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Northern and Southern Europeans Chapter 6
Northern and Southern Europeans
Chapter 6
Northern and Southern Europeans  Largest American ethnic groups from
Northern and Southern Europeans
Largest American
ethnic groups from
Northern and Southern Europeans  Largest American ethnic groups from Northern and Southern Europe  US

Northern and Southern Europe

  • US meals similar to Northern Europe

Large serving of meat, poultry or fish

Small side dishes of starch and vegetable

  • Each ethnic group brought their own

unique cuisine and adapted to the US indigenous foods

Northern and Southern Europeans  Largest American ethnic groups from Northern and Southern Europe  US
Northern Europe 
Northern Europe
Northern Europe  ◦ England ◦ Scotland ◦ Wales ◦ Northern Ireland Great Britain and Ireland

England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland

Great Britain and Ireland

Temperate climate with land suitable for crops

France

Some of the best farmland in Europe

Immigration to the US  Began in 1605  Many people today of British descent
Immigration to the US
Began in 1605
Many people today of British descent

Has flavored our culture

Scotch Irish descendants of Scottish Presbyterians from Northern Ireland

Irish Catholics 1820 on, especially during the potato blight in 1845

French came in smaller numbers

Earliest were French Huguenots (Protestants)

Regional contributions (Louisiana, Canada)

All have assimilated well

Worldview: Religion  British
Worldview: Religion
British
Worldview: Religion  British ◦ Church of England  Episcopal in the US ◦ Methodist, Baptist,

Church of England

  • Episcopal in the US

Methodist, Baptist, Quaker

  • Scotland

Protestant/Presbyterian

  • Irish

Roman Catholic

  • French

Roman Catholic

Worldview: Family 
Worldview: Family
Worldview: Family  American family patterned after British family ◦ Solitary family homes ◦ Father in

American family patterned after British family

Solitary family homes Father in charge of public and business affairs Mother in charge of social and domestic affairs Well educated

Irish Catholics

Married later and had larger families Strong position of the mother

French

Maintained strong family bonds Cajun families very large

Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices  British and Irish
Traditional Health Beliefs and
Practices
British and Irish
Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices  British and Irish ◦ Good health dependent on “ proper

Good health dependent on properattitude

  • Religious faith

  • Rigorous, regular lifestyle

Bowel regularity

  • Laxative use is common

  • Stomach ailments from spicy, spoiled, or incompatible foods

  • French

Leisurely meals and little exercise Consume more fat See Cultural Controversy: French Paradox

Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices: Health Maintenance  Good diet  Plenty of sleep
Traditional Health Beliefs and
Practices: Health Maintenance
Good diet
Plenty of sleep

Daily exercise

Fresh air

Cleanliness

Keeping warm and dry

Irish wear protective religious medallions

French use salves of whiskey, and

camphor or tallow and turpentine

May consult voodoo practitioners

Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Animal products of
Ingredients and Common Foods:
Great Britain and Ireland
Animal products of
Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Animal products of key importance ◦ Lamb,

key importance

Lamb, Roast Beef Yorkshire pudding

  • Popover cooked in meat drippings

  • Sausages (bangers)

  • Ploughmans lunch

Served in pubs

  • Cheddar cheese

  • Bread

Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Animal products of key importance ◦ Lamb,
  • Pickled onions

  • A pint of beer

Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Fish and Chips
Ingredients and Common Foods:
Great Britain and Ireland
Fish and Chips
Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Fish and Chips ◦ With French fries,

With French fries, salt, and malt vinegar

  • Devonshire double and clotted cream

Clotted: slightly fermented and thickened

  • Breads

Ireland: soda bread Scotland: oatmeal England: Biskcake

  • Bread, cake, cookies, crackers or biscuits

Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Potatoes  Berries
Ingredients and Common Foods:
Great Britain and Ireland
Potatoes
Berries
Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Potatoes  Berries ◦ Shepherd ’ s

Shepherds pie Bangers and mash Boxty (potato pancake)

  • Kitchen gardens

  • Seaweed

Laver

Bubble and squeak (cabbage and potatoes)

Colcannon

  • Mashed and seasoned

white veggies with onion or leeks

Dulse

  • Fruits and vegetables that

grow well in cool

climates

Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Beverages
Ingredients and Common Foods:
Great Britain and Ireland
Beverages
Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Beverages ◦ Tea, beer, whiskey  Pubs

