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BUILDING

CONSTRUCTION
IV
STRUCTURAL STEEL
CONSTRUCTION
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


4. STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Framing Systems 4.1

Steel Columns & 4.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL FLOOR FRAMING


Connections
SYSTEMS
Steel Beams &
Connections
Structural steel girders, beams, and columns are used to construct
Open-Web Steel Joists a skeleton frame for structures ranging in size from one-story to
Metal Decking skyscrapers. Because structural steel is difficult to work with on
site, it is normally cut, shaped, and drilled in a fabrication shop
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames according to design specifications; this can result in relatively fast,
precise construction of a structural frame. Structural steel may be
Structural Steel Framing
Systems left exposed in unprotected non-combustible construction, but
because steel can lose strength rapidly in a fire, fire-rated
Steel Welding
assemblies or coatings are required to qualify as fire-resistive
construction.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.1.1 ONE-WAY BEAM SYSTEM
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems 4.1

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.1.2 TWO-WAY BEAM SYSTEM
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems 4.1

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems 4.1

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.1.3 THREE-WAY BEAM SYSTEM
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems 4.1

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction 4.2 STEEL COLUMNS & b. Starred angles of two or four
Structural Steel Floor CONNECTIONS connected by batten plate
Framing Systems
spaced at intervals of 3 to 4ft.
Steel Columns & 4.2.1 TYPES OF STEEL These are used to support the
Connections 4.2
COLUMNS light loads.
Steel Beams &
Connections
Steel columns are of the
Open-Web Steel Joists
following types:
Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid a. Struts of one or two angles.


Frames These are used for compression c. Latticed
Structural Steel Framing members in roof trusses, light Columns made
Systems towers, and lattice girders. The up of channels
Steel Welding two angles of a double struts or angles
are riveted together by rivets connected by
driven through washers placed lattice bars are
between the two angles at often used
intervals of 4 to 6 ft. where light loads
are to be
supported on
long columns.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
d. Rolled H-columns. These
Structural Steel Floor are obtainable with depths
Framing Systems
ranging from 6 to 16 and are
Steel Columns & now commonly used instead
Connections 4.2
of built-up columns in steel
Steel Beams & skeleton construction.
Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists e. Built-up Columns. These


Metal Decking are usually of H-shaped
section formed by a
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames combination of plates and
angles although box columns
Structural Steel Framing
Systems with two or more webs are not
uncommonly used in heavy
Steel Welding
building frames.

f. Top Chord sections of heavy


trusses are usually
unsymmetrical and are made
of two rolled or built-up
channel sections and a cover
plate. The open (bottom) side
of the section is latticed.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
g. Columns for bents are
Structural Steel Floor sometimes made up of a pair of
Framing Systems
channels and an I beam with
Steel Columns & batten plates at intervals of 3 to
Connections 4.2
4 ft. connecting the flanges of
Steel Beams & the channels. Columns made of
Connections
four angles and a web-plate are
Open-Web Steel Joists commonly used in mill building
Metal Decking bents.
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames h. Battened columns are those
in which two component parts of
Structural Steel Framing
Systems the column are connected only
by batten plates. They are
Steel Welding
decidedly inferior to latticed
columns and should be avoided
if a continuous plate or latticing
can be used instead.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.2.2 LALLY COLUMNS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
These are columns made up of a
Steel Columns & cylindrical steel pipe shell filled
Connections 4.2
with 1:1-1/2:3 Portland cement
Steel Beams & concrete. The standard type of
Connections
lally column is reinforced with
Open-Web Steel Joists only the steel pipe shell. Special
Metal Decking types of columns are obtainable
with additional reinforcement
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames consisting of steel pipe,
reinforcing bars or structural steel
Structural Steel Framing
Systems shapes. The light weight column
is 4 in outside diameter with a
Steel Welding
shell thickness of 0.134, while
the heavy-weight columns are
from 3-1/2 to 12-3/4 inches in
outside diameter with shell
thicknesses of 0.216 to 0.375
inches.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.2.3 COMPOSITE COLUMNS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
These are columns in which a concrete core is further reinforced with
Steel Columns & a steel or cast-iron core designed to support a part of the load. Steel
Connections 4.2
cores may be structural H-sections or four angles, latticed or battened;
Steel Beams & cast-iron cores are usually either solid shafts or hollow pipe sections.
Connections
The column may be further reinforced by vertical rods or bars placed
Open-Web Steel Joists at the circumference and enclosed by spirals.
Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.2.4 STEEL COLUMN CONNECTIONS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
1. Column Bases
Steel Columns &
Connections 4.2

