1 views

Uploaded by Hirushan Menuka

- Week8Assessment
- MS-8
- Exercise
- Statistics-and-Probability-STAT-112-Grade11-Week-11-20Leb.docx
- GM07-rm
- data tidying journal abstract
- 06-supplementb
- Lampiran SPSS Hendra
- Ink
- Nle Review Ho#10
- Module-In-Stats.-Prob.docx
- 1.11 Stat Review -Keller
- syllabus - Biostatistics
- Midterm 1 Solution Set
- artifact 1-7
- 1. COVER DLL
- Stat Basiconcepts
- Guidelines Research Proposal
- freshwaterchronictoxtest-rev.pdf
- Guide to Using Minitab

You are on page 1of 45

Nature of Data, Population data ,Sample data.

Frequency Distribution

0

You use statistics daily without even realizing it!!!

without even realising it !!!!!

Examples ??????

1

Statistics is used to help determine

Which product I should sale (Demand stats)

and where they are located (Big Bazzar & Snacks Shop are right next

to each otherwhat a concept!!!)

2

Statistics..Defn

Many people think of statistics as large amounts of numerical data, e.g.

share prices, GDP statistics, runs scored by Sachin etc etc

techniques and procedure for collecting data,

summarizing data, classifying data, analyzing

data, interpreting data, displaying data and

making decisions based on data.

facts, affected to a marked extent by

multiplicity of causes, numerically expresses,

enumerated or estimated accordingly to a

reasonable standards of accuracy, collected in a

systematic manner for a predetermined purpose

and placed in relation to each other

3

Characteristics of Statistics

4

Why Study Statistics

It presents the facts in a definite & clear terms.

It gives the concise shape to the mass of figures and develops meaning from

the data

It helps to compare between two sets of figures

It helps in understanding & predicting the future events, from the past &

current data

business world becomes larger, more complex, and more quantitative.

5

Limitations of Statistics

Statistics does not study individual observations. It is only concerned with

groups of observations

qualitative characteristics such as beauty, honesty, sharpness, brightness,

poverty, intelligence etc

6

Decision Making - Businesses

Accounting

sampling procedures when conducting

audits for their clients.

Economics

Economists use statistical information

in making forecasts about the future of

the economy or some aspect of it.

7

Decision Making - Businesses

Marketing

retail checkout counters are used to

collect data for a variety of marketing

research applications.

Production

A variety of statistical quality

control charts are used to monitor

the output of a production process.

8

Decision Making - Businesses

Finance

Financial advisors use price-earnings ratios and

dividend yields to guide their investment

recommendations.

9

Uses & Abuses of Statistics

Most of the time, samples are used to infer something (draw conclusions)

about the population. However, occasionally the conclusions are inaccurate

or inaccurately portrayed for the following reasons:

Sample is too small. Even a large sample may not represent the population.

Unauthorized personnel are giving wrong information that the public will

take as truth. A possibility is a company sponsoring a statistics research

to prove that their company is better.

examples include graphs which don't start at zero thus exaggerating small

differences and charts which misuse area to represent proportions.

accuracy.

10

Misleading Statistical Presentation

seen faster sales growth?

16000 14000

14000 13500

12000 13000

10000 12500

8000 12000

6000 11500

4000 11000

2000 10500

0 10000

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31

different scales along the side.

11

Pictures can be misleading also

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

R

0.4

0.3

R

0.2

0.1

0

1 2

Its twice as tall, but its also twice as wide

this means 4 times the volume

It can be misleading.

12

Avoid Sensationalism!!!

e.g.

incidents

365 a year (Almost 36 times compared to last year, when

we just had 10 accidents in a year)

13

Branches of Statistics

The academic discipline of statistics can be divided into

two major branches:

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics.

14

Descriptive Statistics

Deals with summarizing and presenting data in a readable, easily understood

form.

Techniques:

Characterizing Distributions with Numerical and Graphical Tools: Histogram,

Ogive, Measures of Central Tendency: mean, median, mode; Measures of

Dispersion: Range, standard deviation, variance, etc.

Correlation Coefficients, Frequency Tables

15

Inferential Statistics

Drawing conclusions about a population based on information from a sample.

analyzing a sample to make estimates about characteristics of the entire

population. It is a discipline that allows us to estimate unknown quantities by

making some elementary measurements.

