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Safety and

Security
Issues
Security and Safety Issues

The Importance of a Protected


Environment
Safety and Security Programs: Four-Step
Safety and Security Management Method
Crimes Against Hospitality Businesses
Crisis Management Programs

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In This Chapter, You Will Learn:

1. To recognize the responsibility hospitality


managers have to protect the safety and security
of guests and employees in hospitality operations.
2. To carry out the procedures needed to limit the
potential liability of safety risks and security risks.
3. To recognize the need for and benefit of
implementing an effective crisis management plan.
4. To minimize the risk of crimes against your own
business operation.

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The Importance of a Protected
Environment
Legalese:

Safety Program Those procedures and


activities designed to insure the physical
protection and good health of guests and
employees.

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The Importance of a Protected
Environment
Legalese:

Security Program Those procedures and


activities designed to protect the property
or assets of guests, employees, and the
business.

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Analyze the Situation 14.1

Mr. and Mrs. Angelo were frequent diners at the


Buffet World restaurant, a moderately priced
operation that featured an all-you-can-eat lunch and
dinner buffet. Jessie Carroll was the manager of the
restaurant.
On a busy Sunday, Mr. and Mrs. Angelo entered
the restaurant, paid for their meal, and were directed
to their table by the dining room greeter. As Mrs.
Angelo sat down, the wooden dining room chair
snapped under her weight. Her neck was injured as
she fell on the restaurant's tile floor.
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Analyze the Situation 14.1

The Angelos sued Buffet World, charging


negligence in the operation of the
restaurant. Their attorney argued that the
normal wear and tear of chairs was a
foreseeable event, and thus an inspection
program should have been in place. No such
program could be shown by the restaurant
to have existed.

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Analyze the Situation 14.1

The attorney for the restaurant countered


that Mrs. Angelo was larger than the average
guest, and therefore Buffet World could not
have foreseen that she would be seated in a
chair that was not capable of holding her
weight. The restaurant's attorney also noted
that Buffet World had never experienced a
problem like this before.

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Analyze the Situation 14.1

1. Is Mrs. Angelo's actual weight a relevant issue


in her case against the restaurant?
2. What evidence could the restaurant have
provided to its attorney to demonstrate
reasonable care in the inspection of its dining
room furniture?
3. If it were independently owned, who would be
responsible for designing and implementing an
effective furniture inspection program for
Buffet World?
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The Importance of a Protected
Environment
Legalese:

Crisis An occurrence that holds the


potential to jeopardize the health of
individuals and or the business.

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Crisis Management
Power outages Ice
Vandalism Accident / injury
Arson / fire Drug overdose
Bomb threats Medical emergency
Robbery Rescue breathing /
Looting cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR)
Hurricanes
Death / suicide
Tornados
Intense media scrutiny
Earthquake
Adversarial governmental
Floods agency investigation
Snow Civil disturbance
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Analyze the Situation 14.2

Wayne Dobinion was the District Manager for


a franchised quick-service Mexican-style
restaurant in a large city. On a Friday night at
11:30 P.M., just after the restaurant locked its
front doors to the general public, three masked
men entered the store through the unlocked
back kitchen door. They demanded that the
Assistant Manager on duty at the time turn over
all the restaurant's cash.

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Analyze the Situation 14.2

Nervously, the 18-year-old assistant manager


explained that all the cash had been deposited
in a safe in the Manager's office and that he had
no ability to open it.
Angry at their inability to rob the store, the
gunmen shot two of the restaurant workers,
including the assistant manager, as they fled the
restaurant. The assistant manager died from his
wounds. The robbery and shootings made that
night's local television news.
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Analyze the Situation 14.2

A lawsuit filed by the assistant manager's


parents charged that the restaurant lacked
proper alarms and locks on the back door. In
addition, they charged that the restaurant
owners and the franchise company failed to
provide any training to its staff regarding the
proper response to an armed robbery. The
lawsuit was reported in a front-page article in
the local paper.

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Analyze the Situation 14.2

An Investigative Reporter from another


television station in the city called the
restaurant's manager requesting an on-air-
interview regarding the training employees
receive related to robberies. The manager
referred the call to Mr. Dobinion.

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Analyze the Situation 14.2

1. What issues will the courts and a jury likely


consider as they evaluate the legitimacy of the
parent's lawsuit?
2. What legal position might the franchisor take if
it had provided training materials to the local
franchisee, but never utilized those materials?
3. What is the likely outcome if Mr. Dobinion
refuses to meet with the investigative
reporter? What if Mr. Dobinion has not been
trained to do so?
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Advantages of Preplanning

1. Improved employee morale.


2. Improved management image.
3. Improved employee recruiting effectiveness.
4. Reduced insurance rates.
5. Reduced employee costs.
6. Improved operating ratios.

