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Types of Cylinders
Single Acting
Spring Return
Double Acting
Ram Cylinders
The simplest single acting
One fluid chamber
Exerts force in only one direction
Mounted mostly vertically
The cylinder retracts by the force
of the load due to gravity
Ram Cylinders

Ram cylinders are most

commonly used in
elevators, jacks, and
automobile hoists.
Can also be used on a
scissors lift
Single Acting Cylinders
Acts much like a ram cylinder
Main difference is that the single acting
cylinder uses a piston. The leakage flow
that goes past the piston is ported the
Telescopic Cylinders

Mostly a single acting cylinder

Series of rod segments called sleeves, most
common to only have 4 or 5 sleeves in each
The sleeves work together to provide a
longer stroke
Telescopic Cylinders

Most commonly seen in high reach Fork

Spring Return Cylinders
Considered a single acting cylinder
Pressure applied to the cap end pushes the spring down
as the rod is extending
When the pressure is removed the spring force allows
the cylinder to retract
The drain is in the spring chamber and allows the
leakage flow past the piston seal
Double Acting Cylinders
Basic double acting (differential
Double rod cylinder (nondifferential
Tandem cylinder
Double Acting Cylinders

Most common type of cylinder

Pressure is applied to both rod end
and cap end
The majority of the cylinders are basic.
This means that there is unequal areas
at either end.
Double Acting Cylinders
Rod extension is slower because has a
larger area, but allows a greater force
because of the bigger area.
Retract is faster because of the smaller
area, but the force allowed is smaller
because of the smaller area.
Basic Double Acting
Double Acting Cylinders
Double Rod Cylinder
Nondifferential type cylinder
Same areas at both ends of the cylinder if the rods are
the same size
Provides equal force, and equal speed in both directions
Double Acting Cylinders
Tandem Cylinder
Two pistons in line with a common rod
This allows you to have a greater forces without
increasing the size of the cylinder bore
Tandem cylinders are used in places where there is
insufficient space to increase the size of the cylinder
Cylinder Construction
Cylinder Actuation
Fluid routed to and from cylinder through
ports in each of the heads
Cylinder retracts from pressure to rod end
port and the other port connected to tank
Cylinder extends from pressure to cap end
port and rod end port connected to tank
Cylinder Mounting
Main function to anchor the cylinder
Mounting methods include tie rod, bolt
mount, flange, trunnion, side lug and side
tapped, and clevis
Tie rod is most common
Cylinder Mounting
Cylinder Mounting
Cylinder Ratings
Ratings include size specifications and pressure
Size specifications
- piston diameter (bore)
- rod diameter
- stroke length
Pressure capability
- pressure rating established by manufacturer
- rating limits maximum force capability
Formulas For Applications
V (in/min) = GPM x (231 / Area (in))
Q (flow) = Area (in) x V (in/min) / 231
F (lbs) = Pressure (psi) x Area (in)
P (psi) = Force (lbs) / Area (in)
Types of Hydraulic Motors
Gear Motors
Vane Motors
Piston Motors
Limited Rotation Actuator
Gear Motors
External Gear Motor
2 rotating gears, the Model 21300 B1 Series Gear Motor
area of the gear teeth Eaton Heavy Duty Series 1 Variable Motor

is where the pressure

acts to create force
Both gears turn
One gear is connected
to the output shaft and
the other is an idler.
Vane Motors
Spring loaded vanes
are connected to a
The rotor turns inside
a cam ring (elliptical
The vanes slide in
and out of the slots in
the rotor to make
contact with the cam
Piston Motors
Many different types of piston motors
All of them use the same basic principles
Much like a cylinder, only turns a shaft like
the cylinders in your car engine.
Generally the most efficient
High power, high speed, high pressure
Piston Motors
Most efficient
Often used in
applications due to
high power to weight
In-line Piston Motors
Simple construction
Low cost
Used in low torque
high speed
applications, such as
machine tools
Radial Piston Motors
High Torque
Low speed
Possible application
could be a roller.
Bent Axis Piston Motor
Is one example of variable
displacement motor.
The angle is altered to
change the displacement.
Limited Rotation Actuator
Also sometimes
called a oscillator.
Has limited
High torque
The mechanical The rpm desired must
torque desired must be specified in order
be specified in order to find required flow
to find required rate.
working pressure.
Q= (rpm * Disp.)/231
Pin= (T*2)/Disp.
Hpout= (Tlb-ft * rpm)/5252

Effoa= (Hpout * 100)/ Hpin