Tea, beer, whiskey

  • Pubs

Serve beer, wine, hard liquor and light meals

  • Beer is served at cellar temperature and is naturally carbonated

Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Britain: Bitters  Strong beer with hops
Ingredients and Common Foods:
Great Britain and Ireland
Britain: Bitters
Strong beer with hops
  • Ireland: Stout

    • Dark, rich, heavy beer

    • Lots of calories

  • Ireland: Whiskey

  • Mashed, fermented barley

    • Scotland: Scotch WHISKY

      • Distilled from malted whiskey and unmalted whiskey

      • Much stronger, smokier tasting

  • Mead

  • Honeyed wine

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Tea
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Great Britain and Ireland
    Tea
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Tea  Introduced in 1662 by the
    • Introduced in 1662 by the wife of Charles II

    • A meal or break in the afternoon

    • Strong black tea with milk and sugar

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Great Britain and Ireland  Tea  Introduced in 1662 by the
    Ingredients and Common Foods: France  Classic French Cuisine
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    France
    Classic French Cuisine
    Ingredients and Common Foods: France  Classic French Cuisine ◦ Haute or grande ◦ Elegant, formal

    Haute or grande Elegant, formal Restaurants Finest ingredients throughout the country

    • Provincial or regional cooking

    Simpler fare Home or local café Fresh local ingredients

    Ingredients and Common Foods: France  Butter and Cream  Beef and veal ◦ NE and
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    France
    Butter and Cream
    Beef and veal
    ◦ NE and central
    ◦ Central
    • Lard, duck and goose fat

    NW and S central

    • Olive oil

    SE

    • Seafood and lamb

    North

    • Pork

    Near Belgium and Germany

    • Fish

    Near Spain

    • Cold weather fruits and vegetables

    North Subtly seasoned

    • South

    Mediterranean Garlic

    Northern Provinces:  Brittany: Bretagne 
    Northern Provinces:
     Brittany: Bretagne
    Northern Provinces:  Brittany: Bretagne  ◦ Belon oysters ◦ Mutton ◦ Vegetables ◦ Apples and

    Belon oysters Mutton Vegetables Apples and cider

    Champagne

    Borders English Channel and Belgium German influence Beer and sausages Paté Naturally carbonated wines

    • Champagne

    • Normandy

    Seafood and apples Calvados Camembert cheese Crepes

    Alsace-Lorraine

    • Borders Germany

    • Goose

    Goose fat Pate de fois gras

    • Sausages

    • Sauerkraut

    • Quiche Lorraine

    • Wine

    • Kirsch

    • Raspberry Brandy

    Burgundy

    • Southeast

    • Garlic, olive oil

    • Dijon

    Mustards of the region named after Dijon

    • Escargot (snails)

    • Coq au vin

    Chicken in wine

    • Boeuf bourguignon

    Beef burgundy

    • Great wines

    Eastern Provinces
    Eastern Provinces

    Touraine

    • West-Central

    • Loire Valley

    • Garden of France

    • Fruits and vegetables

    • Vouvray

    Dry white wine

    • Chestnuts are widely used in French cooking

    Ile de-France

    • Surrounding Paris

    • Home of classic French

    Cuisine

    • Brie

    • Some of the finest beef, veal, fruits and vegetables produced here

    Central Provinces
    Central Provinces
    Province: Bordeaux  Bordeaux wines
    Province: Bordeaux
    Bordeaux wines
    Province: Bordeaux  Bordeaux wines ◦ Claret  A la bordelaise means either ◦ Prepared in

    Claret

    • A la bordelaise means either

    Prepared in a special seasoned sauce Use of mirepoix

    • A special mixture of onions, carrots, celery

    Accompanied by cepes mushrooms

    Accompanied by an artichoke and potato garnish

    Languedoc

    • Cassoulet

    • Contains

    Duck or goose Pork or mutton Sausage White beans Other ingredients

    Provence

    • Cooking similar to Italy

    and Spain

    • Tomatoes, garlic ,and olive oil

    • Bouillabaisse

    Fish stew

    • Ratatouille

    • Black truffles

    Edible fungi

    Southern Provinces
    Southern Provinces
    Cooking Styles: Great Britain, Ireland and France  Ingredients are not different  Cooking styles vary
    Cooking Styles:
    Great Britain, Ireland and France
    Ingredients are not different
    Cooking styles vary greatly

