3 views

Uploaded by m_michael_c

15

- Market Research Notes
- MB0024 Statistics for Management-New
- Pr Statistik
- 1977_Genderen y Lock
- Banking Sector Results
- balassa1979
- California County Health Status Profiles 2009
- Measures of Association,How to Choose
- AP Bio Math and Statistics
- jim_104e_0910.pdf
- CE 326 F2013 Lecture 4-5 Trip Generation
- c214xch06
- Lecture-6.pptx
- oth2
- An inventory of Guadua (Guadua angustifolia) bamboo in the Coffee Region of Colombia.pdf
- 48 Basic Measurement Uncertainty
- Final Report (1)
- MB0040
- Confidence intervals
- Bootstrap - Econometrics

You are on page 1of 21

SAMPLEDESCRIPTIVE

STUDIES ?

Lu Ann Aday, Ph.D.

The University of Texas

School of Public Health

TYPES OF OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYTICAL

Describes Explains

Is more exploratory Is more explanatory

Profiles characteristics Analyzes why group(s)

of group(s) have characteristics

Focuses on why?

Focuses on what?

Assumes an hypothesis

Assumes no hypothesis

Requires comparisons

Does not require (between groups or

comparisons (between over time)

groups or over time) Try to maximize

Try to maximize power to detect

precision of estimates differences, if they exist

RELATING SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION

TO STUDY OBJECTIVES

Select the sample size estimation procedure that

best matches the study design underlying the

respective study objectives

Compute the sample size required to address each

objective

Based on the sample sizes required to address each

of the objectives, appropriate sample size

adjustments, as well as time and resource

constraints, recommend an overall sample size

Discuss possible limitations in terms of statistical

precision or power in addressing any specific study

objective(s), given the recommended sample size

CRITERIA:

Descriptive Studies

Objective:

to estimate a parameter, i.e.,

provide a precise estimate for

selected variable(s)

Framework:

normal sampling distribution

NORMAL SAMPLING

DISTRIBUTION

Sampling Distribution: distribution of

estimates, e.g., mean, for all possible

simple random samples of a certain size

that could be hypothetically drawn from

the target population

Population Mean: grand mean of all

possible simple random samples of a

certain size that could be hypothetically

drawn from the target population

STANDARD ERROR

Definition: average variation of all

possible simple random samples of a

certain size that could be hypothetically

drawn from the target population

Formula:

SE = s/n, where,

SE = standard error

s = sample standard deviation

n = sample size

= square root (sqrt)

CONFIDENCE INTERVAL

Definition: range of values in which the

population mean is likely to be contained,

with a given level of probability, defined

by the standard errors of the sampling

distribution

68 % 1.00

90 % 1.645

95 % 1.96

99 % 2.58

EXAMPLE: Mean Estimate

Population Mean: 5 visits

Standard Error: .50 visits

Confidence Interval:

68 % = 1.00 * .50 = +/- .50 visits

90 % = 1.645 * .50 = +/- .82 visits

95 % = 1.96 * .50 = +/- .98 visits

99 % = 2.58 * .50 = +/- 1.29 visits

EXAMPLE: Proportion Estimate

Population Proportion: .50, i.e., 50%

Standard Error: .025, i.e., 2.5%

Confidence Interval:

68 % = 1.00 * 2.5 = +/- 2.5%

90 % = 1.645 * 2.5 = +/- 4.1%

95 % = 1.96 * 2.5 = +/- 4.9%

99 % = 2.58 * 2.5 = +/- 6.4%

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Cross-

Sectional (One Group)Proportion

Formula:

n = Z21-/2 P(1-P)/d2, where,

n = sample size

Z21-/2 = confidence interval

P = estimated proportion

d = desired precision

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Cross-

Sectional (One Group)Proportion

Example:

n = Z21-/2 P (1-P)/d2

n = 1.962 * .50(1-.50)/.052

n = 384

2006, for sample size estimates based on

different estimated proportions (P) and levels

of desired precision (d).

