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Prof.

Hanumant Yadav
HNLU, Raipur.

H.Yadav, Economics-ii 1

 The objective of this paper is to make law
students more knowledgeable, sensitive and
action oriented to the problems of poverty
and development.
 The paper discusses the rules, regulations,
procedures established and framed by the
Authorities relating to poverty and
development

H.Yadav, Economics-ii 2

Module 1 10 teaching hours
Law : (1 class ) : Meaning and concepts
Poverty : Concepts and Measurement
Different concepts and indicators of Poverty
National and International Poverty line
Causes of Poverty, Human Poverty,
Rural Poverty, Estimates of poverty in India

H.Yadav, Economics-ii 3

Underdevelopment of Indian Economy. Human Development H.Yadav. Development : Concepts and approaches 5 teaching hours Concepts of Economic Growth.II. Economics-ii 4 . progress and Development.

III. Approach of Eleventh Five Year Plan H. Strategies and special features of Indian Planning. Tenth Five year Plan: Monitorable targets and achievement. Economic Planning 5 teaching hours Objectives.Yadav. Economics-ii 5 .

Food for work program. Employment Generation programmes: NREP. SGSY.Yadav. NREGP Act. JRY. SGRY.IV. Poverty alleviation Schemes : IRDP. Economics-ii 6 . SJGSY. Law and Development Programmes: 15 lectures Law and Development. H.

Child labour.Yadav. Development and social justice. Bonded labour. Civil rights act. Child and women destitute. Scheduled Tribes. Human rights. Fundamental rights.V. Immoral traffic of women and girls. Directive principles to the State B. Unorganized rural labour. Law and Poverty 20 lectures A. Resettlement of Displaced persons affected by development projects H. Economics-ii 7 . Beggary. Law and Weaker sections of Society Scheduled Castes. Indian Constitution and Social justice.

Economics-ii 8 .VI – Legal Aid to Poor 5 lectures Concepts of legal aid. Evolution and development of of legal aid movement in India Legal Services Authorities Act 1987 and existing system of legal aid in India Role pf Institutions of Legal Education in legal aid services H.Yadav.

Yadav. H. State or nation. agreement or authority.  Law is a rule of conduct or procedure established and enforced by the Authority. Economics-ii 9 . Law is rule of conduct or procedure established by custom. Legislation or a custom of a given community.

 Rule of Law : The principles that restricts Government authority  Laws of Science : Absolute and inarguable facts of the physical world. H.  Physical Law : A scientific generalisation based on empirical observations of physical behaviour. Economics-ii 10 . Natural Law : A law whose content is set by nature and hence has validity everywhere.Yadav.  Religious Law : Ordering principles of reality as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs.

evidences. Business Laws. H. etc.g. Law of demand. law of diminishing return. Banking Laws. Labour Laws.  Laws of Economics : Universally accepted theories of Economics.Yadav.  Economics Law : Land Laws. e. Law (Principles) : Principles that describes the fundamentals of something.  Scientific generalisation of theories of social sciences with empirical observations. Economics-ii 11 . facts and figures are known as Laws.

H.Yadav. clothing and shelter. information and education.  Poverty is a condition in which a person or community lacks the essentials for a minimum standard of well-being and life. or they may be social resources such as access to health care. These essentials are material resources such as food. Poverty can be defined as a social phenomenon in which a section of the society is unable to fulfill its basic needs of life. safe drinking water. Economics-ii 12 .

 Poverty is collective condition of poor people.  Poverty is lack of regular income to maintain minimum level of living.  Consumption of less food than is required to sustain a human body is known as condition of extreme poverty.Yadav. Economics-ii 13 .  Poverty is condition of lack of income and wealth H. Poverty is a state of social condition when a large segment of society is deprived of the minimum level of living.

clothing. (Private consumption expenditure) 3.Yadav. 2. shelter.Human Poverty : Deprivation of means and opportunities to lead a long. Economics-ii 14 .Minimum basic needs : food. H. Part I – Concepts of poverty : 1.Minimum Calorie intake required to maintain working efficiency : 2400 calorie in rural area and 2100 calorie in urban areas. National and International poverty line. healthy and creative life. 4. (Private consumption expenditure). drinking water.Poverty in monetary terms : minimum income required for sustenance.

Squared Poverty Gap Index : The SPG Index is the mean of the squared proportionate poverty gaps.Poverty line : Head count non-discriminatory approach : Total number of poor people living below poverty line. Economics-ii 15 .1. Poverty Gap Index : It measures poverty by mean distance below the poverty line expressed as a proportion of that line. 2. H.Yadav. (Counting non-poor having zero gap) Head count discriminatory approach : 3.

and (3) Decent standard of living. Three elements of human life or human development: (1) Longevity (2) Knowledge.Human Poverty Index : Index Indicating denial of choices and opportunities those are most basic to human development.4. Economics-ii 16 . H.Yadav.

 Deprivation of basic human needs in terms of food. shelter. education.Yadav.  Human Poverty Index is a composite Index which measures three elements of human life : 1) Longevity 2) knowledge and 3) access to basic needs : H. health facilities is termed as Human Poverty. Economics-ii 17 .  The denial of opportunity and choices are causes of human poverty.