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
2. Column Splices
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems

Steel Columns &


Connections 4.2

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction 4.3 STEEL BEAMS &
Structural Steel Floor CONNECTIONS
Framing Systems

Steel Columns & 4.3.1 TYPES OF STEEL


Connections
BEAMS
Steel Beams &
4.3
Connections
Steel beams may be rolled in
Open-Web Steel Joists
the shape of the letter I (I-
Metal Decking beams), channel beams or
Steel Trusses & Rigid angles. Beams of T shape were
Frames formerly used but have now
Structural Steel Framing been restricted to minor uses.
Systems The I-beam is the ideal type of
Steel Welding steel beam.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
Girders may be built up of angles
Structural Steel Floor and plates riveted together for
Framing Systems
long spans and for unusual cases
Steel Columns & of very heavy loading. Those are
Connections
of two types:
Steel Beams &
4.3
Connections
a. Plate Girders. A plate girder is a
Open-Web Steel Joists beam composed of a wide plate,
Metal Decking known as a web, at the top and
bottom of which are riveted angles
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames and plates. The simplest type of
plate girder consists of a web and
Structural Steel Framing
Systems four flange angles. If this does not
give sufficient flange area, cover
Steel Welding
plates may be added. The web
may be frequently reinforced
against buckling by angles riveted
to its sides, known as stiffener
angles.

b. Box Girders. This is a built up


beam in which more than one web
plate is used.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
Beams and girders may be
Structural Steel Floor connected to columns by either
Framing Systems
seated connections or framed
Steel Columns & connections.
Connections

Steel Beams &


4.3
In a seated connection the
Connections
bottom flange of the beam rests
Open-Web Steel Joists on and is field-riveted to an angle
Metal Decking shop-riveted to the flange or web
of the column. Another angle is
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames field-riveted to the column and to
the top flange of the beam.
Structural Steel Framing
Systems
In a framed connection the web
Steel Welding
of the beam or girder is
connected by angles or by
gusset-plates to the column. In
framed connections, angle seats
are usually shop-riveted to the
columns to hold the beam or
girder during erection.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.3.2 STEEL BEAM CONNECTIONS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
A.MOMENT CONNECTIONS
Steel Columns &
Connections
AISC Type 1 also called Rigid Frame connections are able to hold
Steel Beams &
4.3
their original angle under loading by developing a specified resisting
Connections
moment, usually by means of plates welded or bolted to the beam
Open-Web Steel Joists flanges and the supporting column.
Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
B. SHEAR CONNECTIONS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
AISC Type 2 Simple Frame connections are made to resist only shear
Steel Columns & and are free to rotate under gravity loads. Shear walls or diagonal
Connections
bracing is required for lateral stability of the structure.
Steel Beams &
4.3
Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
C. SEMI-RIGID CONNECTIONS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
AISC Type 3 Semi-Rigid Frame connections assume beam and girder
Steel Columns & connections possess a limited but known moment resisting capacity.
Connections

Steel Beams &


4.3
Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction 4.4 OPEN-WEB STEEL JOISTS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
Open web joists are lightweight, shop fabricated steel members
Steel Columns & having a trussed web. A K series joist has a web consisting of a single
Connections
bent bar, running in a zigzag pattern between the upper and lower
Steel Beams & chords. The LH and DLH series joists have heavier web and chord
Connections
members and are for increased loads and spans.
Open-Web Steel Joists 4.4

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction 4.5 METAL DECKING
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
Metal decking are corrugated steel panels used as a working platform
Steel Columns & during construction and eventually as formwork for sitecast concrete
Connections
slab. The decking panels are secured with puddle-welds or shear
Steel Beams & welded through the decking to the supporting steel joists or beams.
Connections
The panels are fastened to each other along their sides with screws,
Open-Web Steel Joists weld, or button punching standing seams. If the deck is to serve as a
Metal Decking 4.5
structural diaphragm and transfer lateral loads to shear walls, its
entire perimeter is welded to steel supports. In addition, more
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames
stringent requirements to support and side lap fastening may apply.
There are three major types of metal decking:
Structural Steel Framing
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems 4.5.1 FORM DECKING
Steel Columns &
Connections serves as a permanent formwork for a reinforced concrete slab until the
Steel Beams & slab can support itself and its live load.
Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking 4.5