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Cross-

Sectional (One Group)Mean

Formula:

n = Z21-/2 2/d2, where,

n = sample size

Z21-/2 = confidence interval

= estimated standard deviation

d = desired precision

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Cross-

Sectional (One Group)Mean

Example:

n = Z21-/2 2/d2

n = 1.962 * (2.5 2) /1 2

n = 24

Note: To estimate when not known, estimate

the inter-quartile range by dividing the possible

range of values by 4, e.g., if range is 0-10, then

10/4 = 2.5.

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Group-

Comparison (Two Groups)Proportion

Formula:

n = Z21-/2[P1(1-P1) + P2(1-P2)]/d2, where,

n = sample size

Z21-/2 = confidence interval

P1 = estimated proportion (larger)

P2 = estimated proportion (smaller)

d = desired precision

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Group-

Comparison (Two Groups)Proportion

Example:

n = Z21-/2 [P1(1-P1) + P2(1-P2)]/d2

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Group

Comparison (Two Groups)Mean

Formula:

n = Z21-/2 [22]/d2, where,

n = sample size

Z21-/2 = confidence interval

= estimated standard deviation

d = desired precision

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Group

Comparison (Two Groups)Mean

Example:

n = Z21-/2 [22]/d2

n = 1.962 * [2 * (2.5 2)] /1 2

n = 48 (in each group)

Note: To estimate when not known, estimate

the inter-quartile range by dividing the possible

range of values by 4, e.g., if range is 0-10, then

10/4 = 2.5.

SUMMARY: Steps in Estimating

Sample Size Descriptive Studies

1. Identify the major study variables.

2. Determine the types of estimates of

study variables, such as means or

proportions.

3. Select the population or subgroups

of interest (based on study objectives

and design).

4a. Indicate what you expect the

population value to be.

4b. Estimate the standard deviation of

the estimate.

SUMMARY: Steps in Estimating

Sample Size Descriptive Studies

5. Decide on a desired level of

confidence in the estimate

(confidence interval).

6. Decide on a tolerable range of

error in the estimate (desired

precision).

7. Compute sample size, based on

study assumptions.

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION:

EXCEL SPREADSHEET

See EXCEL file with spreadsheet

for computing sample sizes.

- Market Research NotesUploaded byLu Cas
- MB0024 Statistics for Management-NewUploaded byKalpesh Patel
- Pr StatistikUploaded byYuda Fraizal
- 1977_Genderen y LockUploaded byBioMet
- Banking Sector ResultsUploaded byMuhammad Arif
- balassa1979Uploaded byJulio Mauricio Vidaurre-Ruiz
- California County Health Status Profiles 2009Uploaded byLakeCoNews
- Measures of Association,How to ChooseUploaded byraviks34
- AP Bio Math and StatisticsUploaded byJuan Carlos Mejia Macias
- jim_104e_0910.pdfUploaded byasang
- CE 326 F2013 Lecture 4-5 Trip GenerationUploaded byArod Caliber
- c214xch06Uploaded bySubhas Roy
- Lecture-6.pptxUploaded byMinhQuân
- oth2Uploaded byMichelleLee
- An inventory of Guadua (Guadua angustifolia) bamboo in the Coffee Region of Colombia.pdfUploaded byevanylla
- 48 Basic Measurement UncertaintyUploaded byvolneilm
- Final Report (1)Uploaded byBhagiradh Akuthota
- MB0040Uploaded bysenbablu2009
- Confidence intervalsUploaded byvelkus2013
- Bootstrap - EconometricsUploaded bynickedwinjohnson
- Static Hand OutUploaded byGirma Selale
- Computers Probems XlUploaded byYogeesh LN
- SamplingUploaded byHusnul Hotimah
- GrunImpactEvaluationManualDraft[1].pdfUploaded byLawrence Wesley Mwagwabi
- Statistical Methods in Research Part 1Uploaded byfarukh jamil
- Purple Dragon ExerciseUploaded byvanrijnthewalrus
- 63864512-MB0040Uploaded byThara Vyshu
- Assignment 3 - Probability Distribution-1 (1)Uploaded bylakshya
- How Many Animals Do i NeedUploaded byDhika Adhi Pratama
- Exports Innovation EgyptUploaded bynyman493130

