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Academic Intensive Reading

Chapter 3
Gender and Relationships

 Asiani Dumanauw – F1022141011
 Leila Cyntia Dewi – F10221410
 Syifa Deanti – F10221410

a growing number choose a career that necessitates spending many hours away from home. and service. more and more women are working outside the home. Part 1 Who’s Taking Care of the Children? *A Around the world. lawyers. doctors. . around 70% of women with children under 18 have another job besides that of mother and homemaker. and banking. These women are engineers. politicians. In the United States. breaking through the so-called glass ceiling. and a few have begun to occupy executive positions in business. such as clerical. sales. government. education. However. Most are employed in traditional fields for females. and scientists.

some part time. so both parents must work to support the family. has changed radically since the 1950s and 1960s. the traditional combination of the husband as exclusive breadwinner and the wife as a stay-at-home mom caring for one or two children today accounts for only ten percent of the population in the United States. In fact. Some are employed full time. Many are single mothers raising children by themselves. *C A backward glance from this side of the new millennium reveals that the role of married women in the U. when it was taken for granted that they would stay home and raise the children. This is still the image so often portrayed in American movies and advertising. .S. But in most cases. Part 1 *B Monetary factors influence women to work. and some seek creative solutions such as flex- time work schedules and job sharing. one income in the household is simply not enough.

beginning with the Industrial Revolution. grandparents. parents. most often. . the family is just the immediate family – mother. with either the mother or the father living with the children. it could be a single-parent family. Now. Or. people moved away from farms and small towns to find better job opportunities in larger cities. the result of a marriage between a previously married man and woman who combine the children from their former marriages into a new family. then. father and children. Another variation is the blended family. But. aunts and uncles – lived in the same town and sometimes in the same house. a relative of the working parents took care of the children. is taking care of the children? *E When extended families – children. Part 1 *D Who.

g. Eastern Europe. • Some parents put children in informal day-care centers in private homes. • Companies and hospitals are realizing that providing day care at the workplace makes for happier and more productive employees. Part 1 *F So who watches the children while the parents work? Answers to this question are varied. South America. • Individuals or couples that are wealthy enough have a nanny. a woman who comes to care for the children in their own home. Many of these child-care workers are from other countries. and the Philippines . • Some parents put children in day-care facilities. e.. the Caribbean.

and doing the laundry. who co-directs the Parent Child Center at the New York Psychoanalytic Society. One positive trend. this saves money for the young couple trying to establish themselves and provide a secure environment for the family. 41% of the children sampled said they spend equal time with their mothers and fathers. Since child care is expensive. “This is one of our most significant cultural changes. and the father becomes the “househusband”. the woman’s salary is for the family expenses. Hoffman has found a “very dramatic difference in the involvement of the father-in everything from care taking to general decision making around kids’ lives. Some fathers are just as capable as mothers at cooking dinner. In a recent survey. Husband and wife may also share household chores. *H In some cases.” . Part 1 *G A trend that has emerged recently is the sharing of child-care responsibilities between husband and wife. Young couples will try to arrange their work schedules so that they work opposite hours or shifts in order that one parents is always home with the children. however. Leon Hoffman. is that fathers seem to be spending more time with their children. In practice for over 30 years. These cases are still fairly rare. changing and bathing the baby.” says Dr.

Of the 5. Thirty- nine percent of mothers and 30% of fathers were under the age of 35. The number of people who work from nearly full time rose 23% from the last decade.5 million “stay-at-home” parents in 2004. faxes.000 were dads. Will this new flexibility in the workforce bring a positive change for the well-being of children? Only time will tell. Some are self-employed and some work for companies.4 million were moms and 98. 42 percent of mothers and 29 percent of fathers had their own children under three living with them. teleconferencing-has made it easier for at-home workers to be constantly in-touch. . Part 1 *I Another factors has recently been added to the child-care formula. Among these stay-at-home parents. 5. The accessibility of technology-computers.

