You are on page 1of 20

Notional-Functional Method

Methods in language teaching


Amy E. Gutierrez
Judith
Background
British innovation, seeking on
alternative conceptions of a
syllabus.

Originates from CLTs


expansion.
As an approach

Make communication
competence the objective
of language teaching
Aims
Develop procedures for
the teaching of the 4
language skills
Background
Wilkins published a document that proposed a
change to describe LANGUAGE as an analysis of
1972 the communicative meanings that learners need.

Notional Syllabuses
1976

First course-books began to appear


1970s
Notion
Wilkins a category of language such as
quantity, location, & time
General meaning category
i.e. Frequency => associated with adverbs of
frequency (often, usually, never, etc.)
And associated with certain modality forms(
used to, would)
Function
Wilkins a category of language such as making
requests, making offers & etc.
Mary Finocchiaro

Personal Interpersonal Directive Referential Imaginative


Clarifying or Enabling us to Attempting to Talking about Discussions
arranging ones establish and influence the things, actions, involving
ideas maintain social actions of events, or elements of
relationships others people in the creativity and
environment artistic
expression
Notional Syllabuses (1976)
Elements of grammar

Functions

Topics

Notions

Vocabulary
Syllabus
Developed:
To provide purposeful communication
Take in account learners needs
According to Widdowson (1990), [it] enables learners
to develop grammatical competence.
Evaluates learners in terms of their communicative
competence.
Their ability of understanding and using communicative
expressions in suitable settings is tested (Finocchiaro
and Brumfit: 1983)
Theory of language
Language as a
Categories
Functional view
vehicle for
expression of of meaning
functional meaning
and function
Incorporate
communication Context
and culture
Theory of learning
Process-oriented
Focus
Habit formation
Induction

Notional-
functional
Center-oriented
Focus
Human and
physical context
Teaching activities
Activities facilitates the teaching
learning process because
grammar is presented by means
of function, notion, situation,
and grammar structure
Activates previous knowledge that the student
1 may have about the topic to be covered.

Presents the grammar point through real


2 communication.

Topic is presented, and explains the structure


3 and the use of the grammar point.

The students give some examples of their own


4 using the structures learned.
Learner roles
a) The learners are participative
b) They are motivated
c) They want to learn
d) Learners want Needs to be met
e) Apprentices are competitive
f) Receive and produce the
information
Teacher roles
To know the interests of the students, their linguistic
and cultural needs, their learning styles, and with
older leaners, their social and vocational aspirations.
To learn about the resources- people and places of
the community which could be utilized in possible
real communicative or simulated activities.
The teacher is a facilitator who promotes free
choices.
Must be creative.
To prepare realistic activities which have
some relevance to the students everyday
life
Not to intervene when students are
expressing themselves creatively during
fluency activities unless there is a complete
breakdown in understanding.
To encourage students to discuss their
culture and their values in the language they
are learning
Materials
Materials will allow leaners to progress at their own
rates or learning
Materials will allow for different styles of learning
Materials will provide opportunities for independent
study and use.
Materials will provide opportunities for self-
evaluations and progress in learning.
In presenting a new Word or concept, use yourself
and the student (clothing, addresses) wherever
possible to clarify the meaning.
Procedure
1
Presentation of a dialogue
2
Oral practice of each utterance in the dialogue
3
Questions and answers based on the topic
4
Qs and answers related to students experiences based on the theme
5
Study of the basic communicative expressions used in the dialogue
6
Learner discovers rules.
7
Oral recognition, interpretative procedures.
8
Oral production activities
Evaluation
*Use the language appropriately in a variety of real-world
situations
Results of test will help us gauge three essential
components of our program:
The curriculum itself
The material of instructions
Ourselves as teachers
Items designed to test communicative competence
should be related to real life situation and should be
given in authentic context.
The ideal mode of conducting such testing
would be through actual performance by
learners, for example, such as telephoning,
ordering meals, making airline reservations, or
applying for a job, in which knowledge of
appropriate functions and notions in real use.

Many of these task can only be simulated in the


classroom or often be demonstrated on paper
and pencil test.
References
SEMINARIO, A. (2010) Teaching grammar through
situations and contexts. University of Cuenca, Ecuador.
Recuperado desde,
http://dspace.ucuenca.edu.ec/bitstream/123456789/20
71/1/tli271.pdf
RICHARDS, J &ROGERS, T. (2012) Approaches and
methods in language teaching. Cambridge University
Press, United States of America.