- BS 1377-3Uploaded bym_michael_c
- Accidentes Transito Soat Mar 07Uploaded bym_michael_c
- Wolfson 1989Uploaded bym_michael_c
- External Cathodic Protection of Well Casing.Uploaded bym_michael_c
- HU03 Comprension y Produccion de Lenguaje I 201601Uploaded bym_michael_c
- baseJSUploaded bym_michael_c
- TopRank5 EsUploaded byMagno A. Gonz
- DasUploaded bym_michael_c
- FinkProbe 4Uploaded bym_michael_c
- Catalogo 1Uploaded bym_michael_c
- 10.1108@eb006767Uploaded bym_michael_c
- 12Uploaded bym_michael_c
- Pope 1946Uploaded bym_michael_c
- Resistance BuscarUploaded bym_michael_c
- AttenuationUploaded bym_michael_c
- Plan de estudios de la Maestría en Ingeniería Industrial.pdfUploaded bym_michael_c
- ScorUploaded bymiguelh88
- 92087Uploaded bym_michael_c
- On CompetitionUploaded bym_michael_c
- Managerial Economics in a Global Economy, 5th Edition Chapter 1Uploaded byMuhammad Zeshan Laang
- CONC-107Uploaded bym_michael_c
- Diagrama Causa EfectoUploaded bym_michael_c
- 20155945860-03-B062-22136.pdfUploaded bym_michael_c
- The Supply Chain Management ProcessesUploaded byaryan1312
- ab.az_ch01Uploaded byAndres Conde
- Cadena de SuministroUploaded bym_michael_c
- HU316_Etica_y_Ciudadania_201601.pdfUploaded bym_michael_c
- Capítulo 3Uploaded bym_michael_c
- ch08Uploaded byKunal Baraik

- QTP DumpUploaded byNandesh
- MB90F546GS DatasheetUploaded byspilnerscrib
- MEILLASSOUX; ObituárioUploaded byLucas Parreira Álvares
- The Veil is RentUploaded byThe Message of Transfiguration
- Aspnet Aspnet LatestUploaded bysepulinho
- into ch1 writing to connect marypipherUploaded byapi-260601853
- Skempto 1961 Effective Stress in Soils Concrete and RocksUploaded bySaid_Lopez_Mx
- NEW SG FEB 2014Uploaded byAviral Chhabra
- STDM_Help_Guide.pdfUploaded byChakib Safar
- 3.2.4.8 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting a VLAN Implementation - Scenario 2 Instructions-ccnav6.ComUploaded byEncuestas Cociber
- As@R26WM 8 - ConfigurationsUploaded bySree Lal
- ratecard06-07Uploaded byAniket Choudhary
- Writing Guide - Act.3 - NewUploaded byEdwin Mejia Orozco
- Semantic and PragmaticUploaded byPaman Kuslim
- Nvidia Smi.1Uploaded byAmanda Gibson
- Teaching Mechatronics Using SCADAUploaded byFrancisco Suárez
- ShilohUploaded byRobert John Meehan
- Micro Controllers Lab Final- DSCEUploaded bySreeda Perikamana
- FactelligenceMiddlewareUploaded byEduin Zuloaga
- object lesson presentationUploaded byapi-256845980
- How to Teach the Past Simple TenseUploaded byAlejo Martinez Trujillo
- data upload.pdfUploaded byarienhan
- Inglés. 1-Actividades de Perfectura Bimestre IIIUploaded byWorez Draco
- cs403 - 2Uploaded byhassan_m2222
- Transpersonal Caring Science and the Science of Unitary Human Beings J Watson 2002Uploaded byjpanay
- Nature 20/Sifat 20Uploaded byawanan_hitam
- Ch17 Lt Instructor SolutionUploaded byPaulo Fidelis
- The DC Blocking Filter - J de Freitas Jan 2007Uploaded byHiếu Trung Hoàng
- Programming Questions for Form 5Uploaded byLatoya Anderson
- CalcII Seq SeriesUploaded bypiglit