Using these estimates we can then make Predictions and Forecast the Future

hypotheses, one-tailed vs. two-tailed tests, test statistics, p-value, statistical

significance, decision rules

The Concept of Risk and Power: risks involved, type I and II errors,

confidence level and power of test

Statistical Inference with Confidence Intervals: how it works, when to use it

Equivalence of the Hypothesis Testing and the Confidence Interval

Approaches

Statistical Inference for a Single Sample or Group: Hypothesis Testing vs.

Confidence Interval Approach

16

START

Gathering of

Data

Classification,

Summarization, and

Processing of data

Presentation and

Communication of

Summarized information

Yes

Use sample information

Is Information from a

to make inferences about

sample?

Yes the population Statistical

Inference

No

Descripti

ve No Draw conclusions about

Statistics Use cencus data to

the population

analyze the population

characteristic (parameter)

characteristic under study

under study

STOP

17

Population & Sample

Population

Sample

18

Population & Sample

Population: The complete set of data elements is termed the population. It is a

set of all items in a particular study

the subset of population

19

Why Sample Why Sample?

census

a census of the targeted

population

Opinion Polls

20

Data

summarized, analyzed, and interpreted. A collection of data

is called data set and a single observation is called a data

element

(Attribute) or quantitative (Variable).

Discrete

Continuous Variable is the variable, which can take any value

within the given interval . E.g. Weight.50.0, 50.2, 50.5, 51.0

etc

Discrete variable is the variable which can take isolated values

e.g. No of patients visiting a doctor e.g. 50, 51 etc

21

Data Types

Data

Numerical Categorical

(Quantitative) (Qualitative)

Discrete Continuous

22

Primary Data

purpose directly from the field and hence are original in nature.

This is collected by or on behalf of the person or persons who

are going to make the use of the data. Once the data have been

collected, processed & published, it becomes the secondary

data for the subsequent usage by different people for other

application in different connection

Direct Personal Interview

Observations

Indirect Oral Interviews

Information from agents/correspondents

Mailed Questionnaire Method

23

Secondary Data

been already collected by some agency for specific purpose and

are subsequently compiled from that source for the application

in different connections.

It is inexpensive

Large quantity of data available from wide range of sources

The data may be available for many number of years, and

hence we can understand trend and may forecast the

futuristic information

24

Data Sources

Primary Secondary

Data Collection Data Compilation

Print or Electronic

Observation Survey

Experimentation

25

Descriptive Statistics

26

Data Processing Techniques

Raw Data

Data Array

Discrete Frequency Distribution

27

Raw Data & Data Array

Raw Data:

Information before it is arranged & analysed is raw data. It is

called raw, as it is unprocessed by any statistical methods

Example

Data Array:

It involves arranging the values in either ascending or descending

order

Example

28

Numerical 1 Data Array

Raw Data

14 26 2 34 8 13 27 37 9 12

39 42 45 30 32 24 24 30 20 23

14 18 30 33 24 34 30 10 22 14

2 8 9 10 12 13 14 14 14 18

20 22 23 24 24 24 26 27 30 30

30 30 32 33 34 34 37 39 42 45

29

Discrete Distribution

In the discrete frequency distribution, after arranging the values

in ascending order, we count the frequency i.e. number of times

each value has appeared in the data set by using tally marks

Numerical

30

Numerical 2 - Discrete FD

Marks Tally Frequency Marks Tally Fequency

Marks Marks

2 1 24 3

8 1 26 1

9 1 27 1

10 1 30 4

12 1 32 1

13 1 33 1

14 3 34 2

18 1 37 1

20 1 39 1

22 1 42 1

23 1 45 1

31

Continuous Frequency Distribution

Continuous Frequency Distribution

In this, all the values are classified in groups or classes, hence

this type of distribution is known as grouped or continuous

frequency distribution

Class Limits

Class Interval

Class Frequency

Class Mid Point or Class Mark

32

Class Limits

Class Limits

The two boundaries of the class are known as Class Limits. The

Class Limits are the lowest and the highest value that can be

included in the class.

upper limit

observation can be included in the class.

observation can be included in the class.

