference from other countries. (other
nations have nuclear missiles)
Uranium for nuclear power or ballistic missiles

55
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Other concerns that Iran has
sponsored terrorism in Iraq, Syria,
Libya, and with Hamas. Many territories
have been lost in Iraq that were secured
in 2008 because of the influence of the
Iranian terrorism in Syria, Iraq, Libya,
and Gaza.

56
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Method to deal with Iran has been
sanctions in the past.
Latest agreement with Iran and the US
very controversial as well as concerns
about ceding US approval to the UN
(China, Russia, Germany, and France
Primarily the validation of the weapons
Russia already helping Iran with trade
(some missile technology) and exports
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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
North Korea
Kim Jung Un (father recently died)
2005 sent missiles over Japan and has
since has problems with South Korea
Missiles can now reach US (west coast)
Poverty of citizens. Monies spent on
armaments
Concern that they will give missile
technology to terrorists
58
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
North Korea
Clinton giving Uranium for verification.
Didn't work out too well
Bush with six member talks to put
pressure on North Korea. Some
success but North Korea went back to
trying to get agreements and monies
without the verification or backsliding on
negotiations
59
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
Looming presence of China
China has a lot of influence on North
Korea
Recently six fleet in South China seas
because of concerns of China claiming
ownership of some of these areas as
well as the ongoing concern regarding
Taiwan

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The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
China India Brazil and Russia (BRIC)-
fastest growing emerging economies in
the world, with 40% of the world's
population and more than 15% of the
global economy. If US excluded, can
affect our trade balance
Modernizing its navy, missiles, aircraft,
satellites

61
The Roots of American Foreign
Policy
China an economic powerhouse and a
major global power
World's fastest growing economy and
the world's largest exporter
Holds an extensive amount of our debt
(treasury bonds)( affects foreign policy)

62
The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Department of State-Primarily
responsible for most foreign policy
programs within the executive branch,
including diplomatic missions, foreign
aid and contribution to international
organization
Secretary of State-Clinton, and now
Kerry
International Organizations-World Bank

63
(monies for building) and International
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monetary fund (stabilization of currency)


The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Department of Defense-Executive
branch agency that is responsible for
managing the nation's military and
advising the president on all military
matters
Secretary of Defense (Gates now Ash)
Donald Rumsfeld (2003)- wanted to
streamline the defense department, met
with much resistance (B1 bombers,
Seawolf and Trident submarines
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(powerful constituencies)
The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Wanted a national missile defense system
(believed it would give countries less
incentive to build or buy ballistic missiles)
A new force planning strategy ( scrap the
two war system and plan on
unconventional threats, heightened
intelligence, cyberwar assaults)

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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Finally, individual weapon systems high on
lethality and accuracy and low on
vulnerability (stealth bombers and drones
without having to include individuals, firing
potent munitions from places no enemies
can hit)

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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)-Four
branches of the Armed forces. Advises
the president on military matters and
delivers the president's order to the
military
National Security Council (NSC)-
Advisory body to the president charged
with coordinating information about
foreign, military, and economic policies
67 that affect national security
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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Hawks Members of the
president's administration who call
for aggressive military actions
wherever hostile forces may be
found
Realists-Members of the
president's administration who
advocate diplomacy as the primary
68
means of protecting US interest
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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Department of
Homeland Security
(DHS)-Executive Branch
agency established in 2002
to coordinate government
entities in protecting US
citizens against terrorism
within the national
borders
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reserved.
The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) -federal
agency charged with evaluating
and disseminating intelligence
information, performing public
relations functions that affect
international perceptions of the
United States and engaging in
overt and covert operations at
the direction of the president
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reserved.
The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Other Foreign Policy Actors and
Interests
Congress-Foreign Relations Committee.
Kennedy, Pelosi, and Murtha.
Private citizens- Ross Perot; AIPAC,
Israeli lobby to influence appropriations
Private-sector interest groups-US
businesses for computer, software,
aerospace would not want sanctions
71
and or trade restrictions on large
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potential markets such as China


The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Other Foreign Policy Actors and
Interests
Lobbying activities of these pressure
groups may inadvertently undermine
American foreign policy
Military-industrial complex-vast network of
defense industries in America (including
manufactures of weapons, missiles,
aircraft, and so forth) and their allies in the
federal bureaucracy(40% to 20% of
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
72
budget)
The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
Other Foreign Policy Actors and
Interests
NGO's -Doctors Without Borders, but not
always good for country. FARC in
Columbia

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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
American Foreign Policy and Public
Opinion
Lyndon Johnson, Vietnam
Bush 2007, Failure noticed more than
success. Eventually had surge in 2008
to turn things around

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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
American Foreign Policy and
Public Opinion
Defy easy analysis and interpretation
Public support when foreign policy
protects American jobs, controls illegal
immigration, or counters the illegal drug
trade
Foreign policy initiatives that promote
human rights or promote democracy
75
have less support
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The Structure of American
Foreign Policy making
American Foreign Policy and
Public Opinion
Justified by powerful enemy and
jeopardizing vital American interests
Ex. Persian Gulf- adversary in aggressive
military action
9/11 Afghanistan
Failure noticed more than success
Ex. Iraq (approval but worse as matters
progressed without securing
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territories, then
76
switched with the success of the surge
Failing to Win over the Public in Afghanistan