    British and Irish

    Simple and hearty Developed out of rural, seasonal traditions

    France

    Fresh ingredients Attention to detail Technical proficiency Imitated around the world

    Cooking Styles: Great Britain and Ireland 
    Cooking Styles:
    Great Britain and Ireland
    Cooking Styles: Great Britain and Ireland   Meat is roasted or broiled Natural fare with

    Meat is roasted or broiled

    Natural fare with enhanced flavor

    Lightly seasoned

    Strong flavored condiments

    Worcestershire sauce, chutneys, mint jelly

    Offal

    Parts of the animal usually discarded

    Cooking Styles: Great Britain and Ireland  Pies and puddings
    Cooking Styles:
    Great Britain and Ireland
    Pies and puddings
    Cooking Styles: Great Britain and Ireland  Pies and puddings ◦ Not necessarily sweet  Pie

    Not necessarily sweet

    • Pie

    Baked pastry with mixture of meat, game, fish, vegetables, fruit, covered with or enclosed in a crust

    Cornish pasty Steak and kidney pie

    Cooking Styles: Great Britain and Ireland  Pudding
    Cooking Styles:
    Great Britain and Ireland
    Pudding
    Cooking Styles: Great Britain and Ireland  Pudding ◦ Steamed, boiled or baked dish ◦ Custard

    Steamed, boiled or baked dish Custard or fruit or meat or vegetables

    • Plum pudding

    Steamed dish of suet, dried and candied fruit

    • Trifle

    Layered dessert of custard, pound cake, raspberry jam, whipped cream, sherry and almonds

    Cooking Styles: France  Balances texture, color and flavor  5 basic sauces
    Cooking Styles: France
    Balances texture, color and flavor
    5 basic sauces

    Espagnole

    • Brown

    Roux

    • Thickening agent from flour and fat

    Veloute

    • White

    Bechamel

    • Cream

    Hollandaise

    • Egg yolks and butter

    Cooking Styles: France  Cold sauces
    Cooking Styles: France
    Cold sauces
    Cooking Styles: France  Cold sauces ◦ Mayonnaise ◦ Vinaigrette  Breads and pastries ◦ Baguettes

    Mayonnaise Vinaigrette

    • Breads and pastries

    Baguettes Brioche Croissants Petit fours

    Cooking Styles: France  Cold sauces ◦ Mayonnaise ◦ Vinaigrette  Breads and pastries ◦ Baguettes
    Cooking Styles: France  Never mix sweet/sour flavors in same dish
    Cooking Styles: France
    Never mix sweet/sour flavors in same
    dish

    Never serve sweet sauces over fish

    Do not under or overcook food

    Do not serve uncooked food

    • Salads and fruit ok

    Always use the freshest, best-tasting

    ingredients

    Wine is an integral part of the meal

    • Must complement the food

    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Pattern: Great Britain/Ireland:  Substantial breakfast
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily
    Pattern: Great Britain/Ireland:
    Substantial breakfast
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Pattern: Great Britain/Ireland:  Substantial breakfast ◦ England: Traditional  Scotland:

    England: Traditional

    • Scotland: Oatmeal

    • During the week both with boxed cereals

    • Lunch

    • Dinner

    Both similar to America

    • Tea

    Light snack midday High tea is the evening meal

    Traditional British Breakfast
    Traditional British Breakfast
    Traditional British Breakfast ◦ Bacon, ham, and/or sausage ◦ Eggs prepared several ways ◦ Toast with

    Bacon, ham, and/or sausage Eggs prepared several ways Toast with jam or marmalade Grilled tomatoes or mushrooms Possibly smoked fish or deviled kidneys

    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Pattern: France  Continental breakfast
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily
    Pattern: France
    Continental breakfast
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Pattern: France  Continental breakfast ◦ Croissant or French bread ◦

    Croissant or French bread Butter and jam Strong coffee w/ hot milk or hot chocolate

    • Lunch is largest meal of the day

    Hors doeuvres Main course, vegetable, bread Salad after main course Dessert is often fruit and cheese Wine with the meal, coffee after

