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UNDERSTANDING

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

COLONEL P NALLATHAMBI
Introduction
Not only the ordinary men,
but even some Civil Engineers themselves
are not capable of choosing the right materials
whether Cement or Steel;
Rather they are also confused
because of commercial advertisements.
Introduction
A thorough understanding and knowledge
about the behaviour of Construction Materials
is vital to build safe, reliable and long-lasting
structures.
LIST OF MAJOR CONSTRUCTION MATERAILS
1. CEMENT.
2. SAND.
3. AGGREGATE.
4. WATER.
5. RE-BARS.
6. RCC.
7. ADMIXTURES.

8. INFILL MATERIALS.
9. FLOORING MATERIALS.
10. SHUTTERING MATERIALS.
11. SCAFFOLDING.

12. STRUCTURAL STEEL.

13. TIMBER.
CEMENT
TYPES OF CEMENT
Ordinary Portland Cement : IS:269-1989
(classified as 33, 43 and 53 grade; the grade implies the
strength achieved by the cement mortar at 28 days)

Portland-Pozzolana Cement : IS:1489-1976

Portland-Slag Cement : IS 455-1976

Low Heat Portland Cement : IS:12600-1989

Rapid Hardening Portland Cement: IS:8041-1978


CEMENT COMPOSITION
OXIDES COMPOUNDS
Lime CaO (C) 62% C3S 25-50%
70-80%
Sand SiO2 (S) 22% C2S 20-45%
Clay Al2O3 (A) 5% C3A 5-12%
Gypsum CaSO4 4% C4AF 6-12%
Iron Fe2O3 (F) 3% Gypsum 3%
Magnesia MgO 2% Note: Water (H2O) is written as H
in cement chemists notation
Sulphur SO3 1%
Na2O, K2O,Minor oxides 1%
100%
EFFECT OF CONSTITUENTS ON
CEMENT PROPERTIES
C3A: responsible for setting and early strength;
possesses a high heat of hydration.

C3S: early strength gain; high heat of hydration.

C2S: ultimate strength; low high heat of hydration.


greater resistance to chemical attack.
Gypsum is added to prevent fast reaction.

Finer the cement, faster the rate of heat


development, and quicker the setting and early
strength gain.
EVOLUTION OF HYDRATION
Strength gain
depends on the
formation of
Calcium silicate
hydrate (CSH)

Cracking/Damage
occurs when the
stress > strength.
RATE OF HEAT EVOLUTION DURING HYDRATION

Stage I: Rapid evolution of heat, lasts about 15 minutes.


Stage II: Dormant period, lasts until initial set occurs in 2 to 4 hours
Stage III: Rapid reaction of C3S during the acceleration period, with the peak being
reached at about 8-10 hours, much after final set at 4-8 hours and hardening
has begun
Stage IV: Rate of reaction slows down until steady state is reached in 12-24 hours
Stage V: Steady state
MORPHOLOGY OF HYDRATION PRODUCTS

Scanning electron micrograph of 7-day old hardened cement paste (3500).


Bottom left: cement particle coated with C-S-H surrounded by ettringite needles;
Upper left: platelets of monosulfoaluminate; Right: large crystal of calcium
hydroxide
TYPES OF CEMENT
Ordinary Portland Cement 33 Gr, 43 Gr, 53 Gr,
Portland Pozzolona Cement (Fly Ash)
Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement
Portland Slag Cement, etc.
Minimum Compressive Strength of
5 Cu.cm Cement Mortar 1:3 in N/mm2

Type of Cement 3 days 7 days 28 days

OPC Grade 33 ( IS 269-1989) 16 22 33

OPC Grade 43 (IS 8112-1989) 23 33 43

OPC Grade 53 (IS 12269-1987) 27 37 53

PPC ( IS 1489 part-1)-1991 16 22 33

Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement 10 16 33


Different grades of OPC
Ordinary Portland Cement
33 Gr, 43 Gr and 53 Gr,
Which grade of Cement to use
OPC 43 or 53 ?
Grade 33 or 43 are enough to produce
the concrete of desired characteristic strength.
Which grade of Cement to use
OPC 43 or 53 ? (contd)
When higher grades of Concrete
(like M40,M50 etc.) are to be produced

- 53 Grade OPC is necessary


Which grade of Cement to use
OPC 43 or 53 ?

But Cement Manufacturers project


53 Gr cement as Stronger Cement.

!!!!!!

???
Which grade of Cement to use
OPC 43 or 53 ? (contd)
But in 53 Grade OPC,
Faster rate of hydration at initial
stages (more fineness)
Hence release of heat is higher at
early stages
Chances of Micro-cracking is
greater (especially in Plastering)
Precaution to be taken while using OPC 53
- Early Curing

When 53 Gr OPC is used,

Curing to be started within 4 to 5 hrs of Concreting


Cement Manufacturers
& 43 grade
53 grade - High Strength Conc.(M40, M50 etc)
- (For High Rise Buldings)
- More Demand In Tall Buildings & Huge Proj.

