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UBC97 Seismic Design Presentation (v2)

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Department of Rural Roads

The UBC was introduced in the 1927

earthquake design provisions in

UBC changed rapidly and

substantially in response to the

lessons learned from several Soft

major earthquakes (e.g. 1971 story

San Fernando earthquake and

1994 Northridge earthquake)

Spiral

Fernando

earthquake Normal

ties

Confinement

Another example of soft story

effects

1997 UBC has several important modifications

following the 1994 Northridge earthquake.

Some of the major changes include

Strength-based (compared with

allowable stress approach for the

previous versions)

Removal of pre-qualified steel

connection details

Requirements to consider liquefaction

Addition of near-fault factor to base

shear formulation

Deformation compatibility

requirements

Redundancy requirements

Stricter detailing for non-participating

elements

Aligned with NEHRPs provisions for

smooth transition into International

Building Code (IBC) in 2000

Three model buildings codes for seismic design

in the United States.

Three model building codes in US:

BOCA National Building Code

(NBC) by BOCA

NEHRP SEAOC

Uniform Building Code (UBC) by

ICBO

Standard Building Code (SBC) by

SBCCI

Materials code

accompanying IBC ASCE 7

SBC BOCA

NBC

There are three methods to estimate inertia or

earthquake forces.

Resultant (inertia)

earthquake force

distribution

Response (time) history method

Linear (elastic) or nonlinear (inelastic)

Apply acceleration history directly to base of

numerical model of structure

Response spectrum method

Linear (elastic) approach to calculate the

modal (peak values) responses

Ground

Modal responses combined (using SRSS or

acceleration CQC) to give design values

time

Equivalent static-force method

Linear approach (assume response

Earthquake dominated by 1st mode response)

acceleration

Nonlinear approach used for rehabilitation

(Push-over analysis)

Complexity

Typical response spectrum of a particular

ground motion.

Peak response acceleration, ar,peak

purposes

Actual

Short to

medium

period Long Period Period (T)

M Period

M

K T 2

K

a Ground

acceleration

time

The equivalent static force procedure is a simplification

of the dynamic response spectrum method.

Consider more than one

mode to get realistic

results

Response

Spectrum

Method

T6 T5 T4 T3 T2 T1

six) degrees SDOF

of freedom

Equivalent fundamental (1st) mode

to simply analysis

Static

force

Method T1

UBC-97 is specific about which analysis method

may or must be used.

Static Lateral-force Seismic Regular structure Irregular

Procedure limitations: Zones structure

1

All structures (regular or

irregular) in Seismic Zone 1 or

in Zone 2 with occupancy 2A and 2B

category 4 or 5. (with

occupancy

category 4

or 5)

Regular structures using one

of the structural systems

listed in Table 16-N if they

are under 240 feet 3,4

(7,315.2cm) in height.

than 5 stories or 65 feet < 240 < 5 stories or 65

(1,981.2cm) in height. feet feet

If these conditions are not satisfied, the structure

shall be designed using dynamic method.

Structures with a flexible upper

portion supported on a rigid lower

portion if all of the following

conditions are met: So how do we

define building

When both portions are irregularities with

considered separately, they can

both be classified as regular. respect to

The average story stiffness of earthquake design?

the lower portion is at least ten

times the average story stiffness

of the upper portion.

The period of the whole structure

is no more than 1.1 times the

period of the upper portion

considered as a separate

structure fixed at the base.

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Vertical Kx < 0.7Kx+1 or

Irregularities

Kx < 0.8 (Kx+1 + Kx+2 + Kx+3)/3

Where K is the story lateral stiffness

x+3

x+2

x+1

Stiffness irregularity

UBC-97 Table 16-L soft story

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Vertical

Irregularities Wx+1 > 1.5Wx or Wx+1 > 1.5Wx+2

Where W is the story effective weight (or

mass)

x+2

x+1

Weight (mass)

UBC-97 Table 16-L irregularity

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Vertical Where bi: Horizontal

Irregularities b1 > 1.3b2 dimension of lateral

force-resisting system at

b2 story i

Lateral

force

resisting

elements

b1

Vertical geometric

UBC-97 Table 16-L irregularity

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Vertical l2: offset

Irregularities l2 > l1

l1: length of lateral-load

l2 resisting elements

l1

In-plane discontinuity in

UBC-97 Table 16-L vertical lateral-force

resisting element

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Vertical

Irregularities Sx+1/Sx < 0.8

Where S: Total strength of

lateral force resisting elements

x+1

Discontinuity in capacity

UBC-97 Table 16-L weak story

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Plan Irregularities

Torsional irregularity to

be considered when

UBC-97 Table 16-M diaphragms are not flexible

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height. Deformation

incompatibility

Less stiff; more leading to stress

Stiffer; less

concentration

Plan Irregularities deformation deformation

Stress

concentration

s

Re-entrant corners

UBC-97 Table 16-M

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Plan Irregularities

Aopening > 0.5Agross

Agross Open

Aopening

Diaphragm discontinuity

UBC-97 Table 16-M

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Vertical lateral force resisting

Plan Irregularities elements offset out-of-plane

Out-of-plane offsets

UBC-97 Table 16-M

There are two types of irregularities, on plan or

along the building height.