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems 4.5.2 COMPOSITE DECKING
Steel Columns &
Connections serves as a tensile reinforcement for the concrete slab to which it is
Steel Beams & bonded with embossed rib pattern. Composite action between the
Connections concrete slab and the floor beams or joists can be achieved by welding
Open-Web Steel Joists shear studs through the decking to the supporting beam below.
Metal Decking 4.5

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems 4.5.3 CELLULAR DECKING
Steel Columns &
Connections manufactured by welding a corrugated sheet to a flat steel sheet,
Steel Beams & forming a series of spaces or raceways for electrical and
Connections communications wiring; special cutouts are available for floor outlets.
Open-Web Steel Joists The decking may serve as an acoustic ceiling when the perforated cells
are filled with glass fiber.
Metal Decking 4.5

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.6 STEEL TRUSSES & RIGID FRAMES
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
4.6.1 ROOF TRUSSES
Steel Columns &
Connections
TRUSSES. A truss is a structural framework composed of a series of
Steel Beams & straight members so arranged and fastened together that external loads
Connections
applied to it will cause only direct stress in the members. The upper and
Open-Web Steel Joists lower members of a truss are called the top chord and bottom chord
Metal Decking respectively. The members of the truss which are framed between and
Steel Trusses & Rigid
join the top and bottom members are called web members.
Frames 4.6

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames 4.6

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
When the external loads act downward and the truss is supported at
Structural Steel Floor the ends, the top chord is always in compression and the lower chord
Framing Systems
always in tension, similar to the upper and lower flanges of a beam.
Steel Columns & The web-members are subjected to stresses of either tension or
Connections
compression. Web-members subjected to tensile stresses are called
Steel Beams & tension web-members; those which are subjected to compression are
Connections
called compression web-members. In certain positions, a web-member
Open-Web Steel Joists may be subjected to tension through the action of a load applied at
Metal Decking one point, and when applied at another point that load may produce
compression in the member so that at one time it will be subjected to
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames 4.6 tension and at another time to compression. Such a member, designed
to resist either tension or compression, is called a counterbrace. A
Structural Steel Framing
Systems member of a truss system which acts only for a particular partial
loading, and which has a zero stress when the truss is completely
Steel Welding
loaded is called a counter.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
When a truss is supported at its ends by columns, the truss together
Structural Steel Floor with its columns, considered as a unit, is called a bent.
Framing Systems

Steel Columns & The intersection between two or more members of the truss is called
Connections
a joint or panel joint and the distance between two adjacent joints
Steel Beams & along either the top or bottom chords is known as the panel or panel
Connections
length. The quadrangular space, crossed by an inclined web-member,
Open-Web Steel Joists is also referred to as a panel. The axes of all members at each joint
Metal Decking should always meet in a common point.
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames 4.6 The span of a roof truss is the distance between the centers of the
supports and its rise is the distance between the apex of the truss and
Structural Steel Framing
Systems the line joining the points of support. The pitch of a roof truss is the
ratio of the rise to the span for a truss symmetrical about its center
Steel Welding
line. The slope of an inclined member is the tangent of the angle of
inclination with the horizontal, usually specified in inches rise per 12
run.

The portion of the roof between two adjacent trusses is called a bay.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.6.2 TYPES OF TRUSSES
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
A. RELATIVE TO THE NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE
Steel Columns & MEMBERS COMPOSING THE TRUSS
Connections

Steel Beams & 1. Complete Frame. A complete structural frame, or truss, is one
Connections
which is made up of the minimum number of members required to
Open-Web Steel Joists provide a complete system of triangles fixing the relative positions of
Metal Decking a given number of panel joints. If the number of panel points in the
given structure and n = the number of necessary members.
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames 4.6 n = 2p 3
Structural Steel Framing
Systems 2. Incomplete Frame. One in which the number of members is less
than that required by the equation given above.
Steel Welding

