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# Basic Hydraulic Principles.

Section 1.2

Pascal's Law

## 1. The pressure exerted by fluid on the wall of a

containing vessel is at right angles to the surface.
2. Pressure exerted by liquid at any point is equal in all
directions

Pascal's Law.

## 3. Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted

undiminished throughout the confined vessel of system

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Pascal's Law.
P = Pressure. Kg/cm2
F
F = Force. Kgs P=
A
A= Area cm2
or

F= P X A

P A
1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals
Pascal's Law.

100 kgs

1000 kgs

F 100 kgs
P= = 10 Kg/cm2
A 10 cm2

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Pressure & Flow.
Pressure: pushes and exerts force or torque.

1000 Kgs.

High Pressure
Low flow.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Pressure & Flow.
Flow: Makes things move.

Low Pressure.
High flow.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Graphic Symbols are used in place of actual component
drawings because they are easier to read and quick to draw.
The symbols are of a standard recognised worldwide

Graphic Symbols.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

Graphic Symbols.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1.
Name the Symbols?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Name the Symbols? 1. Fixed Orifice.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Name the Symbols? 1. Fixed Orifice.
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7. Spring.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Name the Symbols? 1. Fixed Orifice.
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7. Spring.
8. Line to reservoir.
(Line below oil level)
9.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7. Spring.
8. Line to reservoir.
(Line below oil level)
9. Check Valve.
10.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
1. Fixed Orifice.
Name the Symbols?
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7. Spring.
8. Line to reservoir.
(Line below oil level)
9. Check Valve.
10. Lines cross.
11.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Name the Symbols? 1. Fixed Orifice.
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7. Spring.
8. Line to reservoir.
(Line below oil level)
9. Check Valve.
10. Lines cross.
11. Relief Valve.
12.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Name the Symbols? 1. Fixed Orifice.
2. Tandem Pump.
3. Variable
displacement pump
4. Oil Cooler.
5. Filter.
6. Double Acting
Actuator.
7. Spring.
8. Line to reservoir.
(Line below oil level)
9. Check Valve.
10. Lines cross.
11. Relief Valve.
12. Pick up Screen in
pressurised tank.

Graphic Symbols.

## Hydraulic Circuit Diagram

Diagrams can be complex and
difficult to understand.
By breaking the circuit into
individual components may
allow for easier
understanding.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
Tank has a breather and is not
pressurised.
Pick up pipe is at the bottom
of the tank.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
Arrow on drive shaft indicates
direction of rotation.
Single fixed displacement
pump.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass
valve.
Bypass Valve opens when
filter is blocked or oil is too
cold.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass
valve.
4. Pressure Regulating Valve.
When the oil pressure exceeds
the set value, the pressure
regulating valve will open up
returning oil to tank.
4

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass
valve.
4. Pressure Regulating Valve.
5. Control Valve, hand actuated
5
This is an OLSS valve.
Control valve has three
positions: Hold.
Tilt.
Dump.
The check valve is to stop work
equipment from dropping
when the spool is just
opening.
1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals
Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass valve.
6 4. Pressure Regulating Valve.
5. Control Valve, hand actuated
6. Safety Suction Valve.
This valve is a combination of a
Pressure Regulating Valve and
Suction Valve.
Pressure Regulating Valve will
release positive pressure back
to tank.
Suction Valve allows oil to enter
the circuit from the tank when a
negative pressure is present.
1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals
Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass valve.
4. Pressure Regulating Valve.
7 5. Control Valve, hand actuated
6. Safety Suction Valve.
7. Actuator, Double acting cylinder.
Other actuators are:
Motors.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
8
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass valve.
4. Pressure Regulating Valve.
5. Control Valve, hand actuated
6. Safety Suction Valve.
7. Actuator, Double acting cylinder.
8. Control Valve, hand actuated.
This control valve has four
positions: Raise.
Hold.
Lower.
Float.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Graphic Symbols.
Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
1. Hydraulic reservoir.
8
2. Engine and Hydraulic Pump.
3. Filter element with bypass valve.
4. Pressure Regulating Valve.
5. Control Valve, hand actuated
6. Safety Suction Valve.
7. Actuator, Double acting cylinder.
8. Control Valve, hand actuated.
This control valve has four
positions: Raise.
Hold.
Lower.
Float.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Units of Pressure.

## One Atmosphere represents the

average atmospheric pressure at
sea level on earth.
One Atmosphere is equal to:
1.01 bar
1.033 Kg/cm2
14.7 PSI
760 mm of Mercury

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Measuring Pressure

## Absolute Gauge: measures the actual pressure of

the confined gas or liquid and includes the
atmospheric pressure.
Gauge Pressure: measures the actual pressure of
the confined gas or liquid only.

## Manometer: for accurate measurement of low

pressure, pressure is expressed in mm of mercury.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

Actuators

Directional Control
Valve

Reservoir

Hydraulic Pump

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

RESERVOIR

LOWER
PRESSURE
ACTUATOR AREA PUMP
HIGH
PRESSURE
AREA

CONTROL

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

Hydraulic Reservoir
The Hydraulic Reservoir will
store sufficient hydraulic fluid
to ensure enough fluid is
available for the hydraulic
system.
The reservoir will allow
contaminates to settle on the
bottom and dissipate heat.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

Hydraulic Pump.
The hydraulic pump is the heart of the machine.
The function of the pump is to supply the hydraulic system with
sufficient flow to enable the circuits to operate at the correct speed.
There are three types or pumps.

Gear Pump.

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components
Piston Type.

Variable Displacement
Fixed Displacement

Vane Pumps

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

## Directional Control Valve

Directs the hydraulic flow of oil in the
hydraulic system.

Open Closed

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components
Actuators
Convert hydraulic energy (from the pump) into mechanical energy to
produce force and motion.
Actuators can produce linear or rotary movement

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

Major Hydraulic Components

## Rotary motion is produced using

hydraulic motors.
Hydraulic motors can turn on
direction only or in both
directions

Hydraulic Oil

## The fluid in the hydraulic system is the

component that is used to transfer the flow of
energy generated be the pump.
The hydraulic fluid supplied to the actuators
convert the fluid energy to mechanical.

Hydraulic Oil

## Properties of Hydraulic Fluids

Hydraulic oil contains a selected number of additives to increase and
insure anti-wear capabilities.
Anti-Foaming
A liquid can not be compressed but air can, these anti-foaming additives
help the oil absorb the air so as not to effect the operation

Water Separation
Water vapour enters the system through the
reservoir. Oil moving around the system mixes with
the water and becomes whats known as an
emulsion.
This emulsion promotes rust, acids and forms
from the oil.
1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals
Hydraulic Oil

Viscosity
Viscosity is a measurement of a fluid resistance
to flow, in other words the thickness of the oil.
Viscosity is important because if the oil is too
thin (Low Viscosity) it may leak past seals, joints
or pumps internal slippage. This will effect the
work equipment performance.

If the oil is too thick (High Viscosity) the work equipment will be sluggish and
require more power to push the oil around the system.
Viscosity Improver
Additives that help maintain the oils viscosity over a wider range of
temperatures

## 1.2 Hydraulic Principles & Components Hydraulic Fundamentals

END OF
Hydraulic Principals and
Major Components