Dental Anatomy Course Introduction to Dental Anatomy

Msd Fábio Tunes

Dental Anatomy

Arrangement of Teeth • Primary Dentition refers to the twenty deciduous teeth. • Each arch is arranged into a right and a left half. • The line that divides left and right quadrants is the median line or midline of the face. • Secondary Dentition refers to the thirty-two permanent teeth. also known as maxillary and mandibular arches. • The dentition is divided into two arches: upper and lower. . also called “baby teeth”. Thus there are four quadrants.

Arrangement of Teeth .

Arrangement of Teeth • The permanent teeth that replace the deciduous teeth are called succedaneous teeth. • The permanent premolars replace the deciduous molars. • A mixed dentition is composed of some permanent and some deciduous teeth. . • Permanent molars are nonsuccedaneous teeth.

Naming and Coding Teeth • Dentition-arch-quadrant-tooth ex: permanent-max-left-central incisor • Universal System • 1-32 permanent teeth • A-T deciduous teeth .

• The first number indicates the quadrant and whether the tooth is permanent or deciduous. . • The number or letter assigned to the tooth depends on its position relative to the midline.Palmer Notation System • Each of the four quadrants is given his own prefix symbol.

Palmer Notation System Midline Central incisor Second premolar Lateral incisor Second molar First premolar Third molar First molar 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mandibular Right 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Canine Maxillary Right Maxillary Left MaxillaryMandibular dividing line Mandibular Left Permanent Teeth .

Palmer Notation System Central incisor Lateral incisor Canine Second molar First molar Maxillary Right E D C B A E D C B A A B C D E A B C D E Maxillary Left Mandibular Right Mandibular Left Primary Teeth .

FDI System (Fédération Dentaire Internationale) • Each tooth – permanent or deciduous is given a two-digit number • The second digit indicates the position of the tooth relative to the midline • The first number indicates the quadrant and whether the tooth is permanent or deciduous .

FDI System of Permanent Teeth .

FDI System of Deciduous Teeth .

Universal System of Permanent Teeth .

Universal System of Deciduous Teeth .

This process continues until ~3-4th year after birth. when the roots of deciduous teeth are fully formed • Birth permanent teeth begin to calcify and continue until ~25th year (third molar roots) deciduous teeth begin to .Development and Form • 6th week of fetal life develop from tooth germs • 4th month of fetal life permanent teeth begin to develop • 4-5th month of fetal life primary teeth begin to calcify.

they coalesce. The lines formed by the fusion are called developmental grooves • Mamelons are the incisal ridges of the three labial developmental lobes of anterior teeth • The lingual lobe makes up the cingulum of the tooth .Developmental Lobes • Each tooth begins to develop from 4 or more growth centers or developmental lobes • Anterior teeth and maxillary premolars develop from 4 lobes – 3 labials and lingual. As the lobes grow.

Developmental Lobes .

1st premolar 3 cusp variety 3 buccal lobes-2 lingual lobes leading to two lingual cusps (ML and DL) .Lobes and Cusps • Maxillary premolars – 3 facial lobes/1 lingual lobe 3 facial 1 high buccal cusp 1 lingual large lingual cusp • Mandibular 1st premolar same as above except smaller lingual cusp • Mandibular 2nd premolar a) b) 2 cusp variety same as mand.

Four lobes of Maxillary Second Premolar .

Lobes and Cusps • Max.DB) one major lingual lobe (ML) one minor lingual lobe (DL) one rudimentary lobe (Carabelli) • Max 2nd molar: • 4 lobes. usually does not have cusp of carabelli • Max 3rd molar: • 3-4 lobes . 1st molar: • • • • two major facial lobes (MB.

Lobes and Cusps of Maxillary Molars .

3rd molar: 4 lobes. They are also the most likely to be missing. • Mand. cusps.Lobes and Cusps • Mand. 1st molar: 5 lobes • 4 major cusps (MB. cusps. DL) • 1 minor cusp (D) • Mand 2ed molar: 4 lobes. • The most unpredictable teeth in size and shape. DB. ML. .

Lobes and Cusps of Mandibular Molars .

• all deciduous teeth usually erupted by 2 3/4 years old. .Eruption • General rules: • Mandibular teeth usually precede maxillary (about 1 month). • Teeth in both jaws erupt in pairs ( one on the right and one on the left). • Teeth usually erupt earlier in girls than in boys.

Eruption of Deciduous Teeth • • • • • Central incisors Lateral incisors 1st molars canines 2nd molars 8-12 months 9-13 months 13-19 months 16-22 months 25-33 months .

They emerge distal to the deciduous 2nd molars (~6 years old).Eruption of Permanent teeth • 1st molar – 1st permanent tooth to erupt. • If deciduous tooth is lost prematurely. . the permanent molar moves into the available space a may keep a premolar or canine from erupting. • Mesial drift occurs • Spaces between deciduous teeth are closed.

Eruption of Permanent Teeth • Exfoliation: process by which the roots of a baby tooth are resorbed and dissolved until the tooth falls out. • As a permanent tooth erupts. the pressure activates osteoclasts which in turn destroy the roots of deciduous teeth. . • Permanent teeth erupt lingually to the deciduous teeth.

Max Canine • Mand 2nd molars – Max 2nd molars • Mand 3rd molars – Max 3rd molars .Max 1st PM • Max 2nd PM – Mand 2nd PM .Most Common Pattern of Eruption • Mand 1st molars – Max 1st molars • Mand central incisors – Max central incisors • Mand lateral – Max lateral • Mand canines – Mand 1st PM.

Max canines usually do not erupt until premolars have erupted. .Pattern of Eruption • Note: 1. 2. Max 2nd premolars often erupt before the mandibular counterparts. Mand canines and 1st Premolars often erupt simultaneously. 3.

Pattern of Eruption 3rd molars: • Do not appear until 17 years of age or later • Most likely to be impacted • (Mandibular > Maxillary) • Most common teeth to be congenitally missing .

. • The line of the occlusal surfaces is known as occlusal plane. • The curved alignment of the occlusal plane is known as curve of Spee.Pattern of Eruption • As teeth erupt and meet their antagonist on the opposing arch. they form the occlusal plane.

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