33

Class Interval

Class Interval

The difference between the upper limit and lower limkt of the

class is known as class interval or class width of that class.

given, then the number of classes can be determined using

the Sturges formaula

34

Class Interval

Formula for the Class Interval:

Class Interval (i) = (Next unit value after the largest value in

the data Smallest value in the data)/No of Classes

we want to divide in 3 classes, then

35

Cell Nomenclature

Cell interval (i)

CELL

Midpoint

UPPER BOUNDARY

CELL NOMENCLATURE

36

Exclusive / Inclusive Method

There are 2 methods of classifying the data according to class

intervals.

the upper limit of the class is the lower limit of the next

class. In other words, in exclusive method, upper limits are

excluded from that class. E.g. 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 etc.

This is more suitable for continuous variable.

the class. E.g. 10-19, 20-29, 30-39 etc. This is more

suitable for discrete variable.

1st Class)/2

37

Correction Factor

In case of inclusive type, for getting the correct CI, we need

to add the correction factor to upper limit of the classes

and subtract the same from the lower limit of the classes.

1st Class)/2

becomes 9.5-19.5 and hence the CI becomes 10

38

Inclusive to exclusive

Inclusive Type Exclusive type

10-14 9.5-14.5

15-19 14.5-19.5

20-24 19.5-24.5

25-29 24.5-19.5

39

Constructing FD

number of classes for dividing the data by using Sturges

formula. (If given in the numerical, then go to step 2

directly.

Step 2: Sort the data into different classes and count the

frequency

40

Numerical 3 Continuous FD

Step 1: Calculate the No of Classes (Sturges formula)

No of Classes (K) = 1 + 3.322 log N

= 1 + 3.322 log 30

= 1 + 3.322 (1.477)

= 5.9

=6

Step 2: Sort the data points into classes and count the no of

points in each class.

We have K = 6

value Smallest value)/K = (46-2)/6 = 44/6 = 7.33 i.e. approx

8.

42-49.

41

Numerical 3 Continuous FD

29 3

10 17 6

18 25 7

26 33 8

34 41 4

42 49 2

42

Numerical 4 Home Assignment

40 similar motor cycles.

40.5, 39.7, 40.6, 39.9, 40.9, 38.9, 41.4, 40.5, 41.0, 38.8, 39.6,

40.4, 39.9, 40.2, 40.8, 40.7, 40.6, 41.7, 40.8, 39.1, 40.1, 40.7,

40.1, 40.7, 40.7, 39.8, 39.3, 39.6, 40.5, 41.3, 41.0, 39.9, 40.4,

40.9, 40.1, 41.2, 40.2, 40.0, 39.4, 40.6.

classes as 38.5-39.0, 39.0-39.5 etc

43

Numerical 4 Home Assignment

Classes Tally Marks Frequency

38.5-39.0 2

39.0-39.5 3

39.5-40.0 7

40.0-40.5 8

40.5-41.0 14

41.0-41.5 5

41.5-42.0 1

44

- Week8AssessmentUploaded byJames Bowman
- MS-8Uploaded byShashi Bhushan Sonbhadra
- ExerciseUploaded byfarrahnajihah
- Statistics-and-Probability-STAT-112-Grade11-Week-11-20Leb.docxUploaded byRenan Miranda
- GM07-rmUploaded byBarsha Ritu Bordoloi Singh
- data tidying journal abstractUploaded bysudheer1044
- 06-supplementbUploaded bydoug119
- Lampiran SPSS HendraUploaded byhendra
- InkUploaded byDekyie Frank
- Nle Review Ho#10Uploaded byAnna Vanezza Dee
- Module-In-Stats.-Prob.docxUploaded byBrian Reyes Doblas
- 1.11 Stat Review -KellerUploaded byRowel Elca
- syllabus - BiostatisticsUploaded byJustDen09
- Midterm 1 Solution SetUploaded byKwesi Wiafe
- artifact 1-7Uploaded byapi-282337447
- 1. COVER DLLUploaded byArief Kurniawan
- Stat BasiconceptsUploaded bymouper
- Guidelines Research ProposalUploaded byRyon Teo
- freshwaterchronictoxtest-rev.pdfUploaded byMark Wenefred Porazo
- Guide to Using MinitabUploaded byMohammed Abdul Naseer
- Collaborative Statistics Supplemental Course MaterialsUploaded byjojoj
- 3rd Wye Conference Announcement Call for PapersUploaded byruralcanada
- NSAMR Statistics GuideUploaded byVigneshwar Subbiah
- GarfieldUploaded byNovia Tri Yuniawati
- CourseSyllabus_GradingPolicyUploaded byVicky Ze SeVen
- BA PsychologyUploaded byNitin Korde
- Poison DistributionUploaded byravi431
- unitplan2 chi-square (2)Uploaded byapi-285549920
- My ProjectUploaded byShiva Kumar
- Flower MarketingUploaded byসজীব সুরজীৎ ঘোষ

