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The Circulatory System

(Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah)


Functions of the
Circulatory System
Brings blood containing
oxygen, nutrients, and hormones
to cells
Transports CO2 and
other wastes away
from cells
Fights infection
Regulates body
temperature
Helps stabilize pH and ionic
concentration of body fluids.
Circulatory System
Components
Heart
Blood
Vessels
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
The Heart
A muscular pump
Moves blood through the body

Aorta Composed of
four chambers
Superior vena Left pulmonary artery
cava
Divided into right and
Left atrium
left halves
Right pulmonary

Made up of
veins Left pulmonary
veins

Right atrium cardiac


muscle cells
Inferior vena cava
Left ventricle

Right ventricle
Pericardium
Protective sac of
connective tissue
Surrounds the heart

Filled with
fluid
Myocardium
The muscle of the heart
Strong and thick
Composed of spontaneously
Myocardium
(heart muscle)
shown in red
contracting cardiac muscle
fibers Epicardium
(Outer surface
of myocardium)

Endocardium
(Inner surface of myocardium)

Can conduct electricity


like nerves
Its blood supply comes
from the coronary arteries
Structures of the Heart
Chambers Pulmonary valve

Atria- (2) upper chambers


Thin walled Left atrium

Receive blood from veins Aortic valve

Send blood to ventricles Right atrium

Ventricles- (2) lower Mitral valve

chambers
Thick walled
Receive blood from atria Left ventricle

Pump blood out through Tricuspid valve


Septum
arteries
Right ventricle

Septum
Wall that divides heart into right and left halves
Figure : Overview of circulatory system anatomy
Distribution of
blood to the
body organs

Figure : Distribution of blood in the body at rest


5 Classes of Blood Vessels
1. Arteries:
carry blood away from heart
2. Arterioles:
Are smallest branches of arteries
3. Capillaries:
are smallest blood vessels
location of exchange between blood and interstitial
fluid
4. Venules:
collect blood from capillaries
5. Veins:
return blood to heart
Structure of Blood Vessels

Figure 21-2
The Largest Blood Vessels
Attach to heart
Pulmonary trunk:
carries blood from right ventricle
to pulmonary circulation
Aorta:
carries blood from left ventricle
to systemic circulation
The Smallest Blood Vessels
Capillaries
Have small diameter and thin walls
Chemicals and gases diffuse across walls
The Anatomy of Blood Vessels
Arteries, veins, and capillaries
Have different functions
Have different structures
Structure of Vessel Walls

Figure 21-1
Flow-regulating
valves in
compliant veins
Capillary Structure

Figure 21-4
Capillaries: thin for diffusion

Figure 15-16: Types of capillaries


Veins and Venules (vs. Arteries)

Thinner walls
Larger diameter
Closer to skin
Less muscle
Less elastic

Figure 15-3: Metarterioles


Capillaries
Blood flow controlled by pre-capillary
sphincter muscles
via metabolic regulation -
No innervation
Capillary Exchange:
Colloidal Osmotic Pressure is Constant

Figure: Fluid exchange at the capillary


Net outflow into ECF
Net filtration net absorption = net outflow
About 2 L/day collected by lymph vessels

Figure 15-18b: Fluid exchange at the capillary


Capillary Networks

Figure 21-5
Blood Distribution

Figure 21-7
Cardiovascular Physiology

Figure 21-8
Training and
Cardiovascular Performance

Table 21-3
The Pulmonary Circuit

Figure 21-19
Major Systemic Arteries

Figure 21-20
Arteries of the Chest
and Upper Limbs

3D Peel-Away of Arteries
of the Upper Limbs
Figure 21-21a, b
Arteries of the Neck and Head

3D Peel-Away of Arteries of the Head and


Neck
Figure 21-22
Arteries of the Brain

Figure 21-23
Arteries of the Trunk

Figure 21-24a
Arteries of the Trunk

3D Peel-Away of Arteries of the Trunk Figure 21-24b


Arteries of the
Abdominopelvic Organs

Figure 21-25
Arteries of the Lower Limbs

3D Peel-Away of Arteries
of the Lower Limbs Figure 21-26
Major Systemic Veins

Figure 21-27
Veins of the Head,
Neck, and Brain

Figure 21-28
Veins of the Abdomen and Chest

Figure 21-29
Veins of the Lower Limbs

Figure 21-31
Veins of the Abdomen

Figure 21-29
The Hepatic Portal System

Figure 21-32
Placental Blood Supply

Figure 21-33a
Integration with Other Systems

Figure 21-35
Blood vessel functions: overview
Strong and elastic arteries

Arterioles control blood flow


and pressure

Caps: thin and with large


area for diffusional
exchange

Compliant, large, low R veins with valves assures blood return

Figure : Functional model of the cardiovascular system


Arteries and Arterioles
Endothelium
Elastic tissues
Rebounds
Evens flow
Smooth muscles
Fibrous tissue
Tough
Resists stretch

Figure 15-2: Blood vessels


Atherosclerosis

Figure : The development of atherosclerotic plaques


Atherosclerosis

Figure : The development of atherosclerotic plaques


Pulse and Mean Arterial Pressures

Figure : Pressure throughout the systemic circulation


Blood Pressure Measurement

Figure : Measurement of arterial blood pressure


Large arteries: blood distribution and maintenance
of blood pressure during diastole

Figure 15-4: Elastic recoil in the arteries


Arterioles: large and variable R
Flow = P/R
R = P/Flow
Parterioles and Rarterioles largest in CV system

Figure : Pressure gradient in the blood vessels


Sympathetic nerves
control arteriolar smooth muscle contraction
Blood Pressure Regulation

Baroreceptors
Afferent nerves
Medulla oblongata center
Sympathetic efferents
SA node, ventricles,
Arteriolar smooth muscle
Venous smooth muscle
Regulation of Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure
Regulation

Figure 15-22: The baroreceptor reflex: the response to increased blood pressure