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Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

(Week 1)

Outlines

Theory of seepage

Flow nets

Flow nets construction

Theory of seepage

Seepage: Flow of liquids (water) through soils pore.

Ground surface

Water

table Unsaturated

Saturated (-)u

called Pore water pressure.

It is normally denoted by u

3

Theory of seepage

Examples

(source: http://civil-engg-world.blogspot.com/2014/08/piping-through-

foundation-Homogeneous-Dam-P-2.html)

impervious)

Theory of seepage

Types of flow:

With respect to time:

Steady flow = flow pattern has been established

Unsteady flow (transient)= something in the process of

changing (pressure, water table, flow rate, etc.)

With respect to nature:

Laminar flow = water flows in a smooth and orderly

fashion. Head loss is proportional to the velocity of flow

Turbulent flow = water swirls as it moves. Head loss is

proportional to the velocity of flow raised to an

exponent.

Theory of seepage

Types of flow contd :

With respect to boundaries:

Confined flow = flow takes place between impervious

boundaries. Non hydrostatic pressure. Eg. Artesian flow.

Unconfined flow = occurs under gravity. Hydrostatic

pressure.

http://www.in.gov/dnr/water/7258.htm

Theory of seepage

With respect to direction:

One dimensional flow (x direction)

Two dimensional flow (x, y directions)

Three dimensional flow (x, y, z directions)

Most seepage problems are steady state flow

Theory of seepage

Water flows from high energy point to low energy point

The energy at any point in groundwater includes:

1. Potential energy, due to its elevation above the

datum

2. Strain energy, due to the pressure in water

3. Kinetic energy, due to its velocity

Unit of energy is Joule.

Instead of Joule, Head (or hydraulic head, in meter or

feet) is a convenient way to express the energy of

water as the corresponding height.

Theory of seepage

+2.3 m

h

+2 m

hpA

Q hpB

elevation

A +1.2 m

soils

L B +1 m

hzA

hzB

Datum

+0 m

Thus:

1.Potential energy -> Elevation head, hz ( at point A hz = 1.2 m, at point B hz = 1 m)

2.Strain energy -> Pressure head, hp ( at point A hz = 2.3-1.2 m, at point B hz = 2-1 m)

3.Kinetic energy -> Velocity head, hv = v2/2g, where v = velocity and g = gravity. (note:

in seepage problems the velocity is very small negligible).

Total head = Elevation head + Pressure Head + Velocity head

(Bernoullis Equation)

Theory of seepage

During the flow of water in soils (seepage), some energy is lost

due to friction. Thus:

The loss of energy between A and B =

Total head of A Total head of B

h = (hzA+hpA)- (hzB+hpB) = 2.3-2 m = 0.3 m

h is called Head loss

Hydraulic gradient (i) is defined as:

= /L

Where i = hydraulic gradient,

h = head loss,

L = distance between point A and point B

(water travel distance)

Theory of seepage

Pore water pressure (u) is given as: =

Where = pore water pressure

= pressure head

= unit weight of water = 9.81 kN/m3

Hydrostatic condition is where the following conditions apply:

1. The pore water pressure is due solely to force of gravity

2. Soils is not in the process of settling and shearing

3. The aquifer is unconfined

4. The groundwater is stationary

In hydrostatic condition the pore water pressure is simply: = = wzw

Where u = pore water pressure

uh = hydrostatic pore water pressure

= unit weight of water = 9.81 kN/m3

= depth from the water table to the point

Theory of seepage

Example

hL

hB C

B Datum

D hD

At point B pressure head = ., elevation head = ., total head = .

At point C pressure head = ., elevation head = ., total head = .

At point D pressure head = ., elevation head = ., total head = .

Head loss between A and C h =

12

Theory of seepage

Example

hL

water hB C

B Datum

D hD water

soils soils

seepage

At point B pressure head = hB, elevation head = hL-hB, total head = hL

At point C pressure head = 0, elevation head = 0, total head = 0

At point D pressure head = hD, elevation head = -hD, total head = 0

Head loss between A and C h = hL

13

Theory of seepage

+2.3 m

h

+2 m

hpA

Q hpB

A

A

soils +1.2 m

L B +1 m

hzA

hzB

Datum

+0 m

= = = /

Where Q = flow rate (m3/s)

k = hydraulic conductivity or coefficient of permeability, or permeability (m/s) of

soils,

i = hydraulic gradient,

A = area perpendicular to the flow direction (m2)

v = average velocity (m/s) vs = seepage velocity (m/s) n=porosity

k is a property of soils-fluid, which depends on soil properties and fluid properties.