Working for yourself 14. m self-employed n. Children. completely 8. Two people who each work part time at one job 6. Children and parent (s) 12. Man who stays at home and cares for his children 5. c glass ceiling a. a nanny m. d “househusband” l. Invisible barrier to the promotion of women 4. To a great degree. Shown or represented in a pictorial way 9. f trend k. Varying arrival and departure times at work 10. g radically d. Able to connect each other . b breadwinner g. Part 1 1. Person who cares for children in their home 2. i flex-time b. parents. Parents and children from different marriages 13. n in touch e. grandparents. k immediate family i. l blended family j. e job sharing c. Tendency or movement in the course of events 7. J extended family h. Person who earns money for a family 3. and other relatives 11. h portrayed f.

Of the millions of “stay-at-home” parents in the U. In the 1950s and 1960s. . 5. Recalling Information 1. many people moved to ( farms / small towns / larger cities) far away from their relatives. A recent trend is that American fathers seem to spending (more/less) time with their children. 2. (most/many/some) were dads. 6. children most often live with their ( immediate/blended/extended) family 4. Another new factors is the number of people who work without leaving their homes rose approximately (10%/20%/30%).S in 2004. In the United States today. 7. About (30/50/70) percent of American mothers with children under 18 work outside of the home. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution. it was taken for granted that a woman would be a (single mother/ breadwinner/ stay-at-home mom) 3. Part 1 3.

Part 1 Years of Age Children under 18 years of age. March 2002 Number in thousand (000) Living Arrangement Under 6 6-11 12-17 Under 18 With grandparents 635 462 476 1.573 With other relative 192 224 386 802 In foster home 62 81 92 235 In other nonrelative 137 171 265 576 With opposite-sex 62 83 40 185 unmarried adults* (children under 15 only) .

6. They do more live with other relative 3. it can be their aunt/uncle. In what age group are these live most children who live with their grandparents? Can you guess why this might be the case for this age group? Children under 6 years are live most with their grandparents. Why do you think that children in the U. Do more children live in foster homes or with “other nonrelatives” ? ( A foster home is a home where a child who is an orphan or whose parents cannot take care of them is placed by a government agency). What age group has the largest number of children living with an “other relative” ( a family member who is not the parent)? Which “other relative” would you guess those children might be living with? Children in age 12-17 years old. Part 1 1. How do you think the categories in the chart compare with children in a country you know well? Do you think the numbers living in different arrangements would be similar or not? Explain? . 5. it because 4.S. are living with people who are not their parents? Make a list of many reasons as you can think of. With whom do most children live when they do not live with their parents? Their grandparents 2.

Tens of thousands of Russian women dream of an advantageous marriage and look for foreign husbands.500 marriages with foreigners are registered in Moscow every year. In two days. 22-29 for marriage. and have children. 132 pounds) seeks short (5 feet 1 to 5 feet 5). love to clean. *B In the 1960s.” The man is from Sydney. stay home. in the opinion of the placer of the ad. . whose daughter became the queen of France. Part 2 *A 70 Brides for 7 Foreigners Russia seems to be turning into a major exporter of brides. and 23% of Russian mothers would like their daughters to marry foreign citizens. and do not do homework. Russian women. Almost 1. the registration of foreign marriages was resumed. he got 100 calls. His mother advised him to marry a Russian woman because Australian woman because Australian women are very liberated. and since then the trickle of Russian brides abroad has turned into a powerful torrent. How? One way is through personal ads in newspapers. Another 10.000 women go to the international marriage agency Alliance each year. change men like gloves. 5 feet 5. the attitude toward marriages to foreigners was intolerant. cook. One ad read: “Man from Australia (37. Russian brides have always been prized by foreigners-ever since the time of Yaroslav the Wise [an eleventh-century grand prince of Kiev]. But during Joseph Stalin’s time. slender woman. according to a poll.

