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DMT 121


At the end of this class, students
should be able to:-
Understand the concept of load-line
analysis and how it is applied to diode
Explain the process of rectification to
establish a DC level from a sinusoidal AC
Load Line Analysis
The analysis of electronic circuits can follow one of the two paths :
1. Actual characteristic or approximate model of the device.
2. Approximate model will be always used in the analysis

VD= 0.7 V
Load Line Analysis
The load line plots all possible
current (ID) conditions for all
voltages applied to the diode
(VD) in a given circuit. E / R is
the maximum ID and E is the
maximum VD.

Where the load line and the

characteristic curve intersect is
the Q-point, which specifies a
particular ID and VD for a given

Point of Fig. 2.1 Drawing the load line and

finding the point of operation
operation of
a circuit
Load Line Analysis
The intersection of load line in Fig.
2.2 can be determined by applying
Kirchhoffs voltage in the clockwise
direction, which results in:

Fig. 2.2 Series diode configuration E VD VR 0

ID and VD are the same for Eq. (2.1) and plotted load line in Fig. 2.2
(previous slide).
Set VD = 0 then we can get ID, where ID VD 0
Set ID = 0 then we get VD, where VD E ID 0
For the series diode configuration of Fig. 2.3a, employing the
diode characteristics of Fig. 2.3b, determine VDQ, IDQ and VR

Fig. 2.3 (a) Circuit; (b) characteristics.

E 10V
ID V 0 20mA

VD E I 0 10V

From the result, plot the straight

line across ID and VD.
The resulting load line appears in
Fig. 2.4. The Q points occurred
VDQ 0.78 V
IDQ 18.5mA
VR=IRR=IDQR=(18.5 mA)(0.5k)
= 9.25 V
For the series diode configuration of Fig. 2.13, determine VD, VR
and ID.


VD 0.7V
VR E VD 8V 0.7V 7.3V
VR 7.3V
ID IR 3.32mA
R 2.2k
Repeat example 2.4 with the diode reversed

Open Circuit

ID 0
VD E VR 8V 0V 8V I d 0
Diode as Rectifier
Rectifier: An electronic circuit that converts AC to pulsating DC.
Basic function of a DC power supply is to convert an AC voltage to a
smooth DC voltage.
Half-Wave Rectifier

The diode conducts

during the positive
half cycle.

The diode does not

conducts during the
negative half cycle.
Sinusoidal Input:
Half Wave Rectification

Fig. 2.44 Half-wave


Fig. 2.45
Conduction region
(0 T/2).

Fig. 2.46
region (T/2 T).
Average Value of Half Wave Output

The average value of the

half-wave rectified output
voltage (also known as DC
voltage) is

Vdc 0.318Vm

The process of removing one-
half the input signal to establish
a dc level is called half-wave

What is the average value of the half-wave

rectified voltage?

Solution: Vm/ = 15.9 V

Effect of Barrier Potential
(Silicon diode)

Applied signal at least 0.7 for diode to turn on (Vk = 0.7V)

Vi 0.7 V diode in open circuit and Vo = 0V
When conducting, Vk=0.7V ,then Vo= Vi Vk this cause reduction
in Vo, thus reduce the resulting dc voltage level.
Now Vdc 0.318 (Vm Vk)

Draw the output voltages of each rectifier for the

indicated input voltages.
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

PIV=peak inverse voltage

and is the maximum
voltage across the diode
when it is not
conducting/reverse bias.
Can be found by applying
Kirchhoffs voltage law.
The load voltage is 0V so
the input voltage is
across the diode at tp.
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

Because the diode is only forward biased for one-half of the AC

cycle, it is also reverse biased for one-half cycle.
It is important that the reverse breakdown voltage rating of the
diode be high enough to withstand the peak, reverse-biasing AC
PIV=Vm OR accurately
PIV (or PRV) Vm
PIV = Peak inverse voltage
PRV = Peak reverse voltage
Vm = Peak AC voltage

Diode must capable to withstand certain

amount of repetitive reverse voltage
Full-Wave Rectifier
A full-wave rectifier allows current to flow
during both the positive and negative half
cycles or the full 360.
Output frequency is twice the input
VDC or VAVG = 2Vm/
Full-Wave Rectification

The rectification process can be

improved by using more diodes in a
full-wave rectifier circuit.
Full-wave rectification produces a
greater DC output: Full Wave Rectifier