Most of Cement Manufacturers


- interested- 53 grade
- M/C set to Grind 53 Gr
- Not ready to Change Mode to 43 Gr.
- Prepares 53 Gr & Pack it in 43 Gr Packs
& SELL IT AS 43 Gr

Most of Cement ManufacturersAttidude-


(Huge Building projects 53 gr Since Reqd. as per design
For Others - PPC (Fly Ash Base or Slag)High Profit
Cement Manufacturers
& 43 grade (Contd)
Most of Cement Manufacturers
- interested- 53 grade
- M/C set to Grind 53 Gr
- Not ready to Change Mode to 43 Gr.
- Prepares 53 Gr & Pack it in 43 Gr Packs
& SELL IT AS 43 Gr

TESTING OF CEMENT IN LABORATORY


ONLY POSSIBILITY TO KNOW WHETHER IT IS 43 OR 53
GRADE
Cement Manufacturers
& 43 grade (contd)

Test results of Soil Mechanics & Research Division, PWD, Tharamani, Chennai
illustrating the fact that the bags are just stamped according to the
Clients requirement:

Brand 28 days Strength


Penna Super OPC 43 Gr 55.5 MPa
(Ref 27/10)

Ramco OPC 43 Gr 56.2 MPa


(Ref 122/10)

Bharathi OPC 43 Gr 58.0 MPa


(Ref 176/10)
Which grade of Cement to use
OPC 43 or 53 ?
(General Recommendation)
53 grade cement 43 grade cement -
- Concreting works Plastering works
Myth:- Cement quantity for a
particular grade of Concrete can be
reduced when we go for higher grade
(like Gr 53) Cement.

Fact:- No.

Cement quantity cannot be reduced


(for a particular concrete strength)

But there will be faster rate


of development of strength

The advantage of early removal of


shuttering can be well utilized
FLY ASH: ORIGIN
Common fly ash derived from bituminous coal, is
mainly siliceous (ASTM Class F).
Sub-bituminous coal and lignite result in high-lime fly
ash (ASTM Class C).
Class F fly ash is pozzolanic, has a combined silica,
alumina and ferric oxide content of at least 70%, a
maximum SO3 content of 5% and maximum loss on
ignition of 6%. The fineness, carbon content and colour
varies from plant to plant.
Class C fly ash may have a lime content as high as
24%. It has some cementitious properties. The carbon
content is low, the fineness is high and the colour is
light.
FLY ASH: AVAILABILITY IN INDIA

Nearly 73% of Indias electricity generation is


through coal-burning thermal power stations.
About 120 million tons of coal ash now being
generated annually; could reach 200 million tons in
2010.

Only about 10% of fly ash is being utilized in


various industries; remaining amount gets dumped
in landfills.
According to World Bank estimates, by 2015, the
disposal of coal ash would require 1000 square
kilometers or one square meter of land per person.
INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH ON HARDENED CONCRETE

Pozzolanic activity is proportional to the amount of particles


under 10 m in diameter.

Strength gain of fly ash concrete is slower than normal


concrete. Ultimate strengths are reached much after 28
days. This leads to lower thermal cracking.

Creep and shrinkage of fly ash concrete are typically lower


than normal concrete because of the lower amount of paste
in the concrete.

Resistance against corrosion, alkali aggregate reaction and


sulphate attack is increased due to a less permeable and
porous microstructure and reduced portland cement
content.
Supplementary Cementious Materials
Comparison of Silica fume, Fly ash
and Cement

Silica Fume Fly Ash Cement

SiO2 Content (%) 85- 97 35 - 48 20 -25

Surface Area (m2/kg) 17,000 - 30,000 400 - 700 300 - 500

Pozzolanic Activity
(with cement, %) 120 - 210 85 - 110 n/a

Pozzolanic Activity
(with lime) (MPa) 8.3 - 11.4 5.5 - 6.9 n/a
Which Cement to use
OPC or PPC ?
OPC No Fly ash; PPC contains Fly ash
OPC
Cement reacts with water
No reaction between cement and aggregates
Cement paste binds the aggregates
Voids in aggregate - filled with cement paste
Cement paste contains 80% CSH &
20% CaO (free lime)
Free lime present maintains pH acts as a
passive layer protects reinforcement
Which Cement to use
OPC or PPC ? (contd)
OPC No Fly ash
PPC contains Fly ash

PPC

Cement reacts with water


Fly ash doesnt react directly
Fly ash reacts with free lime of cement and
forms a denser compound
But pH (alkalinity) is reduced passive layer destroyed
- ingress of moisture, oxygen, CO2, etc.
Corrodes the reinforcement bars
Which Cement to use
OPC or PPC ? (contd)
2 school of thoughts

OPC better More alkaline (pH) 12.5 to 13.6


(11.5 necessary)

PPC better More denser concrete But pH = 12

General Recommendation
OPC for RCC
PPC for PCC, Brickwork & Plastering
Precautions while using PPC
Free lime reacts with fly ash - in presence of moisture
good quality Concrete

But reaction is slow - continues for a longer period

BIS recommends a minimum period of Curing -


10 days for OPC
14 days for PPC
(for dry & hot weather condition)
When PPC is used, some times Fly
ash appears at the surface as a thin
shining (black / grey) layer
immediately after laying of Concrete.
Why ?