Plan Irregularities

These lateral

force resisting

elements are

not parallel to

major axes

These lateral

force resisting

elements are

not parallel

and symmetric

to major axes

Nonparallel systems

UBC-97 Table 16-M

The UBC-97 governing equations are

Spectral Acceleration

C

Estimation of Total Base Shear 2.5Ca Ts V

2.5C a

CV I T0 0.2Ts

Equation 30-4 V W

RT

CV

But need not be greater than T

2.5C a I

Equation 30-5 V W Ca

R

But need to be at least

Equation 30-6 V 0.11Ca IW T0 Ts Period (T)

Equation 30-7

0.8ZN V IW

V (for Seismic zone 4)

R

Inertial forces is developed from

Newtons Second Law.

Damping

Lumped ar = a ar = f(M, K, a, c)

mass (M)

ar = a

F = M.a F = M ar

F = M.a

Flexible with

Infinitely rigid

stiffness K

a a a

Rigid box of Ground

mass M fixed acceleration

time

to the ground

BODIES

UBC-97 has broadly zoned US territories into

six seismic zones.

Seismic

Zones

0

1

seismic risk

Increasing

2A

2B

Seismic Zone Map of 4

the United States

Each seismic zone is assigned a factor that

corresponds to the maximum ground acceleration.

Seismic Seismic

Zone Zone Factor

Z

0 0

1 0.075

2A 0.15

2B 0.2

3 0.3

4 0.4

The effective ground acceleration imparted to

the structure is affected by the soil conditions.

UBC-97 Table 16-J

a = ag a ag

a a Reference soil

type

ag

Default soil profile

Ground

acceleration ag

based on SB

soil profile Other soil profiles tend to

(i.e. rock). amplify the ground a < ag (Hard rock, rock)

acceleration impart to the

structure base a > ag (All other soil profiles)

Seismic coefficients represent the seismicity of the

region and the characteristics of the soil.

ag

Response Modification Factor to account for

nonlinear building response.

Need to consider the Base Shear

Elastic response

inherent ability of the

structure to reduce the V

Reduction in

earthquake forces through earthquake forces

overstrength, ductility and arising from nonlinear

damping. building response

V/R

A response reduction Actual Inelastic

factor or R-factor is response

introduced to account for

the beneficial effects of Higher

nonlinear building behavior. ductility

Displacement

R-value greater than 1,

inelastic response is s

assumed and earthquake M = (0.7R)s

forces is reduced.

R-value is a convenient method to describe the

nonlinear response of the structural system.

Total V

Base

System 1

Shear

V/R1

Increase in inelastic

response

System 2

V/R2

System 3

V/R3

R3 > R2 > R3

Displacement

UBC-97 categories 7 basic structural systems with

R-values varying from 2.2 to 8.5

These are

maximum values

for each structural

system type; lower

value can be used

if required.

be exercised in

selecting the R-

value!

What are the common structural systems?

Lateral

Gravity

frame system

Supports all Frame carries Specially detailed Similar to building

gravity and lateral gravity (i.e. gravity frame to support frame system

loads frame both gravity and except the gravity

Lack redundancy Shear walls or lateral loads frame also provide

R-value varies braced frames High level of secondary lateral

from 2.8 to 5.5 carry lateral load ductility and force resistance.

Need to consider redundancy R-value varies

deformation R-value varies from 4.2 to 8.5

compatibility from 3.5 to 8.5

R-value varies

from 5.5 to 7.0

Examples of structural systems

Building frames

Column

Beam

Example of moment resisting connection

Moment frame

frame (EBF) Special truss moment

frame

For essential or hazardous

buildings, the margin of

safety in seismic design needs

to be higher

used to increase the

earthquake force

category.

essential facilities and

hazards facilities; no

enhancement for other

facilities.

UBC-97 Load Combinations

Strength level

U = 1.2D + f1L + 1.0E f1 = 1.0 for public assembly LL>100 psf(4.9kN/m2)

Vertical

U = 0.9D + 1.0E = 1.0 for garage LL

component = 0.5 for other LL

where E = Eh + Ev

where Ev = 0.5CaID

1.2D + 0.5L + Ev

Working stress level

F = D + (W or E/1.4)

F = 0.9D + (E/1.4) 1.2D + 0.5L + Ev

F = D + 0.75 [L + (Lr or S) + (W or E/1.4)]

Eh

OR 1.2D + 0.5L + Ev

F = 4/3[D + L + (W or E/1.4)]

F = 4/3[D + L + (E/1.4)]

Numerical Example Static lateral-force

procedure Non-bearing

Determine the design seismic forces for the three- shear wall

story reinforced concrete shear wall shown using

UBC-97 static lateral-force procedure. The building 11 ft

is located in Southeastern California on rock with a

shear wave velocity of 3,000 ft/sec. The story dead 11 ft

loads are 2,200 kips, 2,000 kips and 1,700 kips for

the 1st, 2nd and roof level, respectively. The shear 13 ft

walls do not carry significant vertical loads.

