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of statistics. We often need to measure the extent to

which scores in a dataset differ from each other.

Such a measure is called dispersion.

Range (R)

Mean Deviation (MD)

Variance

Standard Deviation (SD)

Example

46 48 50 52 54 50

Section

E

30 40 50 60 70 50

Section

F

Objectives of Dispersion

different values from the average of

a series

series expressed in different units

truly represent the series or not

Range

highest and lowest values of a dataset.

the lowest value is 3, highest is 9

so the range is 9-3=6.

Mean Deviation

set of data about the mean. For sample size N,

It is defined by

Example

x x x^ l x x^ l

92 2 2

75 -15 15

95 5 5

90 0 0

98 8 8

Total 30

MD = 30 / 5 = 6

Variance

Example

x x - 49.2 (x - 49.2 )2

44 -5.20 0027.04

50 0.80 0000.64

38 11.2 0125.44

96 46.8 2190.24

42 -7.20 0051.84

47 -2.20 0004.84

40 -9.20 0084.64

39 -10.2 0104.04

46 -3.20 0010.24

50 0.80 0000.64

Total 2600.40

2 = 2600 . 40 / 10 = 260 . 40

Standard Deviation

Coefficient of Variation

Why Coefficient of Variation

different sets of data having different of measurement.

The wages of workers may be in dollars and the

consumption of meat in their families may be in

kilograms. The standard deviation of wages in dollars

cannot be compared with the standard deviation of

amounts of meat in kilograms. Both the standard deviations

need to be converted into coefficient of variation for

comparison. Suppose the value of CV for wages is 10% and

the value of CV for kilograms of meat is 25%. This means

that the wages of workers are consistent.

Example

A company has 2 sections with 40 and 65 employees .Their

average weekly wages are $450 and $350. The SDs are

7 and 9. (i) Which section has a larger wage bill? (ii)

Which section has larger variability in wages?

Wage bill for section B = 65 x 350 = 22750

Section B is larger in wage bill.

CV for Section B = 9/350 x 100 = 2.57%

There is greater variability in the wages of section B.

Skewness

Kurtosis

Correlation

how strongly pairs of variables are related.

average weight of people 5'6'', and their average

weight is less than that of people 5'7'', etc. Correlation

can tell us just how much of the variation in peoples'

weights is related to their heights.

Types of correlation

correlation correlation correlation

Positive correlation

values of the other variable also increase.

values of the other also decrease.

Negative correlation

of the other variable decrease.

of the other variable increase.

Zero correlation

no effect on the other variable.

exam grades

Correlation coefficient

Interpretation of correlation coefficient

r = 0 indicates no relation

r = + 1 indicates a perfect positive relation

r = - 1 indicates a perfect negative relation

Values of r between 0 and 0.3 (0 and - 0.3)

indicate a weak positive (negative) relation

Values of r between .3 and .7 (- .3 and - .7)

indicate a moderate positive (negative)

relation

Values of r between 0.7 and 1 (- 0.7 and -1)

indicate a strong positive (negative) relation

Example

x y xy x2 y2

0 1 0 0 1

1 2 2 1 4

2 3 6 4 9

3 4 12 9 16

4 5 20 16 25

5 6 30 25 36

Total 15 21 70 55 91

x = 15, y = 21, x y = 70, x2 = 55, y2 = 91, n = 6

Putting these values in the equation of r, we get: r = 1

Regression

Interpretation

change in Y for X=0

change in Y for 1 unit change in X

Example

x y xy x2 y2

0 1 0 0 1

1 2 2 1 4

2 3 6 4 9

3 4 12 9 16

4 5 20 16 25

5 6 30 25 36

Total 15 21 70 55 91

x = 15, y = 21, x y = 70, x2 = 55, y2 = 91, n = 6

Using these values, we get: a = 1 , b = 1

Correlation vs. Regression

Correlation Regression

It cannot predict It can predict

+

Probability

Example

deck of 52 playing cards. What is the

probability of choosing 5 aces?

P (5 aces) = 0 / 52 = 0

Experiment

is uncertain is called an

experiment.

Tossing a coin

Sample Space

experiment is called sample space.

S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Event

A single result of an

experiment is called an event.

coin

Example

A die is rolled, find the probability that

an even number is obtained.

The event "an even number is obtained"

E = {2, 4, 6}

P (E) = n (E) / n(S) = 3 / 6

Example

random from a class of 30 girls.

What is the probability that the

student chosen is a girl?

P (girl) = 30 / 30 = 1

Example

In a lottery, there are 10 prizes and 25

blanks. A lottery is drawn at random.

Find the probability of getting a prize?

P (getting a prize)

= 10 / ( 10 + 25 )

= 10 / 35

Example

At a car park there are 60 cars, 30 vans and 10 Lorries. If

every vehicle is equally likely to leave, find the probability of:

a)Van leaving first b) Lorry leaving first.

van leaving first. So,

n (S) = 100 , n (A) = 30 : P ( A ) = 30 / 100

n (S) = 100 , n (B) = 10, : P ( B ) = 10 / 100

Example

In a box, there are 8 black, 7 blue and 6 green

balls. One ball is picked up randomly. Find the

probability that ball is neither black nor green?

Let E= event that the ball drawn is neither black

nor green = event that the ball drawn is blue.

P ( E ) = 7 / 21

Example

Two coins are tossed, find the probability that

two heads are obtained.

Each coin has 2 possible outcomes:

H (heads)and T (Tails)

Sample space, S = {(H, T), (H, H), (T, H), (T, T)}

P (E) = 1 / 4

Example

Two dice are rolled; find the probability that the sum

of the values is equal to 1.

The sample space,

S = { (1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(1,5),(1,6)

(2,1),(2,2),(2,3),(2,4),(2,5),(2,6)

(3,1),(3,2),(3,3),(3,4),(3,5),(3,6)

(4,1),(4,2),(4,3),(4,4),(4,5),(4,6)

(5,1),(5,2),(5,3),(5,4),(5,5),(5,6)

(6,1),(6,2),(6,3),(6,4),(6,5),(6,6) }

Let E be the event "sum equal to 1".

P (E) = 0 / 36 = 0

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