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Advantages of Preplanning

7. Reduced penalty costs for violations.


8. Support in the event of an accident.
9. Increased guest satisfaction.
10. Marketing advantages.
11. Reduced likelihood of negative press.

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Four-Step Safety and Security
Management Method

1. Recognition of threat.
2. Program development (response to
threat).
3. Program implementation.
4. Monitoring of program results.

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Program Development

1. Training for threat prevention.


2. Increased surveillance and/or patrol.
3. Systematic inspections.
4. Modification of facilities.
5. Establishing standard procedures.

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Significant Elements of a Hotel
Security Program
Key controls
Effective guestroom lock system
Proper and adequate training of security staff
Guestroom doors with one-way viewers and
chain / latch bars
Adequate lighting and ongoing maintenance
Perimeter controls

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Significant Elements of a Hotel
Security Program
Employee background checks
Employee education
Guest safety education
Written security policies and procedures
Established responses to incidents and
corrective action
Liaison with local authorities

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Analyze the Situation 14.3

The Commodore Hotel was owned by the


First Community Insurance Company, and
managed by Fieldstone Hospitality
Management. After two separate guest
assaults occurred inside the hotel rooms,
Fieldstone Management approached First
Community Insurance with the idea of either
installing a closed circuit video camera (CCVC)
system in all hallways, or increasing the
lighting levels of the hotel's corridors.
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Analyze the Situation 14.3
First Community Insurance authorized
Fieldstone Management to purchase a video
surveillance system consisting of six cameras and
a central location to view them. The events shown
by the cameras were not committed to tape.
Late on the evening of February 6, Mrs.
Cynthia Larson checked into the Commodore and
was assigned a room at the end of one of the
hotel's corridors. As she attempted to insert her
electronic key card into the door lock, she was
assaulted.
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Analyze the Situation 14.3
Mrs. Larson sued both Fieldstone
Management and First Community Insurance,
claiming that both companies' failure to
monitor their cameras was a direct cause of
her assault. In addition, she claimed that the
cameras' use was deceptive, in that it gave her
a false sense of security. As she stated, The
cameras showed me the hotel cared about my
security, and I wanted to stay in a safe
location.
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Analyze the Situation 14.3

According to timesheets provided under


subpoena by the hotel, an employee was
assigned to view the cameras in the central
location for an average of two hours per
night between the hours of 8:00 P.M. and
6:00 A.M. The assault occurred at a time
when no employee was monitoring the
cameras.

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Analyze the Situation 14.3

The attorney for First Community Insurance


stated that the company was merely the owner
of the hotel, and not responsible for day-to-
day management, thus it should not be held
responsible for Mrs. Larson's injuries.
Fieldstone Management maintained that it too
should not be held responsible just because
the cameras installed were not monitored at all
times.
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Analyze the Situation 14.3

The presence of the cameras


themselves and electronic locks on their
guestroom doors demonstrated that the
company used reasonable care in the
protection of its guests.

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Analyze the Situation 14.3
1. Will First Community Insurance be held
partially responsible for the actions of
Fieldstone Management?
2. Did Fieldstone Management use reasonable
care in the installation and operation of the
camera system? Would it matter if the cameras
were recording to tape?
3. What could the hotel owners do in the future
to help avoid a similar situation with a guest?

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Safety and Security Programs

Legalese:

Interdiction Programs An arrangement


whereby citizens contact police to report
suspected criminal activity before a
crime is committed.

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Program Implementation

Safety and Security Departments


Safety and Security Guards
Safety Committees
Law Enforcement Relationships
1. Regularly scheduled meetings.
2. Neighborhood business watch programs.
3. Property safety and security reviews.
4. Interdiction programs.
5. Training programs.

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Establishing an Effective
Guestroom Lock Policy
1. Install an electronic locking system.
2. Train ALL new employees on the procedures
used to insure key security.
3. Never announce guestroom numbers out loud.
4. Do not allow the room number to be marked
directly on the key.
5. Do not identify the hotel with the key.

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Establishing an Effective
Guestroom Lock Policy
6. Do not reissue keys to guests without a positive
ID check.
7. Do not issue duplicate keys to anyone except
the registered user.
8. Minimize the number of master keys.
9. Keep a log of all existing masters and
submasters.
10. Train all managers on duty (MODs) on the
procedures to conduct a lock audit. Record the
results of any audits performed.
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Monitoring Program Results
Number of inspections performed
Inspection or quality scores
Number of incidents reported
Dollar amount of losses sustained
Number if insurance claims filed
Number of lawsuits filed
Number of serious or minor accidents
Number of lost workdays by employees
Insurance premium increases
Number of drills or training exercises correctly
performed
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Analyze the Situation 14.4

Peggi Shulkey managed a commissary


for a large cafeteria company. Her facility
prepared food products for 75 company
restaurants. While her operation did not
have a tremendous number of work-
related accidents, Peggi believed the
number of accidents could be reduced.

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Analyze the Situation 14.4

She formed a safety committee made


up of employees and management, and
charged them with the task of developing
a model program to reduce employee
injuries. The committee proposed the six-
step plan presented below. Their rationale
for each step is shown in italics.

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Analyze the Situation 14.4

1. Proper selection of employees.


Since an employee with a drug problem is
dangerous, applicants should be required to
take a drug test before being hired. The
applicant must also execute a continuous
authorization for drug testing, which permits
the employer to administer a drug test in
the event of an accident.

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Analyze the Situation 14.4

2. Designation of a Safety/Injury
Coordinator.
The Safety/Injury Coordinator will review
past accident records and implement
programs to reduce situations that may
result in accidents. The Safety Coordinator
will maintain a logbook of incidents so each
Department Supervisor can review the log
for incident trends.
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Analyze the Situation 14.4

3. Implementation of mandatory safety


training.
Each employee will be trained in safety
related to his or her job.
4. Increased awareness of safety.
By implementing programs, games, and
posters, employees will be reminded to
think intelligently and safely.

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Analyze the Situation 14.4

5. Implementation of incentive programs


for safety.
To further encourage safety, rewards and
incentives will be given to employees
who practice safe behavior.
6. Measurement of results.
To be determined by the General
Manager.

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Analyze the Situation 14.4

1. What specific measurements might Peggi


use to gauge the effectiveness of the
group's plan?
2. How effective is training likely to be in
reducing this particular threat to safety?
3. Analyze the committee's plan for
thoroughness. Are there potential liabilities
that still need to be addressed?

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Analyze the Situation 14.5

Karin Pelley was employed as a District


Manager by Ron's Roast Beef, a regional
chain of 150 quick-service restaurants serving
sandwiches, soups, and soft drinks. Most of
the stores were located in shopping mall food
courts or strip malls. Ms. Pelley worked out of
her home office, traveling to visit her 12
assigned stores on a regular basis.

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Analyze the Situation 14.5

Ms. Pelley communicated with the corporate


office via telephone, fax machine, and modem,
all of which were installed in her home by
Advance Technology, a telecommunications
company selected by Ron's Roast Beef to supply
telecommunications equipment and services to
its employees. As part of its contract with Ron's
Roast Beef, Advance Technology serviced the
machines used by Ms. Pelley in her daily work.

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Analyze the Situation 14.5

When Ms. Pelley's modem stopped working


one day, she contacted her home office, which
then called Advance Technology to request
that a Service Technician be dispatched to Ms.
Pelley's home. The technician arrived, but in
the course of his visit assaulted Ms. Pelley. The
technician was later apprehended by the police
and convicted of felony assault, his third such
conviction in three years.

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Analyze the Situation 14.5

Ms. Pelley sued Advance Technology


claiming negligent hiring. In addition, her
attorney submitted a demand letter to Ron's
Roast Beef, requesting a $400,000 settlement
from the company for negligence in
contracting its telecommunications services
from Advance Technology. The attorney for
Ron's Roast Beef refused to pay theclaim
stating that:

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Analyze the Situation 14.5

Ron's had no control over the hiring


practices of Advance Technology.
Ms. Pelley was prohibited by law from
pursuing any injury claim against her
employer other than workers'
compensation, because the assault
occurred in Ms. Pelley's office.

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Analyze the Situation 14.5

1. What responsibility did Ron's Roast Beef have


for providing a safe home working
environment for Ms. Pelley?
2. Will Ron's Roast Beef be held liable for the
damages suffered by Ms. Pelley? Will Advance
Technology be held liable?
3. What should Ron's do in the future to avoid
potential liability in situations such as this?

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Crimes Against Hospitality Business

Consumer Theft of Services


Fraudulent Payment
Credit cards
Cash
Personal checks
Internal Theft of Assets
Embezzlement
Theft of company property
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Crimes Against Hospitality
Business
Legalese:

Bond-(ing) An insurance agreement in


which the insurer guarantees payment
to an employer in the event of financial
loss caused by the actions of a specific
employee.

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Crisis Management Programs

Legalese:

Emergency Plan A procedure or series


of procedures implemented in response
to a crisis.

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Crisis Management Programs

Legalese:

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder A severe


reaction to an event that threatened an
individuals physical or emotional
health.

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Crisis Management Programs

Legalese:

Press Release An official statement,


from