When genuine fly ash is used by


the Cement Manufacturer and it is
properly inter-ground during
manufacturing, this will not happen.

Excess quantity of fly ash /


unacceptable fly ash / improper
grinding with clinkers or pond-ash
will lead to the above problem.
PSC (Portland Slag Cement)

The particles of Flyash or Slag are finer than that of


Cement and hence Concrete made with PPC or PSC has
higher density than Concrete made with OPC.

The only precaution to be taken while using PPC or PSC


is the extended curing (Curing for the maximum possible
duration) since the gain in strength in these types of
Concrete is only during later ages.
SRC (Sulphate Resisting Cement)

Soluble sulphates - in ground


- attack the foundation concrete
- and react with cement , especially with C3A,
- resulting in a compound of much larger volume causing
disruption of concrete.
SRC
(Sulphate Resisting Cement)

Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement helps to avoid


sulphate attack.

No extra ingredients are added to produce SRC.

It is similar to OPC except that it contains low C3A


content (less than 5%).
Can we use SRC
for marine condition ?

OPC (C3A > 8%) - not suitable where


sulphate is present

SRC (C3A 5%) - suitable where only


sulphate is present

But marine environment contains both


Sulphate & chloride SRC not suitable
Which cement for marine condition ?

PPC and PSC (Slag Cement) - suitable when


both chloride and sulphate are present.

But OPC with 5 to 8% of C3A is suitable when


both chloride and sulphate are present.
Concept of SRC
(Sulphate Resisting Cement)
Sulphate attacks C3A only.

Hence it is advantageous to have as low C3A


content as possible when sulphates are
present.

But a specific quantity of C3A is necessary for


emitting the required heat to carry out the
hydration and setting process fast.

In normal OPC (Type I Cement), with the


available constituents and processing
Concept of SRC
(Sulphate Resisting Cement)
It requires more fuel & involves expensive methods
to produce cement with low C3A content.

In SRC, the C3A content will be maximum of 5%


only.

The Cement Manufacturers produce a cement with


maximum 5% of C3A content only, to resist the
sulphate attack and call it as SRC (Type V Cement as
per ASTM) which is costlier than ordinary cement
because of more fuel consumption and enhanced
manufacturing techniques.
Which Cement to use when both
Sulphates and Chlorides are
present
C3A has more in excess
affinity ? chloride ions than
towards
sulphate ions.

BIS suggests to use OPC with C3A content of 5 to 8%


(Type II Cement Moderately Sulphate Resisting
Cement) for marine environment where Chlorides are
also present in addition to Sulphates.

Here, C3A forms Calcium Chloro Aluminate, and


arrests the mobility of chloride ions, leaving no C3A
for sulphates to attack.
FINE AGGREGATE (SAND)
SAND

Sand should be well-graded to get


good compacted Concrete

-As per IS 383-1970, it is divided into four gradations -


Zone I, II, III and IV

-Specific percentage is designated for each size of sieve


under each Zone
Sieve Analysis requirements of Sand as per IS: 383 / 1970

IS Sieve size Percentage passing for

Grading Grading Grading Grading


Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV

4.75 mm 90-100 90-100 90-100 95-100

2.36 mm 60-95 75-100 85-100 95-100

1.18 mm 30-70 55-90 75-100 90-100

600 micron 15-34 35-59 60-79 80-100

300 micron 5-20 8-30 12-40 15-50

150 micron 0-10 0-10 0-10 0-15


Suitability of Sand

Zone I - coarse sand

Zone IV fine sand (not used in reinforced concrete)

Sand conforming to Zone II or III used for concrete


Substituting / Supplementing River Sand
Now a days, good sand
- not readily available
- or should be transported from long distance
- exhausting very rapidly
- some substitute to natural river sand is required

The artificial sand / Manufactured Sand / M-Sand


produced by crushing the coarse aggregates using
proper machines can be a better substitute or
supplement to river sand.
Codal Requirements for Crushed
Stone Sand (CSS)

The codal requirements of Crushed Stone Sand are


also specified in IS:383 1970.

For crushed stone sands,


the permissible limit on 150-micron is 20%

Materials finer than 75-micron should not exceed


15 % as against 3% by weight for natural sand
CSS from VSI Crushers
(Vertical Shaft Impact Crushers)
-Good M-Sand - generated from V.S.I. Crushers

- In this machine, particles are thrown at high speed


- Particles colloid with each other &
shatter in cubical shape
- Due to Cleavage crushing / breaking of the particle, the
surfaces are smoother
Crushed Stone Sand with Mica ?