    • Dinner is light

    • Very little snacking

    • Seconds uncommon

    Etiquette  right
    Etiquette
    right
    Etiquette  right  Fork remains in left hand and the knife in the Pass all

    Fork remains in left hand and the knife in the

    Pass all dishes left

    When not eating, place hands in lap

    In France, rest wrists on table

    Ireland: Bread plate for potato peelings

    France: Bread directly on table

    In France, dont cut lettuce in salad

    Dinner gifts

    France: Chocolate or dessert style wine or after dinner liqueur

    England: Champagne Ireland: Wine

    Special Occasions: Great Britain and Ireland  Christmas
    Special Occasions:
    Great Britain and Ireland
    Christmas
    Special Occasions: Great Britain and Ireland  Christmas ◦ Mulled wine ◦ Roast beef, goose, turkey,

    Mulled wine Roast beef, goose, turkey, or ham Plum pudding Mince meat pies

    • Boxing Day

    Day after Christmas Friends and relatives visit each other

    Special Occasions: Great Britain and Ireland  Easter
    Special Occasions:
    Great Britain and Ireland
    Easter
    Special Occasions: Great Britain and Ireland  Easter ◦ Hot cross buns and Shrewsbury simnel 

    Hot cross buns and Shrewsbury simnel

    • New Years Day

    In Scotland, Haggis on New Years Eve

    • Burns Night in Scotland

    Honors the haggis

    • Ireland: St. Patricks Day

    Corned beef and cabbage

    Special Occasions: France  Christmas
    Special Occasions: France
    Christmas
    Special Occasions: France  Christmas ◦ Main Christmas meal served after mass on December 24 ◦

    Main Christmas meal served after mass on December 24

    Black (blood)/white (meat and milk) pudding Goose or turkey with chestnuts Yule log

    In Provence, meatless meal (usually cod) followed by 13 desserts

    Special Occasions: France  Mardi Gras (Shrove Tuesday)
    Special Occasions: France
    Mardi Gras (Shrove Tuesday)
    Special Occasions: France  Mardi Gras (Shrove Tuesday) ◦ Pancakes, fritters, waffles, biscuits, cakes  During

    Pancakes, fritters, waffles, biscuits, cakes

    • During Lent, no eggs, fat or meat are eaten

    Cod, herring, lentils

    • Easter

    Hard-boiled eggs French toast Pies with minced meat

    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Northern Europeans

    Good diet to maintain health

    Chicken soup

    
    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Northern Europeans Good diet to maintain health Chicken soup   

    Tea with honey or lemon or whiskey

    Hot milk

    Hot whiskey with cloves

    Sulfur with molasses as a laxative

    Regular use of cod liver oil

    Irish Americans may use senna to cleanse bowels

    Therapeutic Uses of Food: French Descent 
    Therapeutic Uses of Food:
    French Descent
    Therapeutic Uses of Food: French Descent   Infusions from various leaves for colds Gargle herbal

    Infusions from various leaves for colds

    Gargle herbal teas or hot water with honey, salt and baking soda for sore throats

    Sassafras tea to cleanse the blood

    Garlic cures worms

    Adaptations of Food Habits  Many US dishes have British/Irish roots
    Adaptations of Food Habits
    Many US dishes have British/Irish roots
    Adaptations of Food Habits  Many US dishes have British/Irish roots ◦ Custard pie -> Pumpkin

    Custard pie -> Pumpkin pie Cornmeal pudding -> Indian pudding Apple pie Syllabub

    • French

    Not much influence in general

    • Creole

    Grande cuisine

    • Cajun

    Provincial

    Adaptations of Food Habits: Creole
    Adaptations of Food Habits: Creole
    Adaptations of Food Habits: Creole ◦ From the Louisiana countryside  Red beans and rice ◦

    From the Louisiana countryside

    • Red beans and rice

    Crawfish Jambalaya Gumbo Brown roux Filé powder Rice Tabasco

    • Dirty Rice

    • Boudin sausages

    • Cracklins

    • Pecan pralines

    • Beignets

    • Chicory coffee

    Nutritional Status 
    Nutritional Status
    Nutritional Status   Influence from British and French High in cholesterol and fat, low in