(Adapted from Naeim (2001))

applicability of the method is

assumed

Building of regular construction to be

No plan or height irregularity located

Total height = 35 feet < 240 feet here

UBC-97 static lateral-force method

is applicable.

Numerical Example Static lateral-force

procedure

UBC-97 Table

Seismic Importance Factor, I = 1.0

Seismic16-I Seismic

(Assumed non-essential facility) Zone Zone

Factor Z

Location is in Seismic Zone 3

0 0

Seismic Zone Factor, Z = 0.3 1 0.075

Shear velocity = 3,000 ft/sec. 2A 0.15

Soil Profile Type is SB i.e., rock 2B 0.2

3 0.3

UBC-97 Table 16-J 4 0.4 Note

corrections

Seismic Coefficients: CV = 0.3, Ca = 0.3

Numerical Example Static lateral-force

procedure

UBC-97 Table 16-N

Response modification factor:

Non-load bearing shear

wall, recommended highest

R-value is 5.5

Height limit is

240 ft > 35 ft (OK)

Note

corrections

Numerical Example Static lateral-force

procedure V (kips)

804.5

CV I

V W

(0.3)(1.0)

5,900 1,109 .7kips

RT (5.5)( 0.29 )

194.7

But need not be greater than 0.29

Period (sec)

2.5C a I

V W

2.5(0.3)(1.0)

5,900 804 .5kips

R (5.5)

But need to be at least

V 0.11Ca IW 0.11(0.3)(1.0)5,900 194 .7kips

Numerical Example Static lateral-force

procedure

Vertical Distribution of the Earthquake Forces.

Level x Story Story Wxhx x 103 Seismic force Story Story over-

height hx weight wx at each level shear turning

(ft) (kips) (kips.ft) Fx (kips) Vx (kips) moment

Mx (kips.ft)

3 35 1,700 59.5 351.7 351.7 3,869

2 24 2,000 48.0 283.7 635.4 10,858

1 13 2,200 28.6 169.1 804.5 21,317

5,900 136.1 804.5

283.7 kips Level 2 U = 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0E

169.1 kips Level 1 U = 0.9D + 1.0E

Numerical Example Static lateral-force

procedure

Determine story drift limits

Maximum inelastic response displacement: M = 0.7Rs

Other important considerations

orthogonal effects (UBC-97 Section 1633.1)

Multiple lateral force resisting systems; requirements of

more restrictive one governs (UBC-97 Section 1633.2.2)

Seismic design connections must be clearly detailed in

drawings (UBC-97 Section 1633.2.3)

Deformation compatibility (UBC-97 Section 1633.2.4)

Familiarity with accompanying material codes , etc.

Time History Analysis...

Oakland, CA

The natural frequencies fell within the dominating

frequency range of the ground motions.

0.25

GILROY

0.4

Fourier Amplitude 0.2 0.3

0.2

Acceleration (g)

0.15 0.1

0

-0.1

0.1

-0.2

-0.3

0.05 -0.4

0 5 10 15 20

0 Time (sec)

0 2 4 6 8 10

0.35 Frequency (Hz)

0.4

0.3

0.3

EL CENTRO

0.25 0.2

Fourier Amplitude

Acceleration (g)

0.1

0.2

0

0.15 -0.1

-0.2

0.1 -0.3

0.05 -0.4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (sec)

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 Frequency (Hz)

0.2

0.15

0.15

Fourier Amplitude

HOLLISTER 0.1

Acceleration (g)

0.05

0.1 0

-0.05

-0.1

0.05 -0.15

-0.2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

0 Time (sec)

0 2 4 6 8 10

Frequency (Hz)

The 3 OR 7 pairs of recorded ground motions

were scaled to match the design spectrum.

SRSS of GILROY (N-S and E-W)

0.2T 1.5T

x scale factor1 1.00

0.90

PGA = 0.367 g

0.80

0.70

SRSS of EL CENTRO (N-S and E-W) Average

0.60 response

x scale factor2 spectrum

0.50

0.00

PGA = 0.177 g 0.612 4.587

0 1 2 3 4 5

Period (sec)

If 7 analyses performed, use the average response.

An Innovative Design Structural Control

Whats an innovative design???

Conventional design

ductility-based approach

nonlinear behavior of the structure

Some damage may occur

Energy-based design

protective approach

structural control

classified into 3 groups: passive, active and semi-

active, hybrid controls

INTRODUCTORY - Passive Control

motion and to modify its dynamic parameters (stiffness

and damping).

INTRODUCTORY - Passive Control

Viscous Fluid

Damper

for your building???

http://www.oiles.co.jp/en/menshin/building/index.html

INTRODUCTORY - Active Control

Control motion of

structure through

some external energy

source.

Schematic Details [Chaidez, 2003] Analogy with Human Body (Servio Model)

INTRODUCTORY Hybrid Systems

active) system with a passive system.

Active Control with Base Isolation System [Chaidez, 2003; Iemura, 1994]

Thank you for your attention!

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