. Part 2 *C Many women are not shy about going to dating agencies. you must meet a standard of "European looks": blond with blue eyes. *D Each day about 10 women go to the agency. The director.000 women a year who get into the files. but only two to three of them are put in the files. Tamara Alekseyevna Shkunova. only 5 percent get married. Of the 200 who married recently. Alliance is one of the largest in Moscow with branches in Russia’s large cities and abroad. And third. is an academician and director of the Russian Institute of the family at the International Academy of Information Systems and editor in chief of Moskovskaya Brachnaya Gazeta (the Moscow Marriage Gazette). There are criteria for selection. Of the 2. one was lucky enough to become the wife of a millionaire. Second. you must know a foreign language. First. It has been flourishing for more than 5 years. you must be successful in your professional milieu. slender with long legs.

Part 2 *E There are 700 foreign men in the files. mostly from the United States. In 1992. The information on the man's passport is checked. Germany. the only place in Moscow that registers marriages to foreigners. . *F Once a husband is found.200 couples get married there. In second place was Israel. and Britain. Each year. followed by Turkey and Bulgaria. The greatest number came from the United States. They must meet only one requirement-that they be well- to-do. the bridegrooms came from 96 countries. 1. the next stop is Wedding Palace Number 4. Up to 300 men apply annually. and a call is made to his place of work.

in a number of countries. It requires that the French groom obtains certification of his "legal capacity for marriage. . Stiff requirements are also imposed by Germany. in the given country. In Syria. the official is fined. a marriage to a citizen of another state is valid. The French Embassy for example. Part 2 *G Registration requires a passport and a guarantee from the groom's embassy that there are no obstacles to his getting married. After all. marriage to a foreigner is considered invalid without special permission. a foreign wife and her children could find that they have no property rights. takes a very serious attitude toward marriages to foreign women. *H The Wedding Palace requires confirmation that." If an embassy official registers a couple that has not passed the requisite medical tests. for example.

it turned out that he lived in a small cottage without a bathtub. in reality. *J Another couple wanted to get registered in Canada. but. The reasons are well known: a sense of second-class status. "Prove that this isn't a fictitious marriage. a language barrier. but an entry visa was never granted." they said. one Moscow woman tried to nine months to get permission to go to the United States. Part 2 *I Many countries are trying to erect barriers to the marital migration from Russia. *K Many Russian women who marry foreigners quickly get divorced and come back. and financial difficulties. The finance was called to the Canadian Embassy for an interview. For example. where her fiance was waiting for her. . Deceptions are frequent: One "sweet-heart" described his home as a place with a fountain.

• Blended family : a family that consists of two people and their children from their own relationship and from previous one. *Difficult Words • Homemaker : a person who works at home and takes care of the house and family. etc. • Glass-ceiling : the way in which unfair attitudes can stop women or other groups. from getting the best jobs in a company. • Clerical : connected with office work. • Breadwinner : a person who supports their family with the family they earn. • Immediate : happening or done without delay. • Household : all the people living together in a house / apartment. • Emerge : to become known . • Extended : long or longer than usual or expected. • Flex-time : a system in which employees work a particular number of hours each week or month but can choose when they start and finish work each day. • Glance : to look quickly at something.

rule or situations that prevents sb from doing sth or that makes sth impossible. seen. • Fairly : to some extent but not very. • Flourish : to develop quickly and be successful or common. *Difficult Words •Expense : the money that you spend. leather. made of wool. • Glove : a covering for the hand. • Househusband : a man who stays at home to cook. etc. and take care of the children. • Barrier : a problem. • Branch : a local office or shop/store belonging to a large company or organization. • Workforce : all the people who work for a particular company or organization. clean. •Teleconferencing : a conference or discussion at which members are in different places and speak to each other using telephone and video connections. etc. etc. • Intolerant : not willing to accept ideas or ways of behaving that are different from your own. • Rare : not done. happening. etc. • Milieu : the social environment that you live or work in. . • Torrent : a large amount of water moving very quickly • Liberate : to free sb from sth that restricts their enjoyment of life.

. used to decorate parks and gardens/ yard. • fictitious : invented by sb rather than true. • fountain : a structure from which water is sent up into the air by a pump. *Difficult Words •marital : connected with marriage or with the relationship between a husband and wife. • fiance : the women that a man engaged to. • deception : the act of deliberately making sb believe sth that is not true.