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You are on page 1of 78

Third Edition

Julia Burdge

Lecture PowerPoints

Chapter 1

Science

Copyright 2012, The McGraw-Hill Compaies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chemistry: The Central

CHAPTER 1 Science

1.2 Classification of Matter

1.3 Scientific Measurement

1.4 The Properties of Matter

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

1.6 Using Units and Solving Problems

2

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

Topics

Chemistry You May Already Know

The Scientific Method

3

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter

undergoes.

physical environment, and in fact our universe. Matter is

anything that has mass and occupies space.

4

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

Steve Allen/Getty

Stockbyte/PunchStock

5

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

6

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

7

1.1 The Study of Chemistry

8

1.2 Classification of Matter

Topics

States of Matter

Elements

Compounds

Mixtures

9

1.2 Classification of Matter

States of Matter

Chemists classify matter as either a substance or a mixture of

substances.

or a compound.

composition and distinct properties.

carbon dioxide, and oxygen.

10

1.2 Classification of Matter

States of Matter

Substances can be either elements (such as iron, mercury,

and oxygen) or compounds (such as salt, water, and carbon

dioxide).

11

1.2 Classification of Matter

States of Matter

All substances can, in principle, exist as a solid, a liquid, and a

gas, the three physical states .

the condensed phases.

fluids.

12

1.2 Classification of Matter

States of Matter

D. Winters, photographer

13

1.2 Classification of Matter

Elements

An element is a substance that cannot be separated into

simpler substances by chemical means.

14

1.2 Classification of Matter

Compounds

Most elements can combine with other elements to form

compounds.

of atoms of two or more elements

chemically united in fixed

proportions.

simpler substances by any physical

process.

15

1.2 Classification of Matter

Mixtures

A mixture is a combination of two or

more substances in which the

substances retain their distinct

identities.

16

1.2 Classification of Matter

Mixtures

Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogeneous.

get a homogeneous mixture because the composition of the

mixture is uniform throughout.

If we mix sand with iron filings, however, the sand and the

iron filings remain distinct and discernible from each other.

because the composition is not uniform.

17

1.2 Classification of Matter

Mixtures

18

1.3 Scientific Measurement

Topics

SI Base Units

Mass

Temperature

Derived Units: Volume and Density

19

1.3 Scientific Measurement

SI Base Units

20

1.3 Scientific Measurement

SI Base Units

21

1.3 Scientific Measurement

Mass

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object or

sample.

22

1.3 Scientific Measurement

Temperature

There are two temperature scales used in chemistry.

point (0C) and the boiling point (100C) of pure water at sea

level.

as the absolute temperature scale, meaning that the lowest

temperature possible is 0 K, a temperature referred to as

absolute zero.

23

1.3 Scientific Measurement

Temperature

Units of the Celsius and Kelvin scales are equal in magnitude,

so a degree Celsius is equivalent to a kelvin.

24

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.1

Normal human body temperature can range over the course

of the day from about 36C in the early morning to about

37C in the afternoon.

Express these two temperatures and the range that they span

using the Kelvin scale.

Strategy

Use K = C + 273.15 to convert temperatures from the Celsius

scale to the Kelvin scale.

to kelvin, keeping in mind that 1C is equivalent to 1 K.

25

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.1

Solution

36C + 273 = 309 K

37C + 273 = 310 K

26

1.3 Scientific Measurement

Temperature

27

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.2

Convert this temperature to the Fahrenheit scale.

Strategy

We are given a temperature in Celsius and are asked to

convert it to Fahrenheit.

Setup

28

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.2

Solution

29

1.3 Scientific Measurement

There are many quantities, such as volume and density, that

require units not included in the base SI units.

appropriate units for the quantity.

larger volume than is practical in most laboratory settings.

30

1.3 Scientific Measurement

The more commonly used

metric unit, the liter (L), is

derived by cubing the

decimeter (one-tenth of a

meter) and is therefore also

referred to as the cubic

decimeter (dm3).