    Influence from British and French

    High in cholesterol and fat, low in fiber and complex carbohydrates

    Research in Europe indicates continuing

    similarities in their diet

    Obesity

    Over 57% for women in England and 66% for men 48% for women in Ireland and over 66% for men 41% for women in France and 66% for men

    Nutritional Intake 
    Nutritional Intake
    Nutritional Intake  American Irish appear to eat more animal protein, total fat, sugar, fiber, cholesterol

    American Irish appear to eat more animal protein, total fat, sugar, fiber, cholesterol and less starch

    Irish eat more calories but have lower weight

    Alcoholism higher in Irish is not proven

    Dental issues

    Higher rates for Northern Europeans

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    Counseling 
    Counseling
    Counseling  acculturated Most in US are completely  French ◦ Enthusiastic body language ◦ Intense

    acculturated

    Most in US are completely

    French

    Enthusiastic body language Intense eye contact

    British/Irish

    More stoic Irish may avoid doctors

    British, Irish and French will be more formal than Americans

    Italy and the island of Sicily

    Spain occupying most of the Iberian peninsula Portugal including the Azores and the Madeira Islands

    SOUTHERN EUROPEANS

    History of Southern Europeans in the US

    Italians

    From poorer southern regions of Italy Faced discrimination Maintained strong communities

    
    History of Southern Europeans in the US Italians ◦ From poorer southern regions of Italy ◦

    Spanish were very early

    Others from Latin America or US territorial acquisitions

    Basques oldest surviving ethnic group of Europe

    Portuguese from the Azores and Cape

    Verde

    Settled in New England, Hawaii, California

    Worldview: Religion and Family  All are Catholic countries
    Worldview: Religion and Family
    All are Catholic countries
    Worldview: Religion and Family  All are Catholic countries  Church helps maintain traditions, culture 
    • Church helps maintain traditions, culture

    • Family

    All have strong family orientation Father works, mother cares for home

    Basque women have long history of equality

    Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices: Italian  Fresh air necessary for good health
    Traditional Health Beliefs and
    Practices: Italian
    Fresh air necessary for good health
    Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices: Italian  Fresh air necessary for good health ◦ “ Heavy

    Heavyair of the US vs Lightair of Italy Ability to pursue normal, daily activities Expect health to decline with age

    • Sickness due to

    Contamination through unclean/sick person Hereditary Drafts Suppression of emotions Supernatural causes

    • Evil eye

    Pregnancy problems due to unsatisfied cravings

    Traditional Food Habits  Italian food
    Traditional Food Habits
    Italian food
    Traditional Food Habits  Italian food ◦ Much more than pizza and spaghetti  Spanish food

    Much more than pizza and spaghetti

    • Spanish food

    Not the food of Mexico

    • Most Portuguese

    immigrants came from the Azores or Madeira, not

    mainland Portugal

    Traditional Food Habits  Italian food ◦ Much more than pizza and spaghetti  Spanish food

    Less varied diet than the mainland

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Foreign Influence  Phoenicians and Greeks
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Foreign Influence
    Phoenicians and Greeks
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Foreign Influence  Phoenicians and Greeks ◦ Olive tree and chickpeas ◦

    Olive tree and chickpeas Fish stew

    • Muslims

    Eggplants, lemon, orange, sugar cane, rice, sweetmeats, spices

    Marzipan Saffron-seasoned rice

    Ground nuts in sauces, candies, other desserts

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Foreign Influence  New World Colonies had greatest influence
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Foreign Influence
    New World Colonies had greatest influence
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Foreign Influence  New World Colonies had greatest influence ◦ Tomatoes ◦

    Tomatoes Chocolate and vanilla Avocados Chile peppers Pineapple Potatoes Corn, Squash Turkey

    • Asian Ingredients

    • Indian and the Far East

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy 
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Staples of Italy
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Pasta made with or without eggs ◦ With

    Pasta made with or without eggs

    With sauce Baked

    In Soup

    Hundreds of shapes

    Fresh

    Dried

    Most common is flat

    noodle

    Tagliatelle

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Pasta made with or without eggs ◦ With
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Olive oil
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Staples of Italy
    Olive oil
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Olive oil ◦ Labeled according to processing and

    Labeled according to processing and % acidity

    • Extra virgin or Virgin

      • Both from first press

      • Not refined

  • Pure

    • Blended

    • Refined

  • Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Olive oil ◦ Labeled according to processing and
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Northern Italy
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Staples of Italy
    Northern Italy
    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Italy  Northern Italy ◦ Fresh stuffed pasta ◦ Topped

    Fresh stuffed pasta Topped with rich sauces Uses more butter, dairy, rice, and meat

    • Southern Italy

    Dried, unfilled Tomato based sauce More olive oil, fish, beans, and vegetables

    • All use parsley, basil, and oregano

    • Largest consumer of rice in the world!