Even a good M-Sand generated from V.S.I. Crushers


passing the codal provisions are used, may contain
considerable quantity of impurities like mica which are
objectionable for making concrete.
COARSE AGGREGATE
Size Gradation of Aggregates
uniform size continuous grading smaller versus larger sizes

gap grading no-fines


COARSE AGGREGATES
- Broken stones of size more than 4.75 mm

- should be graded in order to have less voids

- grading and size of coarse aggregate affect


the quantity of aggregate
the quantity of cement
the quantity of water
workability
pumpability
and durability of concrete
Grading Requirements of
Coarse Aggregates
as per IS 383 - 1970
Grading Requirements of
Coarse Aggregates
as per IS 383 - 1970
Mechanical Tests on Coarse Aggregates

Crushing Value

Impact Test

Abrasion Test
WATER FOR CONSTRUCTION
Quality of Water for Construction

Potable water is generally considered satisfactory


for mixing and curing Concrete

The pH of water shall be not less than 6


Quality of Water for Construction

Permissible Limits for Chemicals in Water


(IS 456 2000)
Maximum permissible limit
1. Organic 200 mg/litre
2. Inorganic 3000 mg/litre
3. Sulphate (as SO3) 400 mg/litre
4. Chlorides (as Cl2) 2000 mg/litre for PCC
500 mg/litre for RCC
5. Suspended matter 2000 mg/litre
Re-Bars (Steel)
PROPERTIES OF STEEL
REBARS IS MADE UP OF IRON, CARBON AND ALLOYS

IRON AND CARBON IS CALLED CARBON STEEL

IRON, CARBON, NICKEL, CHROMIUM AND VANADIUM


CALLED ALLOY STEEL

SOFT CARBON STEEL HAS < 0.45 % OF CARBON


HARD CARBON STEEL HAS > 0.50 % OF CARBON

CARBON GIVES STRENGTH AND HARDNESS. MORE CARBON


DECREASE DUCTILITY, MALLEABILITY AND TOUGHNESS

TENSILE STERENGTH, HARDNESS AND ELASTIC LIMIT


INCREASES WITH INCREASE OF CARBON CONTENT UP TO 1 %

CARBON CONTENT
UPTO 0.25% MILD OR SOFT STEEL
0.25 TO 0.7% MEDIUM CARBON STEEL
0.70 TO 1.25% HIGH CARBON STEEL
OVER 1.25 % EXTRA HARD STEEL
CARBON GIVES CARBON DECREASE

STRENGTH AND HARDNESS DUCTILITY, MALLEABILITY


AND TOUGHNESS
TENSILE STERENGTH,
HARDNESS AND ELASTIC
LIMIT INCREASES WITH
INCREASE OF CARBON
CONTENT UP TO 1 %

IT IS NECESSARY TO HAVE ALL THE PROPERTY OF ABOVE.


THEREFORE, STEEL IS GIVEN TREATMENT TO GET MORE STRENGTH
AND HAREDNESS WITHOUT ADDING MORE CARBON, SO THAT
DUCTALITY AND TOUGHNESS ARE MAINTAINED.

TREATMENT TO STEEL

1. COLD TREATMENT.

2. HEAT TREATMENT- HARDENING, CARBURISING, TEMPERING


AND ANNEALING (SOFTENING) ETC.
STEEL

60s - ROUND PLAIN STEEL BARS


(Mild Steel)

70s TO 90s - TOR STEEL BARS

THIS DECADE- TMT STEEL BARS

STEEL : COSTS (30% to 40%) of RCC COST.


Mild Steel (Vs) Tor Steel

TOR STEEL is also known as CTD Bars

Strength of Mild Steel :250 N/mm2

Strength of TorSteel : 415 N/mm2 (Tor-40)


(i.e.,65% stronger than MS)
* Price not much difference between two.

TOR STEEL is economical since it is 65% stronger


than Mild Steel.
Superior Grades in Steel

Tor-50 (Fe 500) Strength : 500 N/mm2

Tor-55 (Fe 550) Strength : 550 N/mm2

Advantages:
*Larger Spacing of bars/Less number of
bars -Avoid Congestion of Reinforcement

*Tor steel 35% cost saving to Mild Steel


*Tor-50 has 10% additional Saving than Tor-40
*Tor-55 has 15% additional Saving than Tor-40
Thermo Mechanically Treated bars
(TMT bars)

QST bars in many other countries


is known as TMT bars in India

QST : Quenching & Self Tempering


Advantages:
*Strength
*Ductility
*Bendability
*Weldability
TMT STEEL BARS MANUFACURING

IRON ORE + COAL (IN KILN)


SPONGE IRON (spongy texture)


TMT STEEL BARS MANUFACURING

SPONGE IRON (MELTED -UNIFORM HEATING)


BILLETS

BILLETS
TMT STEEL BARS MANUFACURING

Quenching & Tempering (Q & T)


ROLLING MILL technology
Roughing Stand
Intermediate stand 1.Quenching
Continuous stand
Flying Shear with 2.Self Tempering
Modern cooling bed
3. Atmospheric Cooling
WHAT IS QST ?
(a) Quenching - The hot rolled bar leaving the final mill stand is
rapidly quenched by a special water spry system. This hardens the
surface of the bar to a depth optimised for each section through
formation of martensitic rim while the core remains hot and
austenitic.

(b) Self Tempering - When the bar leaves the quenching box, the
core remains hot compared to the surface allowing heat to flow from
to the surface causing tempering the outer martensitic layer into a
structure called Tempered Martensite. The core still remains
austenitic at the stage.

