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CLASSROOM

CONTRACTS
Teri Tench, MSN,RN,CNE
BACKGROUND
Behavioral Specialist for many years at Cumberland
Hospital.
MSN Project on Academic Incivility in Nursing
Education.
Teach a concept to students in the classroom that
would be threaded throughout the course.
INCILIVITY IN NURSING
Incivility in nursing practice has been part of
nursings culture for decades
Gossip
Humiliation
Disloyalty
Exclusion

(Jenkins, Kerber, & Wioth, 2013)


INCILIVITY IN NURSING EDUCATION
It is important for schools of nursing to
assess incivility among students and develop
strategies to correct and prevent these
behaviors in the next generation of nurses .
(Jenkins, Kerber, & Wioth, 2013)
ACADEMIC INCIVILITY

Academic Incivility is defined as


rude or disruptive behaviors
which often results in
psychological or physiological
distress for the people involved
and if left unaddressed, may
progress into threatening
situations (Altmiller,2012).
ACADEMIC INCIVILITY
70 %of student and faculty identified incivility
as a moderate or serious problem

Faculty and students are concerned because incivility


Disrupts the teaching-learning environment
Damages relationships
Increases stress
(Jenkins, Kerber, & Wioth, 2013)
ACADEMIC INCIVILITY
Students Incivility toward Nursing Faculty
Arriving late to class
Coming unprepared
Cheating
Using cell phones
Sleeping
Demonstrating discourteous or rude behavior

(Jenkins, Kerber, & Wioth, 2013)


DEFINITIONS
Contract- An agreement between two or more parties.
Milieu-Surrounding or environment.
Milieu Therapy-a scientific structuring of the environment in order
to effect behavioral changes and to improve the individuals
psychological health and functioning. Also called therapeutic
community or therapeutic environment.
Behavioral Modification-A treatment modality aimed at changing
undesirable behaviors using system of reinforcement to bring
about the modifications desired.

(Townsend,2011)
RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT
Therapeutic relationships are goal-oriented and
directed at learning and growth promotion.
GOALS
Successfully complete Nursing School
and pass the NCLEX!
Development of a conducive learning
environment.
Successfully pass the course.
CONDUCIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Safe
Caring
Accepting
Trusting
Respectful
Understanding
Promotes mutual trust
Participants take responsibility for their behavior
(Shanta & Eliason,2014)
CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
Culture describes a particular societys entire way of living,
encompassing shared patterns of beliefs, feelings, and knowledge
that guide peoples conduct and are passed from generation to
generation.
Cultural influences affect human behavior, the interpretation of
human behavior, and the response to human behavior.

(Townsend,2011)
CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
Environmental Control
Has to do with the extent to which individuals perceive they have
control over their environment.

Cultural beliefs and practices influence how


individuals respond to their environment.
EMPOWERMENT MODEL

Empowerment process is an interpersonal


process:
Providing the resource, tools, and
environment to develop, build, and increase
ability and effectiveness of others to set and
reach goals for individual and social ends.
(Shanta & Eliason,2014)
EMPOWERMENT
MODEL

Communication
Collegiality
Autonomy
Accountability
EMPOWERMENT MODEL
Communication-Clear and accurate sharing of key
information toward meeting a shared goal.
Collegiality-Mutually respectful and meaningful
relationship with another individual with a shared
goal.
Autonomy-Possessing or granting others the
authority and capability to function independently
to achieve a goal.
Accountability-Assuming responsibility for
individual decisions and resulting outcomes and
holding others responsible for behavior/decisions.
EMPOWERMENT MODEL
Communication
Communication is part of any relationship and is critical to the educational
environment.
There are two primary purposes of communication in pedagogy.
Clear and accurate communication provides guidance for both faculty
and students toward the stated course objectives. It is in the details
that faculty members establish expectations for course work, i.e.
assignment deadlines, grading and behavior
The second purpose of communication may be even more important. It
is the expression of the underlying value that the faculty has for the
students and vice-a-versa. The way a faculty member communicates
with a student sets the stage for a mutually respectful relationship or
conversely one that is patronizing and disrespectful.
From the first day of contact with students, the manner of communication
between faculty and students, as well as student to student must be honest
and based in mutual respect.
EMPOWERMENT MODEL
Collegiality
The relationship between faculty and
students is shaped through collaboration,
rather than in a hierarchical or
authoritarian structure.
The mutuality of goals within the
relationships decreases the power
differential. Each faculty member serves as
a coach and professional mentor who
wants the student to gain competence.
EMPOWERMENT MODEL
Autonomy
Autonomy has been defined as the ability to act
according to the knowledge and skills that one
holds and when applied to professional practice,
increases satisfaction. Conversely, autonomy is not
a strong characteristic in nursing or in nursing
students. Therefore, this element of the
empowerment model requires determination and
effort among all involved in the educational
partnership.
Approaching learning through student-centered
strategies facilitates student autonomy.
EMPOWERMENT MODEL
Accountability
Accountability is defined and emphasized
in the ANA Code of Ethics. "Accountability
means to be answerable to oneself and
others for one's own actions..." (Provision
4.2).
This imperative must reinforce each and
every relationship, interaction and decision
at every level of nursing education.
EMPOWERMENT MODEL OUTCOMES

