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Narration and ADR

In film and animation


Automated / Additional Dialogue Replacement

the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor
after the filming process to improve audio quality or
reflect dialogue changes (also known as "looping" or a
"looping session")
used to change original lines recorded on set to clarify
context, improve diction or timing, or to replace an
accented vocal performance.
Also known 'dubbing', "post-synchronisation" or "post-

In conventional film production, a production sound

mixer records dialogue during filming.
Accompanying noise from the set, equipment, traffic,
wind, and the surrounding environment often results in
unusable production sound.
During post-production, a supervising sound editor, or
ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film
and decides which lines must be re-recorded.

For animation, such as computer-generated imagery or

animated cartoons, dialogue is recorded to match a pre-
edited version of the show.
Although the characters' voices are recorded in a studio,
ADR is necessary whenever members of the cast cannot
all be present at once.

ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which takes

place in a specialized sound studio.
The actor, usually the original actor from the set, views
the scene with the original sound, then attempts to
recreate the performance.
Over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the
lines while watching the scene; the most suitable take
becomes the final version.

Sometimes, a different actor than the original actor on

set is used during ADR.
Two famous examples are the Star Wars characters
Darth Vader (portrayed by David Prowse) and Beru Lars,
portrayed by Scottish actress Shelagh Fraser.
In post-production, James Earl Jones dubbed the voice
of Vader and an unknown actress dubbed for Fraser to
replace her heavy Scottish accent.

ADR can also be used to re-dub singing. This technique

was used by Billy Boyd and Viggo Mortensen in The
Lord of the Rings.
The ADR process does not always take place in a post-
production studio.
The process may be recorded on location, with mobile
ADR can also be recorded without showing the actor the
image they must match, but by having them listen to the

Dubbing, mixing, or re-recording is a post-production

process used in filmmaking and video production in which
additional or supplementary recordings are "mixed" with
original production sound to create the finished soundtrack.
The process usually takes place on a dub stage. After sound
editors edit and prepare all necessary tracks (dialogue,
automated dialogue replacement (ADR), effects, Foley, and
Outside the film industry, the term "dubbing" most commonly
refers to the replacement of the voices of the actors shown on
the screen with those of different performers speaking another
language, which is called "revoicing" in the film industry.

Examples include:
Frenchmen Philippe Noiret and Jacques Perrin, who were dubbed
into Italian for Cinema Paradiso
Austrian bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger, dubbed for Hercules
in New York
Argentine boxer Carlos Monzn, dubbed by a professional actor for
the lead in the drama La Mary
Gert Frobe, who played Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film
Goldfinger, dubbed by Michael Collins
Andie MacDowell's Jane, in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord
of the Apes, who was dubbed by Glenn Close
Tom Hardy, who portrayed Bane in The Dark Knight Rises, re-
dubbed half of his own lines for ease of viewer comprehension

Voice-over narration is a technique commonly used in

film, theatre or television productions in which a voice
that is not part of the narrative is used.
The voice-over is read from a script and may be spoken
by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or
by a specialist voice talent.
It is usually pre-recorded and placed over the top of a
film or video and commonly used in documentaries or
news reports to explain information.
It may also be read live for events such as award

Voice-over typically aims to reveal a storys development

and mise-en-scne, thus creating elements of structure
and continuity.
It can be used as a way to recount past events and
create an ambience, but is also recurrent in non-fictional
films, such as documentaries or televised-news, due to
its characteristically informative nature.

Though voice-over is a technique that frequently causes

debate in the cinematic world due to the claim that a film is
inherently narrated and thus that a supplementary voice
would merely interfere in the storyline

The Shawshank Redemption

A 1994 American drama film written and directed by Frank
Darabont, and starring Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman.
Adapted from the Stephen King novella Rita Hayworth and
Shawshank Redemption, the film tells the story of Andy
Dufresne, a banker who is sentenced to life in Shawshank
State Penitentiary for the murder of his wife and her lover,
despite his claims of innocence. During his time at the prison,
he befriends a fellow inmate, Ellis Boyd "Red" Redding, and
finds himself protected by the guards after the warden begins
using him in his money-laundering operation.