(c) Atmospheric Cooling - This takes place on the cooling bed


where austenitic core transformed into ductile ferrite pearlite
structure. Thus the final structure consists of an optimum
combination of strong outer layer (tempered martensite) with ductile
core (ferrite pearlite). This gives its unique combination of higher
strength and ductility.
TMT STEEL BARS MANUFACURING
Quenching & Tempering (Q & T) technology

1.Quenching
The quenching is done using a special water spray
system
Intense water quenching -on the periphery
-the core stays unchanged
TMT STEEL BARS MANUFACURING
Quenching & Tempering (Q & T) technology (cont..)

2.Self Tempering (On leaving Quenching Box)

-leading to a martensitic surface and austenitic core.

3. Atmospheric Cooling

Cooling Bed-
the austenitic core
transformed into ductile ferrite- pearlite structure
TMT STEEL BARS MANUFACURING
Quenching & Tempering (Q & T) technology (cont..)

The bars are cut to desired sizes with the Shearing machines

The end result - strength as well as ductility.

Fine combination of a strong outer rim (tempered martensite)


and
A ductile core (ferrite-pearlite)
INADEQUATE DUCTILITY PROVISIONS
EARTHQUAKE ZONES

*Fe 415 (Fe 415 D) * Fe 500(Fe 500D) * Fe 550(Fe 550D)


DUCTILE STEELS
Properties of Various Types of Steel
(Codal Requirements)
YIELD STRESS ULTIMATE ELONGATION
TYPE (N/mm2 ) TENSILE PERCENTAGE
(Min.) STRESS
(TENSILE
STRENGTH-
Min.)
(N/mm2)
MILD STEEL MS (Grade I) 250 410 23.00 % IS 432(part 1)
Not Less
Fe 415 than 14.50 %
(Fe 415 D)
415 IS 1786-2008
485 (18.00%)
(500)
Not Less
HIGH STRENGTH
Fe 500 than 12.00 %
DEFORMED
(Fe 500D)
500 IS 1786-2008
BARS 545 (16.00%)
(565)
Not Less
Fe 550 than 10.00 %
(Fe 550D)
550 IS 1786-2008
585 (14.50%)
(600)
Not Less
Fe600 600 than 10.00% IS 1786-2008
660
Carbon Content in Steel
STEEL is an alloy of Iron & Carbon
Aim is to achieve low Carbon Steel
Some minimum Carbon content is essential to
achieve the required Strength
Excess Carbon content reduces Ductility &
weldability & increase corrosion also
In TMT bars carbon content can be restricted to
0.20% with no loss in strength
CRS bars
(Corrosive Resistant Steel bars)
[MARINE WORKS, STORM WATER DRAIN WORKS, ETC.]

In CRS bars carbon content is restricted to


0.18%.

Corrosive Resistant Element


such as Chromium as high as 1.50%

(Manganese Absent & Silicon-0.45%)

Corrosion of steel-
due to Chloride ion effect or Carbonation

Pioneers in CRS bars SAIL & TISCO


CRS bars
(SAIL TMT HCR Bars)
In SAIL TMT HCR
-Alloys Copper, Chromium,Nickel,Phosphorous etc.,
(SAIL TMT HCR Bars)
-Research by SERC ,Taramani

SAIL - TMT HCR Bars (&) Plain TMT bars


*Exposed for 2 Years in Chennai Harbour

Durability (Corrosive Resistance) of


TMT HCR Bars is 1.50 times than
that of Plain TMT bars
Coated Bars

Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBECR )

FBE -in the form of dry powder at normal temperature.

The powder when applied electrostatically on to the


surface cleaned, hot steel bars,

- it fuses, melts, flows and cures to an adherent


continuous chemically cross linked protective film
1.Surface preparation
2.Heating
3.Powder Application
4.Cooling
Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars
Dis -advantages
Poor bond to concrete Reduction in bond strength

Pin holes or discontinuity of the epoxy layer on a bar


- enhance the corrosion process faster

Epoxy coatings break down under UV ray exposure.

Touch up after placement


- required due to scratching and chipping
during transport and placement
SIMPLE TEST-TO IDENTIFY GENUINE TMT BARS

CUT THE TMT BAR

POLISH THE CROSS SECTION WITH EMERY PAPER


(IF POSSIBLE GRIND IT)

SOAK IT IN NITROL SOLUTION


(5% NITRIC ACID, 95% ETHYL ALCOHOL)

UNIFORM TEMPERED MORTENSITE PERIPHERY


& INNER SOFTER CORE - GOOD TMT
*UNIFORM TEMPERED MORTENSITE PERIPHERY &
INNER SOFTER CORECOCOPY

* FOR GOOD TMT, HARDENED PERIPHERY WILL BE


15 % TO 30% (max) of cross section area.