31

1.3 Scientific Measurement

Density is the ratio of mass to volume.

32

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.3

dense than liquid water.

(a) Calculate the density of ice given that, at 0C, a cube that

is 2.0 cm on each side has a mass of 7.36 g, and

(b) determine the volume occupied by 23 g of ice at 0C.

Strategy

(a) Determine density by dividing mass by volume.

occupied by the given mass.

33

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.3

Setup

(a) We are given the mass of the ice cube, but we must

calculate its volume from the dimensions given. The

volume of the ice cube is (2.0 cm)3, or 8.0 cm3.

gives V = m/d.

34

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.3

Solution

35

1.4 The Properties of Matter

Topics

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Extensive and Intensive Properties

36

1.4 The Properties of Matter

Physical Properties

Substances are identified by their properties as well as by

their composition.

and expressed with a number) or qualitative (not requiring

explicit measurement).

measured without changing the identity of a substance.

37

1.4 The Properties of Matter

Physical Properties

Melting is a physical change; one in which the state of matter

changes, but the identity of the matter does not change.

freezes.

property.

38

1.4 The Properties of Matter

Chemical Properties

The statement Hydrogen gas burns in oxygen gas to form

water describes a chemical property of hydrogen, because

to observe this property we must carry out a chemical

changeburning in oxygen (combustion), in this case.

in this case) will no longer exist.

cannot recover the hydrogen gas from the water by means of

a physical process, such as boiling or freezing.

39

1.4 The Properties of Matter

All properties of matter are either extensive or intensive.

amount of matter.

amount of matter.

40

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.4

two elements (represented by the green and red spheres) in

the liquid state.

change, and which diagrams represent a chemical change?

41

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.4

Strategy

A physical change does not change the identity of a

substance, whereas a chemical change does change the

identity of a substance.

42

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.4

Solution

Diagrams (b) and (c) represent chemical changes. Diagram (d)

represents a physical change.

43

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Topics

Significant Figures

Calculations with Measured Numbers

Accuracy and Precision

44

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

Chemistry makes use of two types of numbers: exact and

inexact.

2.54 in the definition 1 inch (in) = 2.54 cm

1000 in the definition 1 kg = 1000 g

12 in the definition 1 dozen = 12 objects.

inexact.

45

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

An inexact number must be

reported in such a way as to

indicate the uncertainty in its value.

figures. Significant figures are the

meaningful digits in a reported

number.

46

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

The number of significant figures in any number can be

determined using the following guidelines:

significant figures).

has three significant figures, and 50.08 has four significant

figures).

47

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

The number of significant figures in any number can be

determined using the following guidelines:

significant (0.0023 has two significant figures, and

0.000001 has one significant figure).

the number contains a decimal point (1.200 has four

significant figures

48

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

The number of significant figures in any number can be

determined using the following guidelines:

that does not contain a decimal point may or may not be

significant (100 may have one, two, or three significant

figuresit is impossible to tell without additional

information.

49

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

To avoid ambiguity in such cases, it is best to express such

numbers using scientific notation [Appendix 1].

50

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.5

measurements:

(a) 443 cm

(b) 15.03 g

(c) 0.0356 kg

(d) 3.000 3 107 L

(e) 50 mL

(f) 0.9550 m

51

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.5

Strategy

All nonzero digits are significant, so the goal will be to

determine which of the zeros is significant.

Setup

Zeros are significant if they appear between nonzero digits or

if they appear after a nonzero digit in a number that contains

a decimal point.

of the last nonzero digit in a number that does not contain a

decimal point.

52

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.5

Solution

(a) 443 cm

(b) 15.03 g

(c) 0.0356 kg

(d) 3.000 3 107 L

(e) 50 mL

(f) 0.9550 m

53

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

1. In addition and subtraction, the answer cannot have

more digits to the right of the decimal point than the

original number with the smallest number of digits to the

right of the decimal point.