Half-wave: Vdc =0.318Vm

Full-wave: Vdc =0.636Vm
Half Wave Rectifier

Find average value of the full-wave rectified

Transformer Coupling

Turns ratio, n = Nsec/Npri

V(sec) = nV(pri) (in RMS value)
Vp(sec)=2 x V(sec)
Full-Wave Rectification

Center-Tapped Transformer
Two diodes
Center-tapped transformer
Full-Wave Center Tapped
Current flow
direction during both
alternations. The
peak output is about
half of the secondary
windings total
Each diode is
subjected to a PIV of
the full secondary
winding output
minus one diode
voltage drop
PIV: Full-wave Rectifier
Center-Tapped Transformer
PIV can be shown by applying
KVL for the reverse-biased
PIV across D2:

1 V p (sec) V p (sec)
PIV 0.7V
2 2

2 PIV V p (sec) 0.7V

V p (sec)
3 V p ( out ) 0.7V
2 Substitute 4 to 2:
4 V p (sec) 2V p ( out ) 1.4V
PIV=2Vp(out) + 0.7 V
1. Show the voltage waveforms across each half of the secondary
winding and across RL when a 100V peak sine wave is applied to
the primary winding.
2. What minimum PIV rating must the diodes have.


2. PIV = 49.3 V
Full-Wave Rectification

Bridge Rectifier

Four diodes are required

VDC = 0.636 Vm
Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier
The full-wave bridge
rectifier takes advantage
of the full output of the
secondary winding.
It employs 4 diodes
arranged such that current
flows in the direction
through the load during
each half of the cycle.
During positive half-cycle of the
input, D1 and D2 are forward-biased
and conduct current. D3 and D4 are
During negative half-cycle of the
input, D3 and D4 are forward-biased
and conduct current. D1 and D2 are
PIV: Full-wave Rectifier
Bridge Transformer

Vp(out)=Vp(sec) 1.4 V

PIV=Vp(out) + 0.7 V
The transformer is specified to have a 12 Vrms secondary voltage for
the standard 120 V across the primary.
Determine the peak output voltage for the bridge rectifier.
Assuming the practical model, what PIV rating is required for the

1. Vp(out) = 15.6 V

2. PIV = 16.3 V
Summary of Rectifier Circuits
Rectifier Ideal VDC Practical PIV
(approximate) VDC

Half-Wave VDC = 0.318(Vm) VDC = 0.318(Vm)-0.7 PIV=Vm

Rectifier = Vm/

Full-Wave Bridge VDC = 0.636(Vm) VDC = 0.636(Vm)-2(0.7) PIV=Vm+0.7V

Rectifier =2 Vm/

Center-Tapped VDC = 0.636(Vm) VDC = 0.636(Vm)-(0.7) PIV=2Vm+0.7V

Transformer =2 Vm/

Vm = peak of the AC voltage = Vp

In the center tapped transformer rectifier circuit, the peak AC voltage is

the transformer secondary voltage to the tap.
Power Supply Filters and Regulators
In most power supply 60 Hz ac power line voltage constant dc
Pulsating dc output must be filtered to reduce the large voltage
Small amount of fluctuation in the filter o/p voltage - ripple
Power Supply Filters
Filtering is the process of smoothing the ripple from the rectifier.
Power Supply Filters and Regulators
Capacitor-Input Filter
The capacitor
input filter
is widely
used. A
and the
input filter
are shown.
Power Supply Filters and Regulators
Regulation is the last step in eliminating the remaining ripple
and maintaining the output voltage to a specific value. Typically
this regulation is performed by an integrated circuit regulator.
There are many different types used based on the voltage and
current requirements.
A voltage regulator can furnish nearly constant output with
excellent ripple rejection. 3-terminal regulators are require
only external capacitors to complete the regulation portion of
the circuit.
Power Supply Regulators
How well the regulation is performed by a regulator is measured by
its regulation percentage. There are two types of regulation, line
and load.
Line regulation: how much the dc output changes for a given
change in regulators input voltage.

Line regulation 100%
Load regulation: how much change occurs in the output voltage for
a given range of load current values from no load (NL) to full load
Load regulation 100%
Power Supply Filters and Regulators
Capacitor-Input Filter
Surge Current in the Capacitor-Input Filter:
Being that the capacitor appears as a short during the initial charging,
the current through the diodes can momentarily be quite high. To
reduce risk of damaging the diodes, a surge current limiting resistor is
placed in series with the filter and load.

