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Oct 04, 2017

Chapter 09

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Statistik

© All Rights Reserved

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Chapter 09

Statistik

© All Rights Reserved

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Sampling Distributions

Sampling Distributions

A sampling distribution is created by, as the name suggests,

sampling.

the laws of expected value and variance to derive the

sampling distribution.

Sampling Distribution of the Mean

A fair die is thrown infinitely many times,

with the random variable X = # of spots on any throw.

x 1 2 3 4 5 6

P(x) 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6

Sampling Distribution of Two Dice

A sampling distribution is created by looking at

all samples of size n=2 (i.e. two dice) and their means

11 values for , and some (e.g. =3.5) occur more

frequently than others (e.g. =1).

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 9.4

Sampling Distribution of Two Dice

The sampling distribution of is shown below:

6/36

P( )

1.0 1/36 5/36

1.5 2/36

2.0 3/36

4/36

)

2.5 4/36

3.0 5/36

3/36

P(

3.5 6/36

4.0 5/36

4.5 4/36 2/36

5.0 3/36

5.5 2/36

6.0 1/36 1/36

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

Compare

Compare the distribution of X

1 2 3 4 5 6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

Generalize

We can generalize the mean and variance of the sampling of

two dice:

to n-dice:

The standard deviation of the

sampling distribution is

called the standard error:

Central Limit Theorem

The sampling distribution of the mean of a random sample

drawn from any population is approximately normal for a

sufficiently large sample size.

The larger the sample size, the more closely the sampling

distribution of X will resemble a normal distribution.

Central Limit Theorem[Most important theorem in statistics]

approximately normal as the sample size increases.

needs to be what I call well behaved sort of mounded but

may be shewed] may be sufficiently large to allow us to use

the normal distribution as an approximation for the sampling

distribution of X.

Note: If X is normal, X is normal. Dont need Central Limit

Theorem in this case.

Example 9.1(a)

The foreman of a bottling plant has observed that the amount

of soda in each 32-ounce bottle is actually a normally

distributed random variable, with a mean of 32.2 ounces and

a standard deviation of .3 ounce.

bottle will contain more than 32 ounces?

Regular old look up a normal probability.

Example 9.1(a)

We want to find P(X > 32), where X is normally distributed

and =32.2 and =.3

contains more than 32oz.

Example 9.1(b)

The foreman of a bottling plant has observed that the amount

of soda in each 32-ounce bottle is actually a normally

distributed random variable, with a mean of 32.2 ounces and

a standard deviation of .3 ounce.

probability that the mean amount of the four bottles will be

greater than 32 ounces?

Example 9.1(b)

We want to find P(X > 32), where X is normally distributed

with =32.2 and =.3

Things we know:

1) X is normally distributed, therefore so will X.

2) = 32.2 oz.

3)

Example 9.1(b)

If a customer buys a carton of four bottles, what is the

probability that the mean amount of the four bottles will be

greater than 32 ounces?

will exceed 32oz.

Graphically Speaking

mean=32.2

what is the probability that one bottle will what is the probability that the mean of

contain more than 32 ounces? four bottles will exceed 32 oz?

Chapter-Opening Example

The dean of the School of Business

claims that the average salary of the

schools graduates one year after x 800

graduation is $800 per week (x) with a

standard deviation of $100 (x). Note: x / n 100 / 25 20

This is the population. A second-year

student would like to check whether the

claim about the mean is correct. He does

a survey of 25 people who graduated one

year ago and determines their weekly

salary. He discovers the sample mean to

be $750. Is this consistent with the

deans claim???

Sampling Distribution of a Proportion

The estimator of a population proportion of successes is the

sample proportion. That is, we count the number of

successes in a sample and compute:

Normal Approximation to Binomial

Binomial distribution with n=20 and p=.5 with a normal

approximation superimposed ( =10 and =2.24)

Normal Approximation to Binomial

Binomial distribution with n=20 and p=.5 with a normal

approximation superimposed ( =10 and =2.24)

Hence:

and

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 9.19

Normal Approximation to Binomial

Normal approximation to the binomial works best when the

number of experiments, n, (sample size) is large, and the

probability of success, p, is close to 0.5

conditions should be met:

1) np 5

2) n(1p) 5

Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion

Using the laws of expected value and variance, we can

determine the mean, variance, and standard deviation of .

(The standard deviation of is called the standard error of

the proportion.)

distribution using this formulation:

Sampling Distribution: Difference of two means

The final sampling distribution introduced is that of the

difference between two sample means. This requires:

independent random samples be drawn from each of two

normal populations

difference between the two sample means will be normally

distributed if the populations are both normal.

(note: if the two populations are not both normally

distributed, but the sample sizes are large (>30), the

distribution of is approximately normal) Central

Limit Theorem

Sampling Distribution: Difference of two means

is normally distributed with

mean:

means)

Example 9.3

Starting salaries for MBA grads at two universities are

normally distributed with the following means and standard

deviations. Samples from each school are taken

University 1 University 2

Mean 62,000 $/yr 60,000 $/yr

Std. Dev. 14,500 $/yr 18,300 $/yr

sample size n 50 60

Sampling Distribution

is normally distributed with

mean: = 62,999 60,000 =2000

=SQRT(14,5002/50 + 18,3002/60)

= 3128.3

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