3. Redundant Frame. A redundant frame is one which contains more


members than that required by the equation given above.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
B. RELATIVE TO FORM
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
1. Triangular
Steel Columns &
Connections
DOUBLE HOWE
Steel Beams &
Connections
2. Quadrangular
Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking WARREN

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames 4.6
3. Crescent
Structural Steel Framing
Systems
BOWSTRING
Steel Welding

4. Scissors

SCISSORS

5. Arched

CAMBERED
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
C. RELATIVE TO METHOD OF SUPPORT
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
1. Simple Truss. A truss supported at each end-point.
Steel Columns &
Connections
2. Overhanging end span. A truss supported at one end-joint and other
Steel Beams & joint not an end-joint.
Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists 3. Cantilever span. A truss where the entire support is at one end only.
Metal Decking
Panel Length
Peak
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames 4.6
Truss Plate Continuous Lateral Brace
Structural Steel Framing
Systems Top Chord
Slope
Steel Welding Heel Pitch
Web

Bottom Chord Splice


Wedge Block
Bearing Point Panel Point

Span (Out to Out of Bearings) Cantilever

Overhang Bottom Chord Length


Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
D. RELATIVE TO ARRANGEMENT OF THE WEB-BRACING
Structural Steel Floor SYSTEM
Framing Systems

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections
FINK
Open-Web Steel Joists
SAWTOOTH
Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames 4.6

Structural Steel Framing


HOWE
Systems

Steel Welding WARREN

PRATT

PETTIT

SCISSORS
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.6.3 RIGID FRAMES
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
Rigid frames consist of two columns and a beam or girder that are
Steel Columns & rigidly connected at their joints. Applied loads produce axial, bending
Connections
and shear forces in all members of the frame since the rigid joints
Steel Beams & restrain the ends of the members from rotating freely. In addition,
Connections
vertical loads cause a rigid frame to develop horizontal thrusts at its
Open-Web Steel Joists base. A rigid frame is statically indeterminate and rigid only in its plane.
Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames 4.6

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.7 STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMING SYSTEMS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
4.7.1 ARRANGEMENT OF VERTICAL COMPONENTS
Steel Columns &
Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


4.7
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


4.7
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.7.2 STRENGTHENING THE FRAMING SYSTEM
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
The framing system can be stiffened against horizontal forces in the
Steel Columns & following three (3) methods:
Connections

Steel Beams & 1. The structure is composed of rigid frames which may comprise
Connections
some hinged joints but there must be sufficient rigid joints to ensure
Open-Web Steel Joists that none of the nodes of the frame is free to move sideways. The
Metal Decking members may be straight or curved and a variety of shapes may be
chosen for such framed structure.
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames

Structural Steel Framing


4.7
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
2. A bracing system which consists of a triangulated framework of
Structural Steel Floor rolled sections will hold the joints together and further strengthen the
Framing Systems
framework against lateral loads. The center lines of members
Steel Columns & converging at a joint should intersect at one point. The joints
Connections
themselves are conventionally assumed to be hinged, so that the
Steel Beams & members are either ties or struts, loaded purely in tension or
Connections
compression, respectively. However, the overall bracing effect of a
Open-Web Steel Joists lattice system can be enhances by constructing it with tiff members
Metal Decking and rigid joints.
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames

Structural Steel Framing


4.7
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
3. Finally, shear walls in the form of more or less solid diaphragms,
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems usually of reinforced concrete, transmit the wind and earthquake
forces by shear and bending.
Steel Columns &
Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


4.7
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.7.3 The Ultimate Structures for Skyscrapers THE TUBULAR
Structural Steel Floor FRAME
Framing Systems

Steel Columns & The high-rise building conceived as a rigid tube ---
Connections

Steel Beams & If a high-rise building is of suitably compact shape on plan (circular,
Connections
square, not too narrow a rectangle), the external columns can be
Open-Web Steel Joists structurally merged with the external lattice bracing or with spandrel
Metal Decking girders so as to form a vast rigid tube. This stiffening system is
particularly effective and economical. This is due not only to the
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames optimum distribution of the bracing, but also more particularly to the co-
operation of all the columns and bracing or spandrel girders in the
Structural Steel Framing
Systems
4.7 external walls.
Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction The John Hancock Center, Chicago (architects:
Structural Steel Floor
Graham and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill)
Framing Systems employs the tube in its framing system. In this 335
Steel Columns &
m high 100-story building, all the horizontal forces
Connections are transmitted through external bracing, whereby
Steel Beams &
a substantial saving has been achieved in
Connections comparison with a bracing system located in the
Open-Web Steel Joists
interior. The external lattice members form a
distinctive architectural feature.
Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