14

Laboratory tests Constant head and falling head permeability tests

Theory of seepage

Specific surcharge, flow flux, flow rate per unit area

= ==v

Flow flux resultant from two directions (x,y)

= + =( + )+( + )

=(kxxix + kxyiy) +(kyxix + kxyiy)

=(kxx + kxy ) +(kyx + kxy )

Note:

qij = flux in i-direction due to

=

In matrix form: gradient in j-direction

kij = hydraulic conductivity

leading to flux in i-direction due

to gradient in j-direction

Theory of seepage

Flow flux resultant from three directions (x,y,z)

=

kij= kji=> symmetrical matrix

Magnitude of flow flux = 2 + 2 + 2

Bearing = tan-1

Inclination = tan-1

2 + 2

Theory of seepage

z

Two-dimensional (2D) flow dx

Soil dz

per unit area in x and z qx

direction, respectively.

qz

y x

qx and qz are flow per unit area in x and z direction, respectively.

Flow entering = Flow leaving

+ = ( + ) + ( + )

+ =0

+ =0

17

Theory of seepage

+ =0 and = =

+ =0 Darcys law

where k = permeability or hydraulic conductivity (m/s),

i = hydraulic gradient,

dh = head loss (m), and

dx = flow travel distance (m)

For isotropic & homogeneous soils kx = kz=constant , Thus:

+ =0 ..Laplace Equation

In Three-Dimensional (3D)

+ + =0 Laplace Equation

Theory of seepage

Analytical solution for complex boundary problems

(i.e., Laplace) in geotechnical application is not trivial

1. Determination of rate of flow

2. Determination of uplift pressure

3. Determination of exit gradient

Flownet of seepage

Flow Nets

through dam

(Unconfined flow)

dam

reservoir Q

Q Q

Graphical

method Q

Flow Nets Q Q Q Q Impermeable stratum

Impermeable stratum

Flow nets of seepage through dam and Flownet of seepage

seepage underneath dam under the dam

(Confined Flow)

Flow Nets

Flow nets

It consists of two sets of lines

One set of lines are called flow lines or stream lines.

No 1-1-1,2-2-2,3-3-3,4-4-4 and 5-5-5 (in the above figure) are

flow lines

The flow occurs along the flow lines (no flow across the flow

line)

Flow Nets

drops)

The A-A-A to F-F-F, G-G and H-H are equipotential lines.

At any point in a equipotential line, the total head is

constant.

Flow Nets

They both have the same total head.

Flow Nets

channel.

Number of flow channel (Nf) = Number of flow lines - 1

Total head loss (drop) in the flow channel = hd = Total head of

thr first equipotential line Total head of the last equipotential

line

Flow Nets

equipotential lines is the head drop between those two

equipotential lines. E.g. head drop between equipotentaial

line 1 and 2 = h1 h2

Where h1 = total head of equipotential line 1

h2 = total head of equipotential line 2

Flow Nets

The number of head drops = 7

Number of head drops (Nd) = Number of equipotential lines - 1

Flow Nets

direction , then it is called isotropic (kx = ky = kz)

In isotropic soils, flow lines and equipotential lines

intersect orthogonally.

Flow Nets Construction

2. Determine the flow boundaries:

ABCD, and EF are flow lines.

GA and DH are equipotential lines.

Flow Nets Construction

keeping in mind that the flow lines do not intersect

each other.

4. Draw a set of equipotential lines within the flow

boundaries keeping in mind that the flow lines and the

equipotential lines intersect each other at right angles

Flow Nets Construction

such that the network is made of curvilinear squares.

6. More accurate curvilinear squares can be done by

increasing the number of flow lines and equipotential

lines.

Week 1 Finished

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