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BREEDING TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
(1) SCOPE OF BREEDING TECHNOLOGY
Ranging from broodstock management of the fish, fertilization, larvae and maintenance post larval

(2) THE AIMS OF BREEDING TECHNOLOGY


To get breed true

(3) CLASSIFICATION
~ ADAPTATION ORGANISM
Marine Fish, Brackish Water Fish, Fresh Water Fish, Migration Fish
~ SALINITY TOLERANCE
Stenohaline marine > 30 %o ; fresh water < 0.5 %o
Euryhaline marine < 3 %o ; fresh water > 8 %o
Natural Estuarine 2 25 %o
Anadromous fishes migrate from the sea up into fresh water to spawn, or stay entirely in fresh water and
migrate upstream to spawn
Catadromous fishes migrate from fresh water down into the sea to spawn, or stay entirely in fresh water
and migrate downstream to spawn
CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
Fish Breeding Tech:
Post Harvest Tech: Domestication
Quality assurance Maturation
Value added Spawning
Selective breeding

Fish Farming Tech: Market size fish Broodstock


Good aq. practice
Health manag.
Feed manag.
Site Selection &
Holding systems
Fingerling/Fry Eggs/Hatching

Larvi Culture Tech:


Nursery Tech:
Biological devt
Quality indicator
Early feeding
Vaccine devt
Feeding regime
Biol. detection
Rearing manag.
early diseases
MAIN CULTURED SPECIES
Shrimp, Milkfish,
Grouper, Travely,
Sea bass Common carp
Tuna, Catfish,
Seaweed, Gouramy,
Tilapia, Macrobrachium
Pearl oyster, Cerax sp.
Exotic fish, Abalone/Oyster
Crabs Others ..
Research Issues/Needs
An important area that requires
further research could be
grouped into five:
Breeding and genetic improvement
Health management (effectively
combat emerging diseases)
Feed development (quality, safe
feeds and efficient)
Environmental management
Holding systems development
PRESENT STATUS OF RESEARCH FOR FISH BREEDING

Genetic Genetic >2 generations Captive bred Wild caught Wild caught
Improvement Management. Captive bred broodstock broodstock seed
Broodstock Improvement
Research is focus on production of
good quality of seeds

Where genetically clean (SPF),


Strong or Healthy
Fast growing and resistant to
diseases (SPR)

Linkage gene for marker assist selection


BREEDING TECHNOLOGY (GENETIC)
Selection (qualitative & quantitative phenotype selection)
Hypophysation (induced breeding by injecting fish with substances derived
from the pituitary gland for the purpose of inducing reproduction (such as
ovulation) when conditions are not favorable for successful natural spawning in
ponds)

Hormonal stimulation (induced breeding by artificial hormonal)


Implantation hormonal (artificial hormonal using implant technique)
Induced spawning (stimulate spawning using physic, biology and chemist
agents)

Gynogenesis (development in which the embryo contains only maternal


chromosomes due to activation of an egg by a sperm that degenerates without
fusing with the egg nucleus)

Sex manipulation (changing male or female sex to get determined fish)


SELECTION (CLASSICAL GENETIC)
(A) QUALITATIVE PHENOTYPE SELECTION / Mendelian Genetik
Culling (shape, color) BREED TRUE
(1) Autosomal Gene
gen action (contained in body chromosome / autosome & gonosome),
determined by 1 genotype homozygote / several genotype homozygote /
genotype heterozygote

(2) Complete Dominant Gene Action


dominant & recessive phenotype, depend on selection process

Recessive phenotype selection


normal pigment albino

++ +a aa
Dominant phenotype selection
Through selection & culling
Frequency allele Frequency genotypic +a
f (+) f (a) f (++) f (+a) f (aa) (%)
0.1 0.9 0.01 0.18 0.81 10
0.5 0.5 0.25 0.50 0.25 50
0.9 0.1 0.81 0.18 0.01 10
How many generation of an albino catfishes can be reduced so that populations
of fish to black pigmented become a breed true ?
Formulation N = 1/qn - 1/qo
N = number of generation; qn = expected for frequency allele; qo = seek out
frequency
Example :
Frequency for albino fish are 9%, then it want to reduce until 0.01% (assuming
breed true is 99.9% population). How generation selection needs to be done ?
Answer :
qo = f (albino) = 0.09 = 0.3
qn = f (expected for frequency albino allele) = 0.0001 = 0.01
So the number needed to reduce f ( a ) of 0.3 be 0.01 is
N = 1/0.01 - 1/0.3 = 96.67 97 generation

Progeny testing
Is it possible to elliminate recessive allele, designating dominant allele ,
producing population to breed true ?
Whether individual fish homozygot dominant maintained / heterozygot dominant
to be disposed of ?