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Spain  Largest producer of olives in the world 
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Staples of Spain
    Largest producer of olives in the world
    Eggs

    Tortilla Española

    • Potato omelette that is the national dish

    • Serrano Ham

    • Paella

    Saffron seasoned rice with various toppings

    • Gazpacho

    Pureed vegetable soup served cold

    • Flan

    Milk and egg custard with caramel

    • Sangria

    Chilled wines with fruit juices

    Ingredients and Common Foods: Staples of Portugal  More herbs and spices than Spain ◦ Cilantro,
    Ingredients and Common Foods:
    Staples of Portugal
    More herbs and
    spices than Spain
    ◦ Cilantro, mint, cumin
    FISH dominates
    diet
    ◦ Bacalhau
    Dried salt cod
    ◦ Sardines
    Caldo Verde
    ◦ Green soup
    Regional Variations: Italy  Milan (north,  Verona (North Lombardy)
    Regional Variations: Italy
    Milan (north,
    Verona (North
    Lombardy)
    Regional Variations: Italy  Milan (north,  Verona (North Lombardy) ◦ Risotto ◦ Polenta ◦ Panettone

    Risotto Polenta Panettone Veal Gorgonzola Vermouth

    inland)

    White wine

    • Turin (NW,

    Piedmont)

    Vitella Tonnato

    • Venice (Northeast Coast)

    Scampi

    • Braised veal in tuna sauce

    • Genoa (NW coast)

    Burrido

    • Fish stew

    Regional Variations: Italy  Bologna  Florence
    Regional Variations: Italy
    Bologna
    Florence
    Regional Variations: Italy  Bologna  Florence ◦ Emilia Romagna ◦ Gastronomic capital ◦ Lasagna verdi

    Emilia Romagna Gastronomic capital

    Lasagna verdi al forno

    Tortellini Cured meats

    • Prosciutto

    Parmesan Balsamic Vinegar

    Capital of Tuscany Culinary expertise from Catherine dMedici Green noodles Whole fish Game meat Rosemary Chestnuts Chianti

    Regional Variations: Italy  Rome – the Capital  Naples – Southern Italy
    Regional Variations: Italy
    Rome – the Capital
    Naples – Southern
    Italy
    Regional Variations: Italy  Rome – the Capital  Naples – Southern Italy ◦ Fettucini Alfredo

    Fettucini Alfredo Saltimboca Baked Gnocchi Pecorini Romano Fried Artichokes

    Pasta with oil and garlic Pasta fagioli Home of pizza and calzones Mozzarella, provolone, ricotta Kid and lamb as meat Fresh fish Couscous from N. Africa Numerous desserts - spumoni Marsala

    Regional Variations: Spain  Northern
    Regional Variations: Spain
    Northern
    Regional Variations: Spain  Northern ◦ Stewing ◦ Fish, octopus ◦ Basque area famous for charcoal

    Stewing Fish, octopus Basque area famous for charcoal grilled lamb

    • Central

    Roasting Pork and lamb Garlic soup

    • Southern

    Deep fried Most reflective of Spanish dishes prepared in the US Muslim influence Seafood, lots of fruits and veggies

    Regional Variations: Portugal  Islands: Madeira, Azores, Cape Verde
    Regional Variations: Portugal
    Islands: Madeira, Azores, Cape Verde
    Regional Variations: Portugal  Islands: Madeira, Azores, Cape Verde ◦ Tropical ingredients from Africa and the

    Tropical ingredients from Africa and the Americas Beef or seafood Mild spices salt, pepper, garlic, onion Tea

    • Rich, sweet wines

    Madeira (from the islands) Port (from the mainland) Both fortified with grape spirits

