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REFRACTION ERROR

LEO RINALDI
KEY
Introduction of Refraction
Media of Refraction

Refraction Procces

Refraksi Error

Miopi

Hipermetropi

Presbiopi

Astigmatism
REFRACTION
Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation
composed of particle-like individual packets of
energy called photons that travel in wavelike
fashion.
The bending of a light ray is known as refraction.

Visible light is a small portion of the


electromagnetic spectrum with a wavelength
range between 400 and 700 nm.
REFRACTING
The eye is an optical instrument.
The correct interpretation of visual information
depends on the eye's ability to focus incoming rays of
light on the retina.
REFRACTIVE MEDIA

The two structures most important in the eyes


refractive ability are the cornea and the lens.
The cornea and lens refract light rays from
distant objects so the image is focused on the
retina
PROCESS OF REFRACTION
ACOMODATION
REFRACTION ERROR (AMETROPIA)
A mismatch between the axial length of the eye
and the refractive power of the lens and cornea
Ametropia axial (common)
Ametropia refractive (less frequent)
1. MYOPIA
A mismatch between the refractive power and
axial length of the eye so an image converges
in front of retina
Myopic persons can see close objects clearly, but
not distant objects.
Type:
Miopia axial
Miopia refractive
WHAT DO THEY SEE?
MYOPIA
Degree :
Low myopia (<3.00 D)
Medium myopia (3.00 D-6.00 D)
High myopia (>6.00 D)
MYOPIA AND ITS CORRECTION
2. HYPEROPIA
A mismatch between the refractive power and
axial length of the eye so an image converges
behind the retina.
Types:
Axial hyperopia
Refractive hyperopia
WHAT DO THEY SEE?

Farsightedness Vision Normal Vision


HYPEROPIA
Degree
Low hyperopia consists of an error of +2.00 diopters
(D) or less.
Moderate hyperopia includes a range of error from
+2.25 to +5.00 D.
High hyperopia consists of an error over +5.00 D.
HYPEROPIA AND ITS CORRECTION
3. PRESBYIOPI
Presbyopia inability of the eye to focus
(accommodate) due to hardening of the
crystalline lens with age.
When the eye can no longer accommodate at the
reading distance, positive spectacle lenses of
about 23 D are prescribed to correct the
difficulty.
PRESBYOPI
Once a person has a presbyopia, each eye
remains focused permanently at an almost
constant distance which be differentof each
persons eyes.
The eyes can no longer accommodate for both
near and far vision.
CORRECTION OF PRESBYOPI
AGE Lensa (D)
40 +1
45 +1,5
50 +2
55 +2,5
60 +3
4. ASTIGMATISM
In astigmatism the curvature of the cornea is
uneven, so light rays are unequally refracted.
The refractive ability of a persons cornea
remains constant, because the curvature of the
cornea never changes.
CLASIFICATTION AND CAUSE
According to the etiology:
External astigmatism
Internal astigmatism
According to the location of the meridian of greater
refraction:
With-the-rule astigmatism (most common
form)
Against-the-rule astigmatism
Oblique astigmatism
According to the meridian involved:
Regular astigmatism
Irregular astigmatism
WHAT DO THEY SEE?
Astigmatic errors can be corrected with
cylindrical lenses, frequently in combination with
spherical lenses. Because the brain is capable of
adapting to the visual distortion of an
uncorrected astigmatic error, new glasses that do
correct the error may cause temporary
disorientation, particularly an apparent slanting
of images.
OVERVIEW
OVERVIEW
TERIMA KASIH
REFERENCES
Sherwood, Lauralee, 2010, Human Physiology:
From Cells to Systems, Seventh Edition,
Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, Singapore, 197-
202
Paul Riordan-Eva and John P. Whitcher, 2007,
Vaughan & Asbury's Gesneral Ophthalmology,
17th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Ch.
20
Myron Yannof & Jay S. Duker, 2008,
Opthalmology, Third Edition, El-Sevier, Ch. 21