- ir TablUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Direct Digital Control for HVAC (BMS)Uploaded byHumaid Shaikh
- Inclined tower common corridor Level 23.docxUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Layout-1Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Inclined tower common corridor Level 23.docxUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Sanitary Drainage Systems of Plumbing.pdfUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- B2 LP DWGUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- ncr.xlsxUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- ncr.xlsxUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Chartt.xlsxUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- 07-EL-03Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- සිසිලන බර ගණනය කිරීම් සහ මූලධර්මUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Domestic Water System 02Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Atr Spll(Max) Gm Dwg Vt l43 6626Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Atr Spll(Max) El Dwg It l16 0087Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Atr Spll(Max) El Dwg It l15 0247Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Candidate Profile(1)Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- my pcUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- my pcUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- my pcUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- my pcUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- my pcUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Atr Spll(Max) El Dwg It l15 0086Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Ultra GM Technologies Products Price ListUploaded byHirushan Menuka
- moody chart.pdfUploaded byshilton1989
- moody chart.pdfUploaded byshilton1989
- Atr Spll(Max) Lv Dwg It l15 0408Uploaded byHirushan Menuka
- Pipe Flow CalculationsUploaded bySampathkumar Attuluri
- Atr Spll(Max) El Dwg It l15 0408 r 1Uploaded byHirushan Menuka

- The Louisiana Conservationist Second Quarter 1978Uploaded bySusan
- emm 2nd unit notesUploaded byjamunaa83
- CuminUploaded bySiti Syamsiyah
- Benefits Stemming From Space Exploration 2013 TAGGEDUploaded byRaski Duane Tristan
- 04 Technical Book RoofingUploaded byVijayKumar
- Thermodynamic properties of gases by determined by speed of soundUploaded bymaueemalicdem
- test 1Uploaded byzubinfbbfan
- General ScienceUploaded bysriharshakalidasu
- MAR a Work of FictionUploaded byThomas Møllegaard Hyttel
- MasterSeal 380 TDSUploaded byEngTamer
- Manse Ranch: Gateway to the FutureUploaded bynyecountyhistory
- VRV4 Service Course SV06 - 5-Troubleshooting_Service Training_English (1)Uploaded byjmdc
- Solar Heat GainUploaded bybroechem
- VCDS Trick for Audi A7 4GUploaded byRobert Kelava
- Assignment 1Uploaded byFredrik Ulvin
- Climate control sahara Kuper Kroepelin.pdfUploaded byJuancarla73
- Ch 3 Basics of Heating and Air ConditioningUploaded byDiaa Gobran
- Parámetros metereológicos para la ciudad de Trujillo SoDa Tl and Other Atmospheric Parameters Lat 8.112 Lon 79.029 440927763Uploaded byDiego Chávez
- Poveda_et_al-2014-Water_Resources_Research.pdfUploaded byJuanito Sin Tierra
- Psychrometric Chart.pdfUploaded byvitaliskc
- GHG EMISSION.pdfUploaded byRave Christian Pangilinan Paras
- Forcasting - CopyUploaded byDennise Shughni
- API Ptc ApplicationsUploaded byUzair Wahid
- 12.08.08.03 Filling and Emptying of Ammonia Systems Archived 8 Jan 2013 J AndrewsUploaded byMahmoud Mohamed
- PCSPAU0517 Daikin Split Brochure v2 AU LRUploaded byStuart
- BC248CLTom[1]Uploaded bysarah_castle
- [18758258 - Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law] the Relevance of the No-harm Principle to Climate Change Law and PoliticsUploaded byTiago Concursando
- MAIREPAV8-paper-310-Merighi-Fortes-Uddin-FINAL.pdfUploaded byRita Moura Fortes
- Application Manual Version 1Uploaded byUtazzVelem
- 99787787.pdfUploaded byaira