You are on page 1of 35

Instrumentation and Process

Control (IPC)

1
Incentives of Chemical Process
Control

Suppressing the influence of external disturbances

Ensuring of safety of Chemical Process

Optimizing the performance of a chemical process

2
Suppressing the influence of
External Disturbances
Control Objectives
Identify the variables 1. To keep temperature at
desired value.
2. To keep volume or level
Develop Control Mechanism of the liquid in the tank
at desired value

Example
Controlling the
operation of Stirred
Tank Heater

3
Suppressing the influence of
External Disturbances

Expected Disturbance

Input Variables ( Temperature, Flow rate)

Practical case input variable may change

So to maintain the temperature we have to

design Control system


4
Stirred Tank Heater

Fi, Ti

T h
Q F, T

Fs
5
Control Mechanism
Fi, Ti

Thermocouples

Set
Point
-T T h
+ e Q F, T

Controller
e> 0 , more steam is
required
Fst e< 0 , less steam is
required
6
Feed-Back Control Configuration
Use the direct measurements of the controlled variable
to adjust the manipulated variables. The control action is
taken after the disturbances effect the controlled output
variables.
Feed-forward Control
Configuration
Use the direct measurements of the disturbances to
adjust the manipulated variables: Objective is to keep
output variable at desired value. It anticipates the
control action to be taken.
Inferential Control Configuration
Uses secondary measurements ( because the controlled
variables can not be measured ) to adjust the manipulated. The
control objective is to keep the unmeasured controlled variable
at desired levels.
Design Elements of a Control
System
Design the Controller: In every configuration, the

controller Is the active element that receive

information from the measurements and takes

appropriate control actions to adjust the value of

manipulated variables. It implements the control

law automatically.
Ensure Stability of a Chemical
Process
X = T , CA B
X is disturbed at t = to A

X
X

External
External
Disturbanc Disturbanc c
e
e

to to
Time Time

X returns automatically to X returns automatically to


steady state / desired state steady state / desired state
Response of stable process; Self- Response of Unstable process
regulating Required external Intervention
No11external intervention required
Optimizing the performance of
Batch Reactor

cA, Ti, Fi
Stream

Condenser
Controller

1 2
Reaction A B C (endothermic reaction)
Desired undesired 12 12
Optimizing the performance of Batch
Reactor

Q Steam flow rate


Qmax Maximum utilization

Minimium utilization
Qmin
0 tr Time
Classification of Variables
Variables that are extensively used in the Process Control

Varibles

Input Output

Manu plated or Measured


Disturbance/Load Unmeasured d
adjustable /control Variable/controlled
VARIALE Variables
variable Vriable
Common Terminologies
Process Variables: Conditions of process fluid that can
change manufacturing process in someway.
Input variable which denotes the effect of the
surroundings on the chemical Process.
Output Variable which denote the effect of the
chemical process on the surroundings.
Input Variables
Manipulated Variables
Disturbances
Output Variables
Measured Output
Unmeasured Output
Example of Liquid Tank
Objective is to maintain the level of liquid in
tank h
Fi Controlled Variable : h
Input Variable
Fi
Output Variables
F (if not manipulated)
V or h
h Paring the CV and manuplated variable,
F which variable can be adjustable

CV MV
h Fi , F

16
Example of Stirred Tank Heater
Objective is to maintain the level and
Fi, Ti Temperature of liquid in tank i.e. h & T
Input Variable : Fi,Ti, Fst
Output Variables:
F ( if not manipulated)
V or h
T h T

CV MV
Q F, T h Fi , F
T Fst

Fst
17
Terminologies
Control Configuration

A control configuration is the information structure that is used to


connect the available measurements to the valuable manipulated
variables.

Two types of CC

SIS0 = single input single output configuration , example controlling


the level of the liquid in the tank

MIMO= multiple input multiple out configuration = Example


controlling the level and temperature of the liquid in the tank by
changing output flow rate and steam flow rate.
Example of Distillation

Condenser

CV MV loop
xD R 1 Reflux Drum

xB VB 2 F mD
D
mD D 3 Z R xD
xD

mB B 4
VB
mB
Reboiler

B
xB

(Stephanopoulos, 1984)
Terminologies
Set point
The set point is a value for a process variable that is
desired to be maintained.
Terminologies

Error:

The difference between the measured variable and the set point

and it can be positive and negative. Control scheme objective

is to minimize the error. It is the difference at any instant

between the value of controlled variable and the set point.

E=Set Point-Process Value


Terminologies
Magnitude of error: The magnitude of the error is the simply
the deviation between the set point and process variable.
Comparison of two consecutive errors with respect time
determines the rate of change in error.

Offset : Offset is a sustained deviation of the process variable


from the set point . It is the steady state deviation (error)
resulting from a change in value of load variable.

23
Design Elements of a Control
System
Define Control Objective ( central element)

Select measurements

Measuring and monitoring the process variables

Primary Measurements

Secondary Measurements

Unmeasured output = f ( secondary measurements)

Select Manipulate Variables

Select Control Configuration


Example
Hardware Elements for a Process
Control
In Control configuration , there are mainly two
categories of hard ware elements

The chemical process. It represents the material


equipment together with physical and chemical
operation occur there

The measuring instruments or sensors: Instruments


used to measure the disturbances, the controlled
output variable, secondary output variables and are
the main source of information.
Hardware Elements for a Process
Control
Function of Controller
The element in a process control loop that evaluated error
of the controlled variable and initiates corrective action by a
signal to the controlling variable.
Final Control Element
Components of a control system (such as valve) is used to
directly regulates the flow of energy or materials to the
process. It directly determines the value of manipulated
variable.
Examples of sensors

Thermocouples or resistance thermometers (T)

Venturi meters (F)

Differential pressure cell (V)

Gas chromatographs ( Compositions)


Hardware Elements for a Process
Control
Transducers : They convert one type of signals into another

type of signals .

Examples In strain gauge, metallic conductors are present

whose electric resistance changes when they are subjected to

mechanical stress ( applied pressure) . Thus they convert

pressure signal into electrical signals.


Hardware Elements for a Process
Control
Transmission lines : These lines carry information (measured
signals) from the measuring device to controller and from
controller to the final control elements. Examples : Electric
transmission lines and pneumatic transmission lines.

Controller : Intelligence hardware that receive information


from the measuring devices and decides what action should
be taken.
Hardware Elements for a Process
Control
Final Control Elements: It implements the decision taken by
the controller. Example is

Control Valve

Relay and switches on- off system

Variable speed pumps

Variable speed Compressors

Recording Elements : They visual demonstrate the dynamic


state of chemical process ( chemical variables).
35