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REVIEWING STRUCTURAL

DYNAMIC CONCEPT
SI 6121 DINAMIKA TANAH DAN
REKAYASA GEMPA
BY: CHRISTOPHER TANJUNG
Outline
Jenis Input Motion
Harmonic Loading
Korelasi D, V, A
Vibrating System
SDOF
Undamped free Vibration
Damped free Vibration

Undamped forced Vibration

Damped forced Vibration


Jenis Input Motion

Periodic Non Periodic

T T

T T
Jenis Input Motion
Non Periodic Periodic

U(t) = 0
Harmonic Loading
Characterized by SINUSOIDAL motion
IMPORTANT properties:
1. Amplitude (A)

2. Period (T)

3. Frequency (f)

4. Natural frequency ()

5. Phase ()

2 types of notations:
1. Trigonometry

2. Complex
Harmonic Loading
Korelasi antar paratemer
Harmonic Loading
Harmonic Loading
Imaginary Form

= 1 (imaginary number)
+
Eulers law: cos = =
2 2

= ()+ b ()

+ +
= = +
2 2 2 2
Korelasi D, V, A
D Displacement

V Kecepatan

A Percepatan
VIBRATING SYSTEM
VIBRATING SYSTEM
Definition of Degress of Freedom:

The number of INDEPENDENT VARIABLES needed to describe the motion of a system

Modes of vibration for foundation:


1) Longitudinal (translation about y-axis)
2) Rocking (rotation about z-axis
3) Vertical (translation about z-axis)
4) Yawing (rotation about z-axis)
5) Lateral (translation about x-axis)
6) Pitching (rotation about x-axis)

6 DOF : 3 translational and 3 rotational


VIBRATING SYSTEM

Movement Movement in m1, m2, m3 Infinite DOF Infinite DOF


Only in Vertical and rocking translation
Vertical direction (2 DOF) (3 DOF)
(1 DOF = SDOF)

Discrete system: Continous system


Mass concentrateted at a finite Mass is distributed throughout system
Number of locations and have a finite DoF And have a infinite DOF
SDOF

Kekakuan

massa Q(t)

Damping
SDOF

massa Q(t)

C
SDOF - Variabel
Perpindahan (d)
Terjadi perubahan
perpindahan thd
waktu

k Kecepatan (V)
Terjadi perubahan
kecepatan thd
waktu

massa Q(t) Percepatan (a)

C
SDOF Gaya pada sistem
Perpindahan (d)
+
Kecepatan (V)
+

k Percepatan (a)

massa Q(t)

C
SDOF - Conditions
Kondisi yang dapat terjadi
Undamped free Vibration Q(t) = 0; C = 0
Damped free Vibration Q(t) = 0; C 0

Undamped forced Vibration Q(t) 0; C = 0

Damped forced Vibration Q(t) 0; C 0


UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION
SDOF - Undamped Free Vibration
+ + = Solusi Persamaan
Q(t) = 0; C = 0

= 1 sin + 2
+ = 0
Bagi dengan m


=
+ =0

= 1 sin + 2
C1 and C2 can be obtained from initial condition of displacement and velocity (t=0)
Cos(0) = 1 dan Sin (0) = 0

0 = 1 sin 0 + 2 cos 0 = 2
1 = 2 =
0 = 1 0 2 0 = 1


Solusi Akhir = sin +

SDOF - Undamped Free Vibration
Amplitude remains constant
No energy loss (no damping)
Oscillate forever
Dont exist in the real eng. application
DAMPED FREE VIBRATION
SDOF Damped Free Vibration
+ + = 0
= 2 Critical damping
coefficient


+ + =0 Damping
= =

2 ratio
=
2
< 1 < ;
+ + 2 = 0

= 1 = ;


> 1 > ;

+2 + 2 = 0
2

The equation can be expressed as:



+ 2 + 2 = 0 + 2 + 2 = 0
2
SDOF Damped Free Vibration
Solusi Persamaan
= 1 sin 1 2 + 2 cos 1 2
D be the damped natural circular freq:
= 1 2
= 1 sin + 2 cos

C1 and C2 are obtained from initial condition:


= (0) 1 sin 0 + 2 cos 0 = 2
= (0) 1 cos 0 2 sin 0 0
[1 sin 0 + 2 cos 0
= 1 2
Therefore,
+
1 = +
() = sin + cos

2 =
SDOF Damped Free Vibration
Contoh Grafik Damped Free Vibration
UNDAMPED FORCED VIBRATION
SDOF Undamped Forced Vibration
+ + =
Q(t) 0; C = 0

+ = sin Harmonic Loading


General solution is THE SUM of the COMPLEMENTARY and PARTICULAR solution

Homogeneous solution: Particular solution:


(describe the response caused by external loading)
+ = 0
Assume has the same form responses as harmonic loading
Solusi Undamped Free
Vibration = sin + = sin

() = 1 sin + 2 2 sin + sin = sin


2 /2 sin + sin = sin
=
2
(12 /2 ) = /
/ /
= =
2 1 2 Tuning Ratio:
1 2

SDOF Undamped Forced Vibration

Initial condition
SDOF Undamped Forced Vibration

Resonansi
DAMPED FORCED VIBRATION
SDOF Damped Forced Vibration
+ + = sin Homogeneous solution:
+ + = 0
Solusi Damped Free Vibration

+ + = sin = 1 sin + 2 cos


=
2 Particular solution:
= 3 sin + 4 cos
+ 2
+ = sin

= 2 = 3 cos 4 sin


+ 2 + 2 = sin

2 2
= 3 sin 4 cos

+ + = sin

2
3 2 3 2 4 sin
2
+ 4 2 4 + 2 3 cos = sin
SDOF Damped Forced Vibration
For sin = 0 for t = 0 and cos = 1, thus
2
4 2 4 + 2 3 = 0
For sin = 1 and cos = 0, thus
2 2
3 3 2 4 =

Then, C3 and C4 is solved as:
1 2 2
3 = 4 =
1 2 2 + (2)2 1 2 2 + (2)2

Finally the general solution is obtained by combinaing the complementaru and particular
solution:
1
= 1 sin + 2 cos + 2 2 2
1 2 sin 2 cos
1 + (2)

Transient Response Steady State Response


SDOF Damped Forced Vibration
Catatan:
C1 dan C2 bergantung pada kondisi awal
Solusi Complimentary (Transient) akan menghilang
seiring berjalannya waktu
Response Spectra
Spectral Acceleration

Tn=2.5 s
Tn=2.0 s
Tn=1 s Tn=1.5 s
Tn=0.5 s

Time of shaking
period
Response Spectra
The response will depend on:
Mass (m)
Stiffness (k)
Damping ratio ()

Method to construct Response Spectrum


1) Calculated from actual time histories
2) PSHA
3) Building codes

Type of Response spectrum:


1) Deformation (D)
2) Pseudo velocity (V)
3) Pseudo acceleration (A)
Convert from Deformation (D) to Vel (V) and Acceleration (A)
2
2 2
2
= = = =

All D, V, and A values are the peak response of all possible linear SDF system
Response Spectra for El Centro ground motion
Sekian
Hatur Nuhun
Terima Kasih