    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Italy  Traditional breakfast is light ◦ Coffee with
    Meal Composition and Cycle:
    Daily Patterns - Italy
    Traditional breakfast is light
    Coffee with milk, tea or a
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Italy  Traditional breakfast is light ◦ Coffee with

    chocolate drink

    Bread and Jam

    • Lunch is main meal followed by a nap

    Numerous courses

    • Dinner about 7:30

    Lighter version of lunch

    • Wine at lunch and dinner

    • Coffee or espresso after dinner

    • Marsala and cheese

    • Zabaglione-a wine custard

    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Italy  Traditional breakfast is light ◦ Coffee with
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Spain  4 meals plus several snacks
    Meal Composition and Cycle:
    Daily Patterns - Spain
    4 meals plus several snacks
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Spain  4 meals plus several snacks  8
    • 8 am: Light breakfast of coffee, chocolate, bread or churros

    • 11 am: Midmorning breakfast

    • 1 pm: Light snack tapas

    • 2 pm: 3 course lunch

    • 5 6 pm:

    tea and pastries

    • 8 or 9:

    tapas

    • 10 midnight: Supper 3 light courses

    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Spain  Businesses close for several hours for lunch
    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily
    Patterns - Spain
    Businesses close for several hours for
    lunch and a nap
    Tapas

    Served in bars and cafes Accompanied by Sherry or wine Strictly finger foods Small bites

    Meal Composition and Cycle: Daily Patterns - Portugal  Similar to Spain  8 am breakfast
    Meal Composition and Cycle:
    Daily Patterns - Portugal
    Similar to Spain
    8 am breakfast

    Espresso and a roll Pastel de nata

    Morning coffee break

    Coffee with hot milk

    Early afternoon lunch

    Largest meal of the day

    Evening meal eaten earlier

    Red wine

    Etiquette  
    Etiquette
    Etiquette   Fork remains in left hand and knife in right Bread is not served

    Fork remains in left hand and knife in right

    Bread is not served with butter

    Place on edge of plate or on the table

    Use fork to twirl pasta against edge of the

    plate or bowl

    Never use a spoon

    Never slurp

    Use bread to soak up a little sauce but do

    NOT mop the plate

    Keep hands above the table with wrists resting on the edge

    Etiquette 
    Etiquette
    Etiquette  Host or hostess will start meal with “ buen apetito ” or equivalent and

    Host or hostess will start meal with buen apetitoor equivalent and then you may eat

    Dont discuss serious topics before the meal

    Chocolate is a good hostess gift for all

    Wine

    In Italy if enough for all guests is brought Do not give wine in Spain or Portugal

    • Host/hostess have chosen specific wines for the meal

    Special Occasions: Italy  Few national holidays  Festas
    Special Occasions: Italy
    Few national holidays
    Festas

    Local patron saint days Pre-Lenten Carnival in Venice

    Seven seafood dishes on Christmas

    Easter

    Easter bread with eggs still in their shells braided into it

    Special desserts

    Confetti

    Special Occasions: Spain  Holy Week
    Special Occasions: Spain
    Holy Week
    Special Occasions: Spain  Holy Week ◦ Week between Palm Sunday and Easter ◦ Numerous Catholic

    Week between Palm Sunday and Easter Numerous Catholic processions Confections, liqueurs

    • Anisette licorice flavored

    Basques: Causerras orange flavored doughnut

    • Christmas

    Basques: Roasted chestnuts and pastel de Navidad

    • New Years

    Eat 12 grapes or raisins at the 12 strokes of midnight

    Special Occasions: Portugal  Christmas Eve ◦ Dinner
    Special Occasions: Portugal
    Christmas Eve
    ◦ Dinner
    • Bacalhau and potatoes

    • Suspiros (sighs)

      • Meringue cookie

    Post-midnight Mass buffet of finger foods

    • Holy Ghost/Spirit Festival in US

    After Easter Holy Ghost Soup

    • Feast of the Most Blessed Sacrament in US

    MA in thanks for rescue from shipwreck

    Special Occasions: Portugal  Holy Ghost (Spirit) Festival
    Special Occasions: Portugal
    Holy Ghost (Spirit) Festival
    Special Occasions: Portugal  Holy Ghost (Spirit) Festival ◦ In the US ◦ Food gathered and