Based on data from: NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted


by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Bill McInturff (R
2006 through 2013. N 5 1,000 adults nationwide

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Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Is the Preemption Doctrine
Justifiable?
Reserves the right of the US military to
use advance strikes to stop rouge states
from developing weapons of mass
destruction. Carries significant risks.
Only to a country that lacks the
capacity to retaliate (Iran, North Korea)
Imminent/ distant and ambiguous
78 future
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Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Cultivating Relations with the New
Russian Federation
Land mass larger than U.S.
Powerful military threats
Creation US-Russian tension through
military incursions
Using military force to occupy in August
2008, Georgia; and February 2014,
Edward Snowden asylum
79
Strong incentives
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Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Cultivating Relations with the New
Russian Federation
Nevertheless, still have strong
incentives to cultivate friendly relations
with each other. Ex. Isis bombing in
Syria
Member of the club of democratic
nations in good standing through its
ability to show it can conduct
80 responsible foreign policy with US
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Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
What Role Does Foreign Aid Play
in the New International Order?
Marshall Plan to help western
Europe (World War II)
Humanitarian concerns
Us economic and national security
interests affect foreign aid
decisions
81 Foreign markets/agricultural goods
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Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Some advocate reduction in foreign
aid
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Critics concern much of the money provided
by America goes to elites in the recipient
nations rather than to those who need help.
Advocates- even with elites, higher standard
of living/Increase government consumption,
but no impact on investment level
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Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Though still reduction in foreign aid
the U.S. still contributes to World Bank-
(building and economic development) and
International Monetary Fund (IMF) (which
helps to maintain the value of foreign
currencies during time of crisis)
Not as critical an instrument of US foreign
relations as before

83 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Does the United Nations Still Serve
an Important Function?
General Assembly 192 members
(implement/enforce council
decisions; see on TV)
Economic and Social Council/ 54
members
International Court of Justice (war
84 crimes)
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Does the United Nations Still Serve
an Important Function?
Security Council- peace and security.
Issuing resolution for economic
sanctions or military force
5 Permanent members (US,China,
Russia, France, and Britain) and 10 non
permanent rotating members. Only
takes one to veto so US interests are
85
usually undermined.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Does the United Nations Still Serve
an Important Function?
United States has dominated UN for 40
years
As influenced declined, calls have
increased within Congress to reduce
American aid to the organization and to
ignore its dictates whenever American
security interests are involved
US prioritizes national interests over UN
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
86
dictates
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Does the United Nations Still Serve
an Important Function?
Contradictory missions: Article 51 of UN
Charter affirm that nations can use military
for self-defense
2001 UN Study Responsibility to Protect
-undermine the idea that force should be
used only to protect national security.
Protecting civilians only just cause.
87 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Does the United Nations Still Serve
an Important Function?
Hypocritical in that protecting one
population while ignoring others. Libya and
Sudan vs. Iraq
More importantly puts US in position to
protect people in other countries when
directed by UN Security Council which
brings into question the sovereignty of the
country and the role of Congress (will have
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
88
article on this in ass. #5)
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
Does the United Nations Still Serve
an Important Function?
Nevertheless though poor record as far as
halting wars or mediating disputes, the UN
relief gets involved with reconstruction
activities in the war-torn nation and push
for resolution that would broaden
international control over the region
World Health Organization
( immunizations), World Bank, International
89 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Monetary Fund more successful endeavors
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
EMP Electromagnetic Pulse

Electronic pulses caused by a


nuclear blast in space.
A single nuclear weapon carried by a
ballistic missile and detonated a few
hundred miles over the United States
would cause catastrophic damage for
this nation.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
90
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
EMP Electromagnetic Pulse

EMP attack uses X-rays and gamma


rays produced in a nuclear blast in
three separate waves of pulses, each
with more damaging effects and
would take months or years to repair
Damage to electricity-based
networks and infrastructure, including
91
computers and telecommunications.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
EMP Electromagnetic Pulse

EMP attack would damage the


national power grid, unprotected
computers and all devices containing
microchips, from medical instruments
to military communication. Knock out
electronic systems in cars, airplanes,
and those used in banking, finance,
92
and emergency services.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Foreign Policy Dilemmas for the
Twenty-First Century
EMP Electromagnetic Pulse

An EMP potentially represents a


high-tech means for terrorists to kill
millions of Americans the old-
fashioned way, through starvation
and disease.

93 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Who is in the Nuclear Club?

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Benghazi Hearings

Click picture to view video


Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights
95 reserved.
Video Discussion Questions
1. Should the U.S. close all embassies
where security is at risk? Who makes
this assessment?
2. What is the Senates role in foreign
policy?
3. Who do our intelligence services
report to?

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights


96 reserved.
Video Discussion Questions
1. Should the U.S. close all embassies
where security is at risk? Who makes
this assessment?
2. What is the Senates role in foreign
policy?
3. Who do our intelligence services
report to?

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights


97 reserved.