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Kennedy Class I & II (Tooth & Tissue Borne)

- For posterior abutments, or any tooth needing stress release:


- Clasp of choice:
RPI
(mesial rest, distal proximal plate and I-bar)
- If cant use an I-bar, because of
! frenum
! shallow vestibule
! deep soft tissue undercut
then use an
RPA retainer
(mesial rest, distal proximal plate and wrought wire clasp)
Effect of rotational movement :
Occlusal dislodging forces
Denture base move away from supporting tissue
Anterior segment of major connector impinge upon the
underlying tissue
Definition:

The component of a removable partial denture that


assists the direct retainer(s) in preventing displacement
of the distal extension denture base by functioning
through lever action on the side opposite of the fulcrum
line when the denture base moves away from the
tissues in pure rotation around the fulcrum line.
Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (7th
ed)
Definition:
The component of a
removable partial denture that
assists the direct retainer(s) in
preventing displacement of the
distal extension denture base
by functioning through lever
action on the side opposite of
the fulcrum line when the
denture base moves away from
the tissues in pure rotation
around the fulcrum line.
FULCRUM LINES

A)
Fulcrum Line Axis Or Fulcrum Line

DEFINITION

An imaginary line, connecting the most distal occlusal


rests, around which a removable partial denture tends to rotate
TOWARDS the tissue under masticatory forces.
FULCRUM LINES

B)
Retentive Fulcrum Line Axis

Definition:

Movement of the base AWAY from the ridge around an imaginary


line connecting the retentive clasp tips. (This is the axis relevant to
indirect retention.)
How indirect retainer works
Required for :
Kennedy Class I

Kennedy Class II

Kennedy Class III


Kennedy Class IV
Kennedy Class IV
Where to place an Indirect Retainer

Location of indirect retainer

Indirect retainer should be located on the side opposite the


distal extension
The proximal plates, adjacent to the edentulous areas, also
provide indirect retention.

Proximal plates on 2nd premolar And


Occlusal rest on 1st premolar
RETENTION
SUPPORT
STABILITY
INDIRECT RETENTION
OCCLUSION
Auxiliary functions of indirect retainer

1) It tends to reduce anteroposterior-tiliting leverages on the


principal abutments.
Auxiliary functions of indirect retainer

2) Contact of its minor connector with axial tooth surface aids


in stabilization against horizontal movement of the denture.
Auxiliary functions of indirect retainer

3) Anterior teeth supporting indirect retainer are stabilized


against lingual movement
Auxiliary functions of indirect retainer

4) It may act as an auxiliary rest to support a portion of the


major connector facilitating stress distribution
5) It may provide first visual indication for the need to reline an
extension base partial denture
Factor-1:

The principal occlusal rests on the primary abutment


teeth must be reasonably held in their seats by the
retentive arms of the direct retainers.
Factor-2:

Distance from the fulcrum line.

The following three areas must be considered:


a. Length of the distal extension base
b. Location of the fulcrum line
c. How far beyond the fulcrum line
the indirect retainer is placed
Factor-3:

Rigidity of the minor connectors supporting the indirect


retainer.
All connectors must be rigid if the indirect retainer is to
function as intended.
Factor-4:

Effectiveness of the supporting tooth surface.


The indirect retainer must be placed on a definite rest
seat on which slippage or tooth movement will not
occur.
Tooth inclines and weak teeth should never be used to
support indirect retainers.
2.
Indirect retainer must be placed as far from the
distal extension base as possible for leverage
advantages
1.Auxiliary occlusal rest
Most frequently used

Placed on occlusal surface as far as possible from distal extension base.

For Kennedy Class I, bilateral rests on first premolars

For Kennedy Class II, rest on opposite premolar


2.Canine Extension

Finger like extension(Lug Seat) from premolar rest

Used when first premolar is used as primary abutment


3. Canine Rests
When the mesial marginal ridge of the first premolar is
too close to the fulcrum line,
A rest on the adjacent canine tooth may be used.
4.Continuous bar retainer and linguoplate
As they are placed on unprepared lingual surfaces They are
not indirect retainers but they help indirect retainers,

They are converted into indirect retainers if they have a


terminal rest
5. Modifications areas

When they are far enough from axis of rotation they


will act as indirect retainer.
6. Direct indirect retainer

Sometimes the reciprocal arm of the direct retainer


located anterior to the fulcrum line may also act as an
indirect retainer
In the maxillary arch where only
anterior teeth remain, full palatal
coverage is usually necessary, the
added retention & lesser bulk of
the cast metal is usually adequate to
prevent lifting of the base away
from the tissues & provide direct-
indirect retention
In class I and II arches, fulcrum lines passes
through the most posterior abutments
In class II arches, fulcrum line is diagonal,
passing through abutments on distal
extension side and the most posterior
abutment on opposite side.