*HIGHLY OVER QUENCHED BAR


HARDENED PERIPHERY IS 60% OF CROSS SECTION

*UNDER QUENCHED BAR


HARDENED PERIPHERY IS ONLY 10% OF CROSS SECTION

*NON UNIFORM QUENCHED BAR


POLISH THE CROSS SECTION WITH EMERY PAPER

=>

SOAKING IN NITROL SOLUTION


(5% NITRIC ACID, 95% METHYL / ETHYL ALCOHOL)

UNIFORM
TEMPERED
MORTENSITE
=> PERIPHERY
& INNER SOFTER
CORE
- GOOD TMT
CORROSION IN RE-BARS
Reason for corrosion are: Permeable concrete, high w/c ratio, inadequate curing,
Insufficient concrete cover, contaminated water/salt, ingress of salts, oxygen,
chloride, and sulphate.

Mechanism of corrosion:
Corrosion in steel occurs due to electrochemical process. Steel in hardened
Concrete corrodes in the presence of oxygen and water. Calcium hydroxide
presents in hardened concrete provides alkaline atmosphere and protection steel
from corrosion. Chlorides present in the concrete above permissible limit react
with the presence of water and oxygen cause corrosion.
Electro Chemical Action
Anodic Reaction-
Fe -> Fe++ + 2e
Fe++ + 2(OH) -> Fe(OH)2 Ferrous Oxide
4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 -> 4Fe(OH)3 Ferric Hydroxide
Cathodic Reaction
4e- +O2+2H2O -> 4(OH)
Chloride ions activate the surface of the steel to form an anode.
The passivated surface become the cathode.
Fe++ + 2Cl -> FeCl2
FeCl2 + 2H2O -> Fe(OH)2 + 2HCl
CORROSION IN RE-BARS
LABORATORY TEST ON REINFORCEMENT STEEL BARS
SL TESTS METHOD FREEQUENCY LEVEL REMA
N OF OF OF RKS
O TESTING TESTS TESTS

1 PHYSICAL IS 1786 I. BARS LESS THAN 10MM: C


PROPERTIES 1985 ONE SAMPLE (3 SPECI
MEN EACH TEST FOR
(i) ULTIMATE EVERY 25TONNES OR
TENSILE PART THERE OF)
STRENGTH II.BAR SIZE 10MM TO 16MM:
ONE SAMPLE (3 SPECI
(ii) ELONGATION MEN EACH TEST FOR
EVERY 35TONNES OR
(iii) BEND TEST PART THERE OF)
III.BAR SIZE OVER 16MM:
(iv) REBEND TEST ONE SAMPLE (3 SPECI
MEN EACH TEST FOR
EVERY 45TONNES OR
PART THERE OF)

2 CHEMICAL -DO- -DO- C


COMPOSITION
CONCRETE SLUMP TEST

To find the Consistency of Concrete at Site

Tested for all Concrete, at regular intervals


SLUMP TEST
(As Per IS : 1199 1959)

Fill the slump cone in four equal depth layers.

Rod each layer 25 times.


SLUMP TEST
(As Per IS : 1199 1959)

1 2

3 4
Slump Test Samples
Slump Test - Samples
FRESH CONCRETE
Workability and Slump

Workability Slump

Very Stiff No Slump

Stiff to be vibrated 0 to 25 mm

Stiff Plastic Mass Concrete 25 to 50 mm

Plastic RCC work 75 to 100 mm

Flowing- cast-in-situ pile work 150 to 175 mm


CONCRETE CUBE TEST
Grade M 20 concrete means
concrete with 28-days strength
of 20 N/mm2
Frequency of Sampling (IS: 1199 1959)
Quantity of
concrete in the No. of samples
work in m3
1-5 1
6-15 2
16-30 3
31-50 4
51 and above 4 + 1 additional sample
for each additional 50 m3 or
part thereof
MAKING CUBES

Size of test specimen

150mm x 150mm x 150mm CUBE


Casting Concrete Cubes
(As Per IS : 516 1959)

Fill the mould with


concrete in 50 mm layers.

Rod each layer 35 times for


each of the 3 layers.
Curing Concrete Cubes
(As Per IS : 516 1959)

Next day, demould and


store in Curing Tank
Curing Concrete Cubes
(As Per IS : 516 1959)

Next day, demould and


store in Curing Tank
TESTING OF CONCRETE CUBES
(IS: 516 1959)

Concrete Cubes
Compression Testing Machine
(CTM)
Testing of
Concrete Cube
in CTM
Test Report format
Name of Work:
Name of Contractor:
Location of Samples:
Mix Proportion / Grade of Concrete:
Size of Mould: 150mm cube
Date of Casting:
Date of Testing:
Age of Testing: days
S.No. Weight of cube Load at Failure Compressive Strength
in Kg in KN in N/mm2
IS: 456 2000

The test results of the sample shall be


the average of the strength of 3
specimens.

The individual variation


should not be more than 15 % of the
average.
Acceptance Criteria for
Compressive Strength of Concrete
(IS 456 2000)
Strength of concrete for various periods

Period Strength
7 days 2/3 of 28day strength
28 days 1.0
2 months 1.1
3 months 1.16
6 months 1.2
12 months 1.24

(Table 5.1-p298-Properties of Concrete


by Adam Neville)
NDT & CORE TEST ?
Concrete Mix Proportioning
(IS 10262 2009)
Yield of Concrete

The Volume of Concrete obtained from


one bag of Cement
is called the Yield of Concrete.
Yield of Concrete (Thumb Rule)
Yield per Bag of Cement = (2/3) x Volume of Components

For 1:2:4 (M 15) Nominal Mix Concrete,

Yield per bag = (2/3) x 0.035 x (1+2+4)

= 0.16 m3

Note:- 1440 Kg 1 m3

50 Kg 50 / 1440 m3 = 0.035 m3
Yield of Concrete
Thumb Rule (contd..)
Therefore, for 1:2:4 Concrete,

0.16 m3 of Concrete is produced by 50 Kg (1 bag) of Cement;

1 m3 of Concrete is produced by 313 Kg (6.25 bags) of Cement.

