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Academic English Skills

ULAB1122

NOTE MAKING SKILLS I

ULAB1122 COMMITTEE
INTRODUCTION
Making notes is recording important
details from our reading.
Notes can:
- help us remember what we read -
- the main points;
- act as reinforcement of reading;
- be useful for revision;
- aids concentration, focus &
understanding;
NOTE MAKING AND
PARAPHRASING

When making notes we need to


PARAPHRASE words and sentences as
much as possible
WHAT IS PARAPHRASING
Paraphrasing is writing another persons
idea in your own words without changing
its original meaning
Paraphrasing must be done to avoid
plagiarism
WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?
Plagiarism is copying other peoples work
without acknowledging the author
Presenting other peoples writing/ idea as
your own
Taking credit for others work

Plagiarism is a crime
You can be charged for plagiarizing
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Source: unf.edu
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Source: wiki.noblenet.org
COMMON FORMS OF PLAGIARISM
Plagiarism occur when someone:
Download an assignment from an online
source and submit it as your own work.
Buy, steal or borrow an assignment and
submitting it as your own work.
Pay/let someone else write a paper for
you
Copy a section of a book or an article and
submit it as your own work.
COMMON FORMS OF PLAGIARISM
cont.
Copy, cut and paste text from an
electronic source and submitting it as
your own work.
Use the words of someone else and
presenting them as your own.
Use significant ideas from someone else
and presenting them as your own.
WHY STUDENTS PLAGIARISZE

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WARNING:
Plagiarism is a serious offense, in
academia

Anyone committing plagiarism can be


expelled from university.

Therefore, students need to learn


how to CITE references used in
their work
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HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM
In order to avoid plagiarism, you need to:

quote, summarize and paraphrase;


cite the author in your text;
write an annotated bibliography/ reference.
HOW TO PARAPHRASE
1. Synonyms - using words with same/ similar
meanings
2. Condensation - using a shortened version of a
written work
3. Circumlocution - using more words to express an
idea
4. Changing sentence structure
a. Phrase reversal
b. Active-Passive voice
c. Alternate word form
1. SYNONYMS
Substituting words with the same /similar
meanings
Example of using synonyms:
Original: 55 is the traditional age for workers to
retire in Malaysia.
Paraphrase: 55 is the traditional age for
employees to retire in Malaysia.
2. CONDENSATION
Express the same idea in shorter phrases
Example:
Original: 55 is the traditional age for workers to
retire in Malaysia.
Paraphrase: 55 is the traditional retirement age in
Malaysia.
3. CIRCUMLOCUTION
Using more words to express the same idea
Example:
Original: 55 is the traditional age for worker to
retire in Malaysia.
Paraphrase: 55 is the traditional age for workers to
end their professional career in Malaysia.
4. CHANGE SENTENCE STRUCTURE
a. Phrase Reversal
Reverse the order of the phrases in the
sentence
Example:
Original: 55 is the traditional age for workers to
retire in Malaysia.
Paraphrase: In Malaysia, the traditional age for
workers to retire is 55.
4. CHANGE SENTENCE STRUCTURE
b. Active Passive Voice
Active voice can be changed into passive voice
by using this formula:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)

Example:
Original: The company fired 15 workers.
Paraphrase: 15 workers were fired by the
company.
4. CHANGE SENTENCE STRUCTURE
c. Alternate word form
Different word forms can be used to
paraphrase
Example:
Original: A managers success is often due to
perseverance.
Paraphrase:
A manager often succeeds because of perseverance.
A managers success is often because they persevere.
STEPS IN NOTE MAKING
Read and identify main ideas
Underline, circle or highlight
Make marginal notes
Rewrite the key words / phrases
Next to the paragraphs
Transfer the information in note form
- Linear or
- Non-Linear form