Self-efficacy
Competency
Autonomy
Having meaning to ones existence
CONTRACT DEVELOPMENT
First day of class discuss with students the development of a
classroom contract.
Things to be considered to include in the contract:
Timeliness
Respecting others in the classroom
Temperature in the room
Cell phone use
Prayer/Moment of Silence prior to a test
Eating in Class
Dress code
We vote on issues so majority rules.
Each class is different on what they want to include in the
contract. I request a timekeeper to help me stay on schedule.
CONTRACT IMPLEMETATION
Type up the contact and give to students.
This is a verbal, working contract that should be discuss prior to the
beginning of each class to discuss how the contract is going and if
revisions need to be made.
I also have a contract suggestions box for students to utilize who
wish to be anonymous.
CONTRACT OUTCOMES
The classroom is more conducive for learning .
Students realize the impact their behaviors have on the learning
environment.
Getting Ready
for
If you want to
use your phone,
please text If you want to use your
TERITENCH182
(not case sensitive)
laptop or tablet, connect
to 37607 in order to the internet and go to
to join the class PollEv.com/teritench182
session

Poll
Everywhere
Correct answer: A

The goal of a therapeutic nursing interaction is


to promote client insight and behavioral change
directed toward client growth.
FACULTY INPUT
1) Why did you decide to use a classroom contract (what led to
the idea)?
2) How did the students respond to the idea?
3) How did you create student buy-in and make them feel like
part of the process?
4) How did it go throughout the semester? Did you revisit the
contract? Were any changes made?
FACULTY INPUT
A student arguing about an exam question during exam review
-Students talking during class to the point where others could not hear
-A student turn around to tell a student that she had no right to ask a
particular question for it was rude and insensitive

I would want the students to be mindful of others and not talk during
class unless called upon.

I have a part in my syllabus about exam review:


Exam Review: The idea behind exam review is to facilitate a learning
environment, and the environment must be a place where everyone can
learn and be comfortable. Group test review utilizes the same
environment as test taking. You will come up front to collect your exam.
You may ask to have a question reviewed. This can facilitate class
discussion, but this will be done in an orderly manner. Exam review is NOT
intended to argue for points or changes. Failure to comply with the stated
rules will forfeit participation in the exam review.
FACULTY INPUT
Behaviors that I see as disruptive include coming to class late (10-15
min. late). My class follows a 3 hour morning class and a 1 hour
lunch break. Up to 4-5 students come in late because they went out
to lunch.

Other disruptive behaviors include occasional side-bar


conversations among 2-3 students and students checking
email/facebook on their cell phones.

I provided a lot of class time for students to work on group projects


and assignments. The class overall did not take advantage of this.
On the positive side I believe there was good class participation
during class.
FACULTY INPUT
1. Texting in class
2. Shopping on laptop
3. Doing banking on laptop
4. Side conversations
5. Doing other assignments
6. Searching for tattoo designs
7. Facebook on phone and laptop
FACULTY INPUT
Talking while someone else is

Coming in late

Constantly asking questions (because they are too busy)

Using technology, not pertinent to the course content

Not respecting others

Not participating fully (carrying their weight in a group)

Students doing other things i.e. other classwork or on social media


References
Altmiller G.(2012). Student perceptions of incivility in nursing education: implications for

educators. Nursing Education Perspect,33(1).1520.

Jenkins, S. D., Kerber, C. S., & Woith, W. M. (2013). An intervention to promote civility among

nursing students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(2), 95-100. doi:10.5480/1536-5026-34.2.95.

Shanta, L. L., & Eliason, A. R. (2014). Application of an empowerment model to improve civility in

nursing education. Nurse Education in Practice, 14(1), 82-86. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2013.06.009.

Townsend, M. C. (2011). Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care in

evidence-based practice (6th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.