    In the US

    Food gathered and may be given to the poor

    Holy Ghost soup of meat, bread, potatoes and a sweet bread

    • Feast of the Most Blessed Sacrament

    Started in New Bedford, MA in gratitude for being saved from a shipwreck

    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Italy  Heavy (hard to digest) vs light foods
    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Italy
    Heavy (hard to digest) vs light foods
    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Italy  Heavy (hard to digest) vs light foods (easy to digest)

    (easy to digest)

    Light foods for illness

    • Wet or dry

    Depends on how the food is prepared Wet meal weekly to cleanse out the systemSickness associated with dryness in the body

    • Acid or nonacid

    Avoid acid foods that may cause skin ailments

    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Italy 
    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Italy
    Therapeutic Uses of Food: Italy  Liver, red wine, leafy vegetables are good for the blood

    Liver, red wine, leafy vegetables are good for the blood

    Too much dairy makes the urine hard

    Garlic to prevent respiratory infections

    Raw egg or dandelion greens for

    strength and vitality

    Balsamic vinegar and olive oil are health-promoting

    Nutritional Status: Intake  Dietary deficiencies and excesses
    Nutritional Status: Intake
    Dietary deficiencies and excesses
    Nutritional Status: Intake  Dietary deficiencies and excesses similar to the majority of Americans  In

    similar to the majority of Americans

    • In US most are completely acculturated

    Traditional dishes for special occasions

    • Consume more milk and meat

    • Less fish, fresh produce, and legumes

    • Olive oil used often, but exclusively

    • Pasta remains popular

    Nutritional Status: Intake  Portuguese immigrants in MA ◦ Sardines – a rich source of calcium
    Nutritional Status: Intake
    Portuguese immigrants in MA
    ◦ Sardines – a rich source of calcium
    • Descendants of Southern Europeans

    Higher incidence of lactose intolerance

    • Alcohol intake of Basque men in Spain is

    high

    • Italian population consumes more plant products than protein

    • Spain consumes equal amounts

    • Meat consumption highest in northern areas, lowest in the southern areas

    Nutritional Status: Intake  Mediterranean diet is health promoting  ↑ intake of complex CHO
    Nutritional Status: Intake
    Mediterranean diet is health promoting
    ↑ intake of complex CHO

    ↑ intake of protective phytochemicals

    ↓ intake of fat with ↑ monounsaturated

    fats

    Greater emphasis on grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits

    Lower intake of meat and dairy

    Wine in moderation

    Nutritional Status 
    Nutritional Status
    Nutritional Status  Italian Association for Cancer Research ◦ Cancer rates increased as food habits have

    Italian Association for Cancer Research

    Cancer rates increased as food habits have changed

    Pasta consumption has fallen and meat intake quadrupled since 1950

    Spain and Portugal report similar

    findings

    Obesity

    Italy 35% for women, over 53% for men

    Spain more than 50% for men and 46% in women

    Portugal women almost 50%, men 60%

    Counseling: Southern Europeans 
    Counseling: Southern Europeans
    Counseling: Southern Europeans  Conversational style animated, warm, expressive   Feelings more important than objective

    Conversational style animated, warm,

    expressive

    Feelings more important than objective facts

    Shaking hands, pats on back,

    embraces, kisses on cheek appropriate

    Steady eye contact with younger

    people

    Touching very common

    Counseling: Italians 
    Counseling: Italians
    Counseling: Italians   Women may be modest Open and willing to detail symptoms  May

    Women may be modest

    Open and willing to detail symptoms

    May seek advice from family and friends first

    Prefer providers who are warm and

    empathetic

    May be concern about the quality of

    their blood

    GI complaints

    Counseling: Italians 
    Counseling: Italians
    Counseling: Italians  ◦ “ High ” or “ too much ” blood ◦ Vs anemia

    Highor too muchblood Vs anemia Vs low blood pressure

    Confusion with hypertension

    • Lowblood

    Diabetes requirements must fall into their social schedule

    May be language difficulties

    Counseling: Spain/Portugal  High context
    Counseling: Spain/Portugal
    High context
    Counseling: Spain/Portugal  High context  Polychronistic  Quick handshake  Personal space less  Direct
    • Polychronistic

    • Quick handshake

    • Personal space less

    • Direct eye contact desired

    • Higher percentage of illiteracy in

    elders, immigrants in US