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CELL WALL

By
Fajrie Achlana
Cell wall
The cell wall surrounding plant cells serves many of the
same functions as the extracellular matrix produced by
animal cells, even though the two structures are
composed of entirely different macromolecules and have
a different organization. Like the extracellular matrix, the
plant cell wall connects cells into tissues, signals a plant
cell to grow and divide, and controls the shape of plant
organs. In the past, the plant cell wall was viewed an
inanimate rigid box, but it is now recognized as a dynamic
structure that plays important roles in controlling the
differentiation of plant cells during embryogenesis and
growth.
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the major function of a plant cell wall is to withstand the osmotic


turgor pressure of the cell, the cell wall is built for lateral strength.
the cell wall is 0.2 m thick and completely coats the outside of the
plant plasma membrane
Cell Wall Layers
Middle Lamella
Primary Wall
first wall laid down
surrounds growing cells
surrounds meristematic cells
cells in succulent tissues
found at the junction of cells and at the outer
edges of secondary walls
composed of ~ 90% carbohydrate and 10% protein

Secondary walls
surround cells that differentiate to form specialized
functions (i.e. wood cells, xylem cells)
have altered polysaccharide composition
often are lignified
Lamela
Middle lamella between cells or layers. Middle lamella
exists between two primary walls of two cells which are
compounds that without form (amorphous). Middle lamella
consists mainly of pectin. Pectinase enzyme with chemical
reagents that can cause tissue decomposes dissolve pectin
(disintegration) into individual cells. This procedure is called
meserasi (maceration).
Polysaccharides are the main components of the primary plant cell
wall

Cross section of Nelumbo nucifera petiole showing primary


cell wall
Three classes of polysaccharides make up the primary wall
Composition of primary cell walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells

Wall Component Mass % of Cell Wall


Pectic polysaccharides 34
Hemicellulose 24
Cellulose 23
Protein 19
CELLULOSE
Worlds most abundant biopolymer
Polymer of 1-,4-linked glucose
Individual glucan chains associate via H-bonds to
form microfibrils that are largely crystalline.
Cellulose I (the type of cellulose found in nature),
glucan chains are aligned parallel to each other
Length of the glucan chains varies depending upon
the organism from DP ~2000 to up to DP ~15,000
Size of microfibril also varies depending upon the
organism and can range from the elementary fibril (~
36 glucan chains) up to very large fibrils (> 200
chains) found in cellulosic algae
As plant cells mature from 1 to 2 walls, cellulose
can be found as associates of macrofibrils or
bundles
Cellulose gives tensile strength to the wall.

In planta the cellulose microfibrils complex with hemicellulosic polysaccharides


such as xyloglucan.
The pattern of cellulose deposition in the wall determines the pattern
of plant development.
Generally, cellulose deposition is transverse to the direction of cell
elongation.
X-ray diffraction studies indicate that Cellulose I exists in a 2-fold ribbon-like
helix 2(5.15) with 2 residues per turn, a residue distance of 5.15 , and is
stabilized by a series of O305 H-bonds.
Model of Primary Plant Cell Wall
HEMICELLULOSE

Class of structurally diverse polysaccharides that, in part, hydrogen bond to cellulose

Includes Xyloglucan
Glucuronoarabinoxylan
Xylan
Mixed linkage glucans
callose
galactomannans

major hemicellulosic polysaccharide in most flowering plant primary walls (except the
grasses) is xyloglucan.
Xyloglucan: a -1,4-glucan substituted by 1,6-Xyl; some Xyl residues a 1,2-linked
Gal that is further substituted with an -1,2-linked Fuc
Galactomannan: food reserve polysaccharide in endosperm of legume seeds & in
endosperm walls and cell lumens; reserve carbohydrates used during seed
germination, protect the seed from desiccation, and are used as thickeners and
stabilizers in the food industry. Galactomannans are 1,4- linked mannans substituted
by 1,6-linked Gal.
PECTIN

Pectin is a family of complex carbohydrates found in all plant primary walls


that play structural and informational roles in plant cells.
Homogalacturonan (HG), the most abundant pectic polysaccharide, is a
homopolymer of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid that may be methylesterified
at C6 and acetylated or xylosylated at C3.
X-ray diffraction studies indicated that HG adopts a 3(4.45) right-handed
helix. Pectin forms gels in the presence of divalent cations (e.g. Ca++) or in
acidic conditions in the presence of high solute concentrations (e.g.
sucrose). Pectin gels are important in the food, pharmaceutical, and
cosmetic industries.
Oligosaccharides (oligogalacturonides of DP 12-15), released from HGA by
endopolygalacturonases, induce plant defense responses and regulate
plant growth and development.
Proposed functions of pectins in plants

Cell Wall Structure / Assembly

* Cell-Cell Adhesion
* Cell Expansion
Cell Wall Porosity
Ion, growth factors, enzyme binding
Biomechanics: regulation of water flow
* Reservoir of Biologically Active

Pollen tube growth


Seed hydration
Leaf abscission
Fruit development
Primary walls can be divided into two types:

Type I primary walls


(all flower plants except the grass
family) Cellulose
Hemicellulose (xyloglucan)
Pectin (~22-35%) (homogalacturonan, HGA;
Rhamnogalacturonan I, RG-I;
Rhamnogalacturonan II; RG-II)
Type II primary walls (the grass family,
Poaceae): Cellulose
Hemicellulose (glucuronoarabinoxylan)
Pectin (~10%) (HGA, RG-I, RG-II)
Secondary layers
surround cells that differentiate to form specialized functions (i.e.
wood cells, xylem cells)
have altered polysaccharide composition
often are lignified
Divide 3 layers:
o Outer layer (S1)
o Middle layer(S2)
o Inner layer(S3)
Plasmodesmata
Even though plant cells are bounded by a cell wall, they
communicate through specialized cell-cell junctions called
plasmodesmata .
Pit
Secondary cell walls are commonly characterized by the
presence of cavities called pits
The middle lamella and the two primary walls between
the two pit cavities are called the pit membrane.
Type of pit : simple pits and bordered pits
Simple pit
1 . Pit-pair
2 . Unpaired pits
3 . Blind pits
4 . compound unilaterally
5 . ramiform.
Vacuole

Vacuoles are cytoplasmic organelles that contain fluid bounded


by a membrane or membrane . It becomes a barrier membrane
between the cytoplasmic vacuoles , called tonoplas .
Vacuole contains :
gas ,
amino acids ,
organic salts ,
glycosides ,
tannins ( tanning agent ) ,
etheric oils ( eg jasmine on jasmine , rose zingiberine roseine
on the ginger ) ,
alkaloids ( eg caffeine in coffee beans)
Vacuole is divided into 2 types , namely Contractile vacuole
and vacuole nonkontraktil ( food vacuoles )
Vacuole function

1. Place the food reserve storage substances such as starch and


glucose
2 . A place to store pigments ( leaves , flowers and fruits )
3 . Atsirik oil storage area ( class of oil that gives a distinctive
smell like eucalyptus oil )
4 . Tirgiditas regulate cell ( osmotic pressure of the cell )
5 . Metabolic waste landfills and secondary metabolic like latex
rubber , alkaloids , tannins , and calcium oksabit
Crystal

Raphida
Sistolit
Drusen
Thank you