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Introduction to Internet

Technologies
Internet Basics

Internet
The largest computer network in the world
It is consists of hundreds of thousands of
smaller networks linking educational,
commercial, nonprofit, and military
organizations, as well as individuals.
Internet Basics

Evolution of the Internet


Internet origins trace back to 1960s
United States Department of Defense
(ARPANET)
Over next 30 years e-mail was added and
100,000 computers linked to ARPANET
World Wide Web came into being in 1992
Mosaic browser introduced in 1993
Internets Impact on Society
3 billion users worldwide
Internet Basics

How does Internet work?


Internet Basics

Interoperability
is the ability for all makes and models of
computers to communicate

Protocol
the set of rules that computers must
follow to transmit data electronically

TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol


and Internet Protocol
is a standard format for transmitting data
on the Internet
Internet Basics

Packets are fixed-length blocks of data


for transmission
IP is used to send the packets across
the internet to their final destination
TCP is used to reassemble the packets
in the correct order.
Internet Protocol (IP) address
uniquely identifies every computer and
device connected to the internet.
Accessing the Internet

To connect to the Internet you have to


be connected and become part of a
network
Local Area Network (LAN)
It connects computers within a limited
geographical area
Accessing the Internet

Step 1: You locate


an Internet service provider (ISP)
an Online service provider (OSP)
or a Wireless Internet service provider
(WISP)
Step 2: Install the software provided by
your ISP, OSP, or WISP
Step 3: Install a browser
Browser Basics

Browser
is a software program that you use to
retrieve documents from the Web
Browser Basics
Browser Basics
Home page
is the first pages that is displayed when
you start your browser

AutoSearch
makes it easy to search by typing in
common term in the address bar

History
allows you to see a list of sites you
visited in the past (20 days default)

Favorites
allows you to designate a page as one
you want to visit again
Browser Basics

In 1993, the
number of people
using the Internet
increased with the
introduction of
Mosaic, the first
graphical browser
World Wide Web

A subset or an application that makes


use of the Internet
A multimedia-based technology that
enables users to access text and
download art, audio, video, and
animation and engage in interactive
games.
World Wide Web

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)


which allow computers to communicate
with hypertext documents
defines how pages are transmitted
the communication rules that allow
browsers to connect with web servers

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


the format of Web pages
the markup language for creating web
pages
World Wide Web

In 2004, the phrase Web 2.0 was coined


users can modify content
participatory Web
blogs, wikis, social-networking sites
World Wide Web

Web page
a text page coded with HTML markup
tags
It includes text, pictures, sound, and
video.

Home page
identifies the website and contains links to
other pages at the site
World Wide Web

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)


is a string of characters that points to a
specific piece of information anywhere on
the web.
URL Example

Protocol Domain name Path File

http://www.techterms.com/definition/alu
World Wide Web

Domain
is a location on the internet, the particular
web server

Directory name or path


is the name on the server for the directory
or folder, from which the browser needs
to pull the file

File
is the particular page or document that
the user is seeking
World Wide Web

HTML determines how Web pages are


formatted and displayed to users
HTML is the set of special instructions
(called tags or markups) that are used to
specify document structure, formatting,
and links to other multimedia documents
on the web
Hypertext links
are connections to other documents or
web pages that contain related
information
Web Portals

A type of gateway website that functions as an


anchor site and offers a broad array of
resources and services, online shopping malls,
email support, community forums, current news
and weather, stock quotes, travel information,
and links to other popular subject categories
Search Tools

Search engines: uses software to


automatically collect information from the
Internet
Search directories: people assemble the
information into categories
Search Engines

A search engine is a software program


that lets you search the Internet using
keywords
Keywords is a descriptive word within a
Web document
How does it work? A spider is a robot
that searches the Internet for keywords
and puts them into an index.
Once indexed, the keywords become
part of a database of organized
information.
Search Engines

Most Web sites contain meta tags


Describes the pages content
Helps spiders find the page
Not visible on page
Hits or results are the number of results
that are shown to you based on your
keywords
Search Engines

Specialty search engines focus on a


particular topic
Examples of topics include
people & information
companies & careers
world data
shopping
downloads
Search Engines

Multimedia search engines finds


graphics, video clips, animation, and
MP3 music files
www.altavista.com (images)
www.kazaa.com (MP3 files)
Meta-search engines searches several
search engines at one time
www.dogpile.com
www.metacrawler.com
Search Engine Tools and
Techniques
Use Phrase searching when you want
words to appear next to each other in the
results
Mickey Mantle or baseball cards
Search engine math is when you use
math symbols to filter out unwanted
listings
+cookie+recipe (only pages with both
words)
+cookie-coconut (only cookie recipes
without coconut)
Search Engine Tools and
Techniques
Boolean Searching consists of three
logical operators:
AND, OR, NOT
cookies AND recipes NOT coconut
cookies AND recipes OR chocolate
Wildcard searching uses the * as a
wildcard character
Search Engine Tools and
Techniques
Related search is when a search engine
offers to show you similar pages
Subject Directory Searching

People assemble subject directories


Most resources are listed by subject and
displayed in a series of menus
To find information you drill down
through the levels going from general
to specific
Subject Directory Searching

Yahoo! subject
directories
The Invisible Web

Searchable databases not indexed by


general search engines are called the
invisible Web
For example, www.completeplanet.com
has links to over 70,000 searchable
databases and specialty search engines
Internet Searching

To download means to transfer from a Web


server or another computer to your computer
Other Internet Features

A blog (short for Web log) is a Web page


that serves as a publicly accessible
journal
A chat room is when you can
communicate real-time with another user
or group of users
E-mail is electronic mail, and is one of
the most popular services
Other Internet Features

FTP (file transfer protocol) is an Internet


standard that allows you to download
and upload files
Instant messaging allows you to
communicate real-time with online
friends
A mailing list is a group of people with a
shared interest
Other Internet Features

A newsgroup is a discussion forum or


type of bulletin board dedicated to a
topic
Online conferencing allows virtual
meetings
VoIP (Voice over IP) uses an Internet
connection instead of a telephone line