Note:- 0.16 m3 50 Kg (1 Bag)

1 m3 50 / 0.16 = 313 Kg (6.25 Bags)


Nominal Mixes

Grade Mix
M10 1:3:6

M15 1:2:4

M20 1:1 1/2 :3

M25 1:1:2
For Very Small Jobs

For very small jobs and when the 28-day strength of


concrete does not exceed 20 N/mm2,

Nominal mixes may be used.

Disadvantage in using Nominal Mix

Wide variation in Strength


Designed Mixes
The mix proportions are determined in the laboratory
/ by the producer of concrete.

This is most rational approach to the selection of mix


proportions with specific materials in mind possessing
more or less unique characteristics.
What is Mix Design ?

Selection of suitable ingredients

Determining their relative proportions

Cement Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Water


Objective
To produce an economical concrete of required

Strength
Durability
Workability
RMC
Advantages of RMC

UNIFORM AND CONSISTENT QUALITY OF CONCRETE

FAST DELIVERY OF CONCRETE TO SPEED UP


CONSTRUCTION

RELIEVES CONSUMER FROM SOURCING AND STORAGE OF


RAW MATERIALS

PREVENTS WASTAGE & THEFT OF RAW MATERIALS AT SITE

ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PRODUCT


Technological Description

WEIGHT BATCHING
AGGREGATES
CEMENT
SAND
WATER

CONTROLLED MIXING

TRANSPORTATION
TRANSIT MIXERS

PLACING
CONCRETE PUMPS
TRUCK MOUNTED
TRAILER MOUNTED
Concreting Equipments Used in RMC
M 32. The All rounder

Line Pump Boom Pump )

Transit Mixer Control Room


Concreting at site with RMC Using Boom Pump
RMC

RMC can be ordered

- by specifying the Strength


or
- by specifying the mix proportion

RMC valuable gift to Civil Engineers


(if few drawbacks are avoided)
Cracks in RMC
- Cracks in RMC are liable to occur that
are acceptable within certain range

- Hair cracks formation caused by instant


shrinkage

- Light sprinkling and covering with a plastic


sheet / tarpaulin prevents cracking on the surface
of slabs
Limitations
IS 4926 2003
(Ready-Mixed Concrete Code of Practice)

The general requirement is that concrete shall be discharged from the truck-
mixer within 2 h of the time of loading. However, a longer period may be
permitted if retarding admixtures are used..

- within 2 h of the time of loading ??? Otherwise it sets

-Quality and Quantity of retarding admixtures


- not precisely decided

- In practice, extra water is added when there is a delay

No additional water, other than the amount required


to produce the specified workability, shall be added
to the truck mixer drum before discharge ..
Limitations
IS 4926 2003
(Ready-Mixed Concrete Code of Practice)
Periodic and systematic checks shall be made to ensure that the
cementitious material contents of prescribed mixes comply with their mix
descriptions.

- Many times, Manipulations are done in proportioning


of materials during concrete production at plant

- Does not comply with the details furnished in Delivery


Ticket at Site to the Client

- Even manipulations go to such an extent that the


Computer programs are altered to reduce the cement
content though the print-out shows more.
Limitations
IS 4926 2003
(Ready-Mixed Concrete Code of Practice)
the minimum testing frequency to be applied by the producer .,
should be one sample for every 50 m3 of production or every 50 batches,
whichever is the greater frequency.

- The above frequency seems to be very less

- Since, Four samples are taken for 31 to 50 m3 in case of


Site-Mixed Concrete
Limitations
IS 4926 2003
(Ready-Mixed Concrete Code of Practice)
The producer shall have a procedure in place to enable the diagnosis and
correction of faults identified from complaints.

- But in practice, the tendency of the


RMC producer is to ignore the
complaints and they go to the extent of

1. Correcting the time of loading into the truck


2. Resending a rejected consignment to another innocent
client (even with no compliance to his requirements)
Synthetic fibres
(Recron, Boasee, Setcrete ppf, Novomesh etc.,)
Fibre Reinforced Concretes

- Fibres enhance the performance of structural


elements

- Fibres may be Steel or Polypropylene


Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concretes

Boasee fibres, SETCRETE PPF marketed by M/s.Don


Construction Chemicals India Ltd.,

Novomesh system marketed by M/s.Nina Concrete


systems Pvt.Ltd

RECRON 3S is a product of M/s. Reliance Industries


Limited

Although every type of Fiber can be tried in cement


and concrete , each type of fiber has its characteristic
properties and limitations.
IS Codes & Fibres

Clause 5.7 (p-15) of IS 456-2000 (As per Amendment


No.3 August-2007) states that

Fibres may be added to concrete for special


applications to enhance properties for which specialist
literature may be referred to.