4.7
Systems

Steel Welding
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.8 STEEL WELDING
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
Welding has become fully accepted as a means of joining steel
Steel Columns & structural members in buildings because it has the inherent advantage
Connections
of fusing the metals to be joined, thereby simplifying connections and
Steel Beams & fabricating operations.
Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists 4.8.1 DEFINITION OF FUSION WELDING (ELECTRIC ARC


Metal Decking WELDING)
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames The fusion welding process employs an electric arc, wherein energy in
Structural Steel Framing
the form of heat is supplied by establishing an arc between the base or
Systems parent metal (the parts to be joined) and a metal electrode. As the arc is
Steel Welding 4.8
formed, tremendous heat is concentrated at the point of welding.
Instantly, the materials are at melting-point temperature. The parent
metal melts in a small pool and additional metal supplied by the
electrode is transferred through the arc an deposited in the pool. As the
electrode continues along the joint, the molten metal left behind
solidifies to form the weld.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.8.2 COATED ELECTRODES
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
Most welding is done with coated electrodes. The function of the
Steel Columns & coating is to form a gaseous shield, which protects the arc and
Connections
molten metal from contact with the air. Oxides and nitrides resulting
Steel Beams & from contact with the air tend to produce brittle welds. The coating
Connections
also forms a slag-fuse shield, which floats above the molten metal,
Open-Web Steel Joists protecting it from the atmosphere. The slag is easily removed after
Metal Decking the weld has cooled.
Steel Trusses & Rigid
Frames The size and strength of weld is determined by the length of its leg.
Structural Steel Framing
Systems For an E60 electrode on A36 steel, the allowable stress may be
computed on the basis of 800 pounds per linear inch per 1/16 inch
Steel Welding 4.8
of leg size.

For A36 steel or higher-strength steels up to Fy = 60 ksi, an E70


electrode should be used and the the allowable stress may be
computed on the basis of 930 pounds per linear inch per 1/16 inch
of leg size.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding 4.8


Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
4.8.3 TYPES OF WELD
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems
FILLET WELD is of approximately
Steel Columns & triangular section joining two
Connections surfaces approximately at right
angles to each other. The fillet weld is
Steel Beams &
Connections the most common type of weld used
in structural work.
Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking GROOVE WELD is made by


depositing filler material in a groove
Steel Trusses & Rigid between two members to be joined.
Frames
The standard types of grooves are
Structural Steel Framing square, V, bevel-U, and J. With
Systems the exception of the square groove,
Steel Welding 4.8 all grooves may be either single or
double.

PLUG or SLOT WELD is made of a


circular hole (plug) or an elongated
hole (slot) in one member of a lap
joint, joining that member to the
portion of the surface of the other
member that is exposed through the
hole.
Structural Steel
4.0
Construction 4.8.4 WELD POSITIONS
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems There are four positions in welding. In order of economy, they are the
Steel Columns &
flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead positions. Overhead welds, which
Connections is the most difficult, should be avoided whenever possible.
Steel Beams &
Connections 4.8.5 WELD JOINTS
Open-Web Steel Joists
The three most common joints used in structural work are the butt, T,
Metal Decking
and lap joints. Other types are the edge and corner joints. Fillet
Steel Trusses & Rigid welds are applicable to T, lap, and corner joints; groove welds are
Frames
applicable to all joints with the exception of lap joints.
Structural Steel Framing
Systems

Steel Welding 4.8


Structural Steel
4.0
Construction

Structural Steel Floor


Framing Systems STANDARD WELDING SYMBOLS
Steel Columns &
Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding 4.8


Structural Steel
4.0
Construction
WELDING SYMBOLS Examples of use
Structural Steel Floor
Framing Systems

Steel Columns &


Connections

Steel Beams &


Connections

Open-Web Steel Joists

Metal Decking

Steel Trusses & Rigid


Frames

Structural Steel Framing


Systems

Steel Welding 4.8


END