54

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

5, round up.

55

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

2. In multiplication and division, the number of significant

figures in the final product or quotient is determined by

the original number that has the smallest number of

significant figures.

56

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

3. Exact numbers can be considered to have an infinite

number of significant figures and do not limit the

number of significant figures in a calculated result.

57

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

4. In calculations with multiple steps, rounding the result of

each step can result in rounding error.

the end of a multistep calculation to minimize rounding

error.

58

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.6

result to the proper number of significant figures:

(b) 47.80 L 2.075 L

(c) 13.5 g 45.18 L

(d) 6.25 cm 1.175 cm

(e) 5.46 102 g + 4.991 103 g

Strategy

Apply the rules for significant figures in calculations, and

round each answer to the appropriate number of digits.

59

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.6

Setup

(a) 317.5 mL + 0.675 mL

(b) 47.80 L 2.075 L

(c) 13.5 g 45.18 L

(d) 6.25 cm 1.175 cm

(e) 5.46 102 g + 4.991 103 g

(a) The answer will contain one digit to the right of the

decimal point to match 317.5, which has the fewest digits

to the right of the decimal point.

(b) The answer will contain two digits to the right of the

decimal point to match 47.80.

60

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.6

Setup

(a) 317.5 mL + 0.675 mL

(b) 47.80 L 2.075 L

(c) 13.5 g 45.18 L

(d) 6.25 cm 1.175 cm

(e) 5.46 102 g + 4.991 103 g

13.5, which has the fewest number of significant figures in

the calculation.

(d) The answer will contain three significant figures to match

6.25.

61

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.6

Setup

(a) 317.5 mL + 0.675 mL

(b) 47.80 L 2.075 L

(c) 13.5 g 45.18 L

(d) 6.25 cm 1.175 cm

(e) 5.46 102 g + 4.991 103 g

(e) To add numbers expressed in scientific notation, first write

both numbers to the same power of 10.

contain two digits to the right of the decimal point (when

multiplied by 102) to match both 5.46 and 49.91.

62

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.6

Solution

63

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.6

Solution

64

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.7

weighed and found to have a mass of 124.6 g.

the container and the gas is 126.5 g.

of significant figures.

65

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.7

Strategy

This problem requires two steps: subtraction to determine

the mass of the gas, and division to determine its density.

Apply the corresponding rule regarding significant figures to

each step.

Setup

126.5 g 124.6 g = 1.9 g.

the container, the result can have only two significant figures.

66

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.7

Solution

67

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

Accuracy tells us how close a measurement is to the true

value.

same thing are to one another.

68

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

69

1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement

70

1.6 Using Units and Solving Problems

Topics

Conversion Factors

Dimensional AnalysisTracking Units

71

1.6 Using Units and Solving Problems

Conversion Factors

A conversion factor is a fraction in which the same quantity is

expressed one way in the numerator and another way in the

denominator.

we can multiply a quantity by either form without changing

the value of that quantity.

72

1.6 Using Units and Solving Problems

Conversion Factors

73

1.6 Using Units and Solving Problems

The use of conversion factors in problem solving is called

dimensional analysis or the factor-label method.

74

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.8

dietary sodium intake be no more than 2400 mg per day.

Strategy

This problem requires a two-step dimensional analysis,

because we must convert milligrams to grams and then grams

to pounds.

75

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.8

Setup

The necessary conversion factors are derived from the

equalities 1 g = 1000 mg and 1 lb = 453.6 g.

Solution

76

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.9

blood in cubic meters?

Strategy

Convert liters to cubic centimeters and then cubic

centimeters to cubic meters.

Setup

1 L = 1000 cm3 and 1 cm = 1 102 m.

conversion factor must also be raised to that power in order

for the units to cancel appropriately.

77

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.9

Solution

78

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