It will be equally important that codes recommend


materials which will give durable concrete structures
and not what the Individual manufacturer makes.
Concept of
Primary & Secondary Reinforcements
Primary (structural) reinforcement does not provide
benefits until concrete hardens

- Secondary reinforcement in the form of fibre


reinforcement provide benefits while concrete is still
in plastic stage
Can we reduce the primary steel qty
due to addition of fibres?

- Usage of secondary reinforcements like fibre


reinforcements do not alter the requirements of
"Primary Steel

- The size of structural elements as well as the


requirements of steel reinforcements cannot be
reduced due to the addition of these fibres.
Research on Synthetic Fibres
A research work was conducted on synthetic fibres in
Concrete at

Soil Mechanics & Research Lab, PWD, Tharamani,


Chennai
Research on Synthetic Fibres

Description Compressive Strength


7 days Strength 28 days Strength

Cubes without Recron 12.30 N / sq.mm 19.65 N / sq.mm

Cubes with Recron 11.86 N / sq.mm 19.91 N / sq.mm

% of increase / decrease (-)3.6% (+)1.3%


Can we use Synthetic Fibres ?
(contd)
It was concluded that
-instead of adding fibres,
by adding extra cement to
a concrete of M15 grade
(for the same cost of fibres),
even the M25 grade Concrete which is more durable,
can be attained without difficulty

- Adding extra Cement (which is the mother ingredient


of Concrete) will give better results than adding
synthetic fibres
FLY-ASH BRICKS
FLY-ASH BRICKS

-promoted as an alternative to burnt clay brick

-Flyash, the key ingredient of these bricks, is a waste


product from thermal power plants and is abundantly
available in India
Types of Fly-Ash Bricks

Clay - Flyash Bricks (IS 13757 1993)

Flyash Cement Bricks

Flyash Sand Lime Bricks (IS 12894 2002)


Manufacturing of Fly ash-Sand-Lime Bricks
Manufacturing of Fly ash - Sand - Lime Bricks

Mixing of ingredients Moulding of Flyash Bricks

Transporting of Moulded Flyash Bricks Curing of Flyash Bricks


Tests on Flyash Bricks

Compressive Strength

Water Absorption

Efflorescence
Whether Flyash Bricks can be used or not ?
In general
- Flyash bricks are as good as conventional burnt clay
bricks

But ground reality shows a different scenario


- many small manufacturers involved in making flyash
bricks do not follow the specified processes appropriately

- In Clay-Flyash bricks, more than 30% of flyash is added


resulting in breakage of edges and corners
due to brittleness of the bricks

- Suitable Clay (of moderate plasticity) is not always used


in manufacturing Clay - Flyash bricks.

- The manufacturers do not burn the Clay Flyash bricks


properly.
Whether Flyash Bricks can be used or not ? (contd)
In Cement Flyash & Lime Flyash bricks,

- proper mixing of ingredients in required


proportions not done

- good compaction and sustained curing are not


done

- Each brick has different Dimensions and Shape

The above negligence generally does not prevail


when it is manufactured by a large-investor since the
procedures adopted and materials used by them
comply with the desired standards.
ADMIXTURES
ADMIXTURES
-Materials added to concrete

-To alter properties of Concrete, such as


Gain in strength
Workability
Setting time
Imperviousness etc.

Admixtures are rightly considered as the


fifth ingredient of Concrete
Types of Admixtures

Based on their functions, admixtures can be classified


into the following five major categories:

Water reducing admixtures (Plasticizers)


Super Plasticizers
Retarding admixtures
Accelerating admixtures
Air-Entraining Agents
Waterproofing Compounds
Types of Admixtures

Plasticizers

- increases the workability of Concrete without the


addition of water

- Lower Water/Cement ratio can be achieved

- Moderate increase of workability

- Added in small dosages as specified by


manufacturer
Types of Admixtures

Super Plasticizers

- Very large increase in workability

- Added in large dosages as specified by


manufacturer
Types of Admixtures

Retarders

-retards or delays the initial setting time of Concrete

-Added in Ready-Mixed Concrete

-Reduces early strength of concrete


i.e. 1 day and 3 days strength
But 28 days strength not affected.
Types of Admixtures

Accelerators

-accelerate the initial strength of Concrete

-used in Precast Concrete elements


for early removal of moulds

-Very expensive

-For early deshuttering, plasticizers used


Types of Admixtures
Air Entraining Agents

-Chemicals introduce small air bubbles


of size less than 45 microns in Concrete

-Air bubbles disperse uniformly &


work like ball bearings to increase the workability

-But, every 1% air entrained


reduce the strength of Concrete by 5%

-not used extensively


used for low grade concrete &
especially in freeze-thaw conditions
Types of Admixtures

Waterproofing Compounds

-Act as plasticizer

-help to reduce water/cement ratio

-thereby increases strength and imperviousness of


Concrete

-But may not be alternative to membrane


waterproofing