The min. surge

Resistor values:
V p (sec) 1.4V

IFSM = forward surge current

rating specified on diode data
Capacitor Input Filter Ripple Voltage
Ripple Voltage: the variation in the capacitor voltage due to charging
and discharging is called ripple voltage
Ripple voltage is undesirable: thus, the smaller the ripple, the better
the filtering action
The advantage of a full-wave rectifier over a half-wave is quite clear.
The capacitor can more effectively reduce the ripple when the time
between peaks is shorter. Figure (a) and (b)

Easier to filter
-shorted time between
-smaller ripple.
Capacitor Input Filter Ripple Voltage
Lower ripple factor better filter
[can be lowered by increasing the value of filter capacitor
or increasing the load resistance]

For the full-wave rectifier: V 1

r ( pp )
V p ( rect ) Vp(rect) = unfiltered
fRLC peak

VDC VAVG 1 V p ( rect )
2 fRL C
Ripple factor: indication of the effectiveness of the filter
Vr ( pp ) Vr(pp) = peak to peak ripple voltage;
r [half-wave rectifier] VDC = VAVG = average value of filters
VDC output voltage

Determine the ripple factor for the filtered bridge rectifier with a
load as indicated in the figure above.
Diode Limiters (Clipper)

Clippers are networks that employ diodes to

clip away a of an input signal without
distorting the remaining part of the applied

Clippers used to clip-off portions of signal

voltages above or below certain levels.
Diode Limiter/Clipper
A diode limiter is a circuit that limits (or clips) either the positive
or negative part of the input voltage.
Vout Vin

What would you expect to see displayed on an oscilloscope connected

across RL in the limiter shown in above figure.
RL 1.0k
Vout Vin 10V 9.09V
R1 RL 1.1k
Biased Limiters (Clippers)

A positive limiter

The level to which an ac voltage is limited can be adjusted by

adding a bias voltage, VBIAS in series with the diode
The voltage at point A must equal VBIAS + 0.7 V before the diode
become forward-biased and conduct.
Once the diode begins to conduct, the voltage at point A is limited to
VBIAS + 0.7 V, so that all input voltage above this level is clipped off.
Biased Limiters (Clippers)

A negative limiter

In this case, the voltage at point A must go below VBIAS 0.7V to

forward-bias the diode and initiate limiting action as shown in the
above figure.
Modified Biased Limiters (Clippers)

Figure above shows combining a positive limiter with a negative

limiter. Determine the output voltage waveform?
Summary Limiters (Clippers)
In this examples VD = 0
In analysis, VD = 0 or VD = 0.7 V can be used. Both are right assumption.
Summary Limiters (Clippers)
Diode Clampers

A clamper is a network constructed of a diode, a

resistor, and a capacitor that shifts a waveform to a
different dc level without changing the appearance of
the applied signal.
Sometimes known as dc restorers
Clamping networks have a capacitor connected
directly from input to output with a resistive element
in parallel with the output signal. The diode is also
parallel with the output signal but may or may not
have a series dc supply as an added elements.
A clamper (dc restorer) is a circuit that adds a dc level to an ac
signal. A capacitor is in series with the load.

Positive clamper the capacitor

is charged to a voltage that is one Negative clamper
diode drop less than the peak Vout = -Vp(in) + 0.7 V
voltage of the signal.
Vout = Vp(in) 0.7 V Start with forward-bias!
Diode Clampers

Positive clamper operation. (Diode pointing up away from ground)

Diode Clampers

Negative clamper operation (Diode pointing down toward ground)

Diode Clamper

If diode is pointing up (away from

ground), the circuit is a positive clamper.
If the diode is pointing down (toward
ground), the circuit is a negative clamper
Diode Clamper (Square Wave)

Diode OFF state

Diode ON state
-V - Vc - Vo = 0; Vc = V
V Vc = 0 ; Vc = V; Vo = 0.7 V but
ideal Vo = 0V Vo = -2 V Output
Summary of Clamper Circuits
Voltage Multipliers

Voltage multiplier circuits use a combination of diodes

and capacitors to step up the output voltage of
rectifier circuits.

Voltage Doubler
Voltage Tripler
Voltage Quadrupler
Voltage Doubler

This half-wave voltage doublers output can be calculated by:

Vout = VC2 = 2Vm
where Vm = peak secondary voltage of the transformer
Half-Wave Voltage Doubler

Positive Half-Cycle
D1 conducts
D2 is switched off
Capacitor C1 charges to Vp

Negative Half-Cycle
D1 is switched off
D2 conducts
Capacitor C2 charges to Vp

Vout = VC2 = 2Vp

Full-Wave Voltage Doubler

Positif Half-Cycle Negative Half-Cycle

D1 forward-biased C1 D1 reverse-biased
charges to Vp D2 forward-biased C2 charges to
D2 reverse-biased Vp
Output voltage=2Vp (across 2
capacitors in series
Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler
Voltage Tripler