H. Economics-ii 18 . (%) 2) Deprivation in education and knowledge : Adult illiteracy rate and Education up to VIII class 3) Deprivation in economic provisioning a) Access to safe water b) Access to health services c) Underweight children under age 5.Yadav.THREE VARIABLES OF DEPRIVATION : 1) Survival Deprivation : People not expected to survive to age 40.

 The poverty line. Economics-ii 19 .  Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the essential items/ resources that an average human adult consumes in one year. is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of Living.Yadav.  This approach is needs-based in the sense that an assessment is made of the minimum expenditure needed to maintain a tolerable life H.

2400 calorie in rural area and 2100 calorie intake are required to sustain human body of an adult male.25 $ per day income may be treated as living in extreme poverty.Yadav.  Average intake of calorie is 2250.  Those adult who are not getting 2400 calorie intake in rural area and 2100 calorie in urban areas may be treated as poor. In India. Economics-ii 20 . Persons with less than 1.  According to World Bank 1$ per day is required to meet the food requirement. H.

Economics-ii 21 . 49.60 for urban areas on the in 2004-05 on current prices of 2004-05.  Rs. 356. the poverty line denotes monthly per capita consumption expenditure below Rs.00 for urban areas in 1977-78 on the 1973-74 prices . 815 Urban Area Rs.Yadav. 54. In India.00 for rural areas and Rs. 538.  Minimum Monthly Income required in 2011-12 for Rural Area: Rs.35 for rural areas and Rs. 1000 (RBI)   [Source : 61st round of the National Sample Survey (NSS)] H.

9 % H. which is the nodal official agency for poverty estimation.Yadav.5% of the rural population was living below the poverty line in 2004–2005.3% in 1977–1978. and  36% in 1993-1994  Poverty Estimate in 2011-12 : 21. has estimated that 27. The Planning Commission. Economics-ii 22 . down from 51.

Year Persons livimg below poverty line ------------------------------------------------------------ -- 1950-51 47 % 1954-55 64 % 1960-61 45 % 1977-78 51 % 1987-88 39 % 2004-05 27 % According to Prof. Economics-ii 23 .Yadav. the urban poor are only an overflow of the rural poor. Dandekar and Rath. into the urban area. self-employed households and landless labourers H.  75% of the poor are in rural areas with most of them comprising daily wagers.

 Moderate poverty as less than $2 a day. H.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and B) 2. A) 1. Economics-ii 24 .7 billion lived on less than $2 a day.Yadav.  It has been estimated that in 2001. The World Bank defines  Extreme poverty as living on less than US$ (PPP) 1 per day.

the majority women and children. That's 270 million people during 1990-2005. H. Economics-ii 25 .7 billion lived on less than $2 a day  800 million people go to bed hungry every day.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2.  In 2001.  Every year nearly 11 million children die before their fifth birthday.some 18 million people a year or 50.Yadav. 1.are due to poverty-related causes. One third of deaths .000 per day .

H. Economics-ii 26 .Yadav.

8 42.8 32.0 41.3 48.3 3 Chhattisgarh 40. P.Yadav.9 4 Jharkhand 40. Economics-ii 27 .8 49.2 65.6 46.3 5 Uttarakhand 39.5 38. S.1 40.4 2 Bihar 61.2 55. 61.1 47.No States 1973 1983 1993 2004 1 Orissa 66.8 H.9 62.6 6 M.3 7 Uttar Pradesh 57.

7  Gujarat 48.1  Assam 51.9 51.2 33.4 36. Economics-ii 28 .4 22.8 35.2 15.2 16.9 19.8 24. States 1973 1983 1993 2004  Maharastra 53.7  Andhra Pradesh 48.0 22.9 28.7  Karnataka 54.9 30.5  Rajastan 46.2 40.5 27.2 25.7 35.8 H.7 24.4 54.0  West Bengal 63.5 40.2 53.2 32.9 22.5 38.Yadav.7  Tamil Nadu 54.1 34.

2 18.5 36.0  Haryana 35.8 24.4 13.4 15.4  All India 54.4 25.2 5.8 8.0  Goa 44.4  J &K 40.4 16.2 15.Yadav.4 21. Economics-ii 29 .0 27.3 26.8 40.9 44.5 10.0  Punjab 28.2 11.5 H.9  Himachal Pradesh 26.0 14. States 1973 1983 1993 2004  Kerala 59.9 14.1 16.4 25.

72 103 Uttar Pradesh 29.92 2697 Bihar 33.98 185 H.I West Bengal 19.93 I 104 Jharkhand 36.65 224 III Odisha 32.Yadav. Economics-ii 30 .43 598 .74 358 II Chhattisgarh 39.59 III 138 Rajasthan 14.96 II 124 Madhya Pradesh 31.State Percentage of population BPL population Below poverty line (Lakh persons ) India 21.

20 79 Pradesh (old) H. Economics-ii 31 .26 23 Tamilnadu 11.05 24 Karnataka 20.63 102 Maharashtra 17.28 82 Kerala 7.State Percentage of population BPL Population below poverty line ( Lakh persons) Gujrat 16.35 198 Punjab 11.16 29 Haryana 8.91 130 Andhra 9.Yadav.