Normal pigment albino


(+?) (aa)
(3) Incomplete Dominant / Additive Gene Action
Selection on the single generation will produce breed true , no matter whether
the phenotype desirable as phenotype dominant or recessive
Recessive phenotype selection
Death Saddlebacks Normal
SS S+ ++
culled by nature culled by selection the + alelel has
been fixed and the population
will breed true and produce
only normal Tilapia aurea
Dominant phenotype selection
Steel blue Blue Green
VV Vv vv
produce only culling
Steel blue
Siamese fighting fish
Heterozygote phenotype selection
Stell blue Green
VV vv

gamet V gamet v

Blue
Vv

(B) Quantitative Phenotype Selection


Culling (length, weight, % of flesh, viability, lipid and protein contain,
fecundity, etc) BREED TRUE
(B.1) No Selection Program / Unintentional Program breeding program &
free selection / unintentionally
Prerequisite for Unintentional Program
(to prevent decreasing of fish quality)
(1) Fecundate all the fish on the start of the breeding season
(2) Fecundate all the fish on all sizes
(3) Fecundate all the fish on the high numbers
(4) Do not dispose the fish that slow-growing / sexual product can be described as poor
level domesticated variety of wild fish rearing fish with proportional
sample

(B.2) Directional Selection


Used to increase its parameters with an average productivity
population as fenotype desirable, such as an average weight, total length,
lower conversion of food, the average of lipid percentage
cut off based on value of Standard Deviation (SD) & Coefficient of
Variation [(SD/mean)100]
What genetic issues should we
be taking into account?
Maintaining and improving culture performance
Strain selection (up to 60% difference best-worst)
dilemma

Harvesting genetic variation at the beginning of


domestication
Managing genetic variation during and after domestication
Ultimately exploiting genetic variation through selective
breeding and other genetics based technologies
Managing environmental impact (genetic
pollution)
The potential impact of translocations and genetic changes
during domestication on natural genetic diversity
Genetic technologies to monitor and minimize impact
Diseases
Research focus on:
Development of molecular probe for early
detection and a rapid respond of viral diseases such
as: WSSV (white spot syndrome virus), TSV (taura
syndrome virus), IHHNV (infectious hypothermal
and hematopoietic necrosis virus), IMNV infectious
myonecrosis virus), HPV (hepatopancreatic
parvovirus), VNN (viral nervous necrosis), Irido
virus.
Cost-effective method of controlling certain
infectious diseases
Development of Probiotic and Vaccine (No
antibiotic use)
Development of standards health management
Feeds
Research focus on:
Develop appropriate feed
substitute/supplements
for fish meal and live feed for
hatchery produced fry/juvenile/
Grow-out Maturation pellet
Developing species-specific
Broodstock diets that allow
complete domestication and
maximal reproductive and larval
quality
Better understanding of larval
nutritional requirements, in order
to develop suitable compound diets,
which will further reduce the need
for live food (Artemia)

Maggot
BREEDING TECHNOLOGY (NUTRIENT)

Feed Substitute the fish or shrimp feed of being substituted


Feed Additive any of various natural or synthetic substances, such as salt,
monosodium glutamate, or citric acid, used in the commercial processing of
food as preservatives, antioxidants, emulsifiers, etc., in order to preserve or add
flavour, colour, or texture to processed the fish or shrimp feed
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Research Focus on:
Site selection. Land capability assessment and classification
for suitable pond based and cages aquaculture system

Develop reliable monitoring and management tools of


aquaculture environment (Planning Tool)

Promote the application of environmentally friendly


aquaculture technology to remediate deterioration in water
quality due to intensification.

Comprehensive and quantitative assessment of


environmental risks and impact of enhancements in
relation to complete watersheds
BREEDING TECHNOLOGY (ENVIRONMENT)
Thermal, chemical & light stimulation
stimulation of breeding technology using thermal treatment, and/or chemical treatment, and/or light
stimulation, or combination all of treatment for producing breed true

Eyestalk ablation
the removal of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyestalks from a crustacean. It is routinely
practiced on female shrimps (or prawns) in almost every marine shrimp maturation or reproduction
facility in the world, both research and commercial. The aim of ablation under these circumstances
is to stimulate the female shrimp to develop mature ovaries and spawn

Cryoprotectant
A substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e. that due to ice formation).
Insects, fish and amphibians create cryoprotectants (antifreeze compounds and antifreeze proteins)
in their bodies to minimize freezing damage during cold winter periods. Cryoprotectants are also
used to preserve living materials in the study of biology and to preserve food products.

Probiotic
ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects to humans and other animals, and the
decrease of potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms; the reduction of gastro-
intestinal discomfort; the strengthening of the immune system; the decrease in body pathogens; the
protection of DNA; the protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative damage; and the maintaining
of individual intestinal microbiota in subjects receiving antibiotic treatment
Holding System
Develop close-
recirculation system
hatchery for
producing of clean,
healthy and strong
seeds
Design cages for
offshore marine
finfish
OPPORTUNITIES
To identifying opportunities, is useful to see six general
development trends of aquaculture in Indonesia:
1. Continuing in/ex-tensification of aquaculture production
2. Continuing diversification of species use
3. Continuing diversification of production system and practices
4. Increasing influence of markets, trade and consumers
5. Enhancing regulation and improving governance
6. Increasing attention on better management practices

In support of the above trends four areas of opportunities


have been identified:
a. Application of innovative capacity enhancement program
b. Search for new technologies
c. Development of new aquatic products, markets and integration into eco-
tourism sector
d. Development of new financial product
CURRENT PRIORITY
R & D is based on the principles of :
farmer participatory research or
farmer first and last research

Participatory research:
involves small,
resource-poor farmers
to generate or adapt appropriate
technology on farm
RESEARCH PRIORITY
Best Aquaculture Practices for shrimp
Sustainable Technology
Low water exchange system
Closed pond system
Zero water exchange
(Heterotrophic -bacteria
floc) system
Environmental Friendly
-- Reservoirs
Sedimentations
No chemicals or anti-
biotics
Mangrove conservation
Strict Bio-security
Traceability
Integrated system (Social &
Technical)
Thanks