Positive half-cycle: C1 charges to Vp through D1

Negative half-cycle: C2 charges to 2Vp through D2
Positive half-cycle: C3 charges to 2Vp through D3
Output: 3Vp across C1 and C3
Voltage Quadrupler

Output: 4Vp across C2 and C4

The Diode Data Sheet

The data sheet for diodes and other devices gives

detailed information about specific characteristics
such as the various maximum current and voltage
ratings, temperature range, and voltage versus
current curves (V-I characteristic).
It is sometimes a very valuable piece of information,
even for a technician. There are cases when you might
have to select a replacement diode when the type of
diode needed may no longer be available.
These are the absolute max. values under which the
diode can be operated without damage to the device.
The Diode Data Sheet
(Maximum Rating)
Rating Symbol 1N4001 1N4002 1N4003 UNIT
Peak repetitive reverse voltage VRRM
Working peak reverse voltage VRWM 50 100 200 V
DC blocking voltage VR
Nonrepetitive peak reverse VRSM 60 120 240 V
rms reverse voltage VR(rms) 35 70 140 V
Average rectified forward Io A
current (single-phase, resistive 1
load, 60Hz, TA = 75oC
Nonrepetitive peak surge IFSM A
current (surge applied at rated 30 (for 1
load conditions) cycle)
Operating and storage junction Tj, Tstg -65 to oC

temperature range +175

The Diode Data Sheet
(Maximum Rating)
Zener Diodes
The zener diode silicon pn-junction device-designed for
operate in the reverse-biased region

Schematic diagram shown that this particular Zener diode symbol

zener circuit will work to maintain 10 V
across the load
Zener Diodes
Breakdown voltage set by controlling the doping level during
When diode reached reverse breakdown voltage remains constant-
current change drastically
If zener diode is FB operates the same as a rectifier diode
A zener diode is much like a normal diode but if it is placed in the
circuit in reverse bias and operates in reverse breakdown.
Note that its forward characteristics are just like a normal diode.

1.8V 200V
Zener Diodes
The reverse voltage (VR) is increased the
reverse current (IR) remains extremely
small up to the kneeof the curve
Reverse current called the zener current,
At the bottom of the knee- the zener
breakdown voltage (VZ) remains constant
although it increase slightly as the zener
current, IZ increase.
IZK min. current required to maintain
voltage regulation
IZM max. amount of current the diode can
handle without being damage/destroyed
IZT the current level at which the VZ
rating of diode is measured (specified on a
data sheet)
The zener diode maintains a constant
voltage for value of reverse current rating
from IZK to IZM
Zener Diodes
(Zener Equivalent Circuit)
Since the actual voltage is not ideally vertical, the change in
zener current produces a small change in zener voltage
By ohms law: V
Zener impedance
Normaly -Zz is specified at IZT
Zener Diodes
(Temp Coeff & Zener Power Dissipation and Derating)

As with most devices, zener diodes have given characteristics such

as temperature coefficients and power ratings that have to be
considered. The data sheet provides this information
Zener Diodes Applications

Zener diode can be used as

1. Voltage regulator for providing stable

reference voltages
2. Simple limiters or clippers
Zener Regulation with Varying Input
As i/p voltage varies (within limits) zener diode maintains a constant
o/p voltage
But as VIN changes, IZ will change, so i/p voltage variations are set by
the min. & max. current value (IZK & IZM) which the zener can
Resistor, R current limiting resistor
Zener Regulation with a Variable Load
The zener diode maintains a nearly constant voltage across RL as long
as the zener current is greater than IZK and less than IZM

When the o/p terminal of the zener diode is open (RL=)-load current
is zero and all of the current is through the zener
When a load resistor (R) is connected, current flow through zener &
load RL, IL, IZ
The zener diode continues to regulate the voltage until IZ reaches its
min value , IZK
At this point, the load current is max. , the total current through R
remains essentially constant.
Zener Limiting
Zener diode also can be used in ac applications to limit voltage swings to desired
(a) To limit the +ve peak of a signal voltage to the selected zener voltage
- During ve alternation, zener arts as FB diode & limits the ve voltage to -
(b) Zener diode is turn around
-The ve peak is by zener action & +ve voltage is limited to +0.7V
(c) Two back-to-back zeners limit both peaks to the zener voltage 7V
-During the +ve alternation, D2 is functioning as the zener limiter D1 is
functioning as a FB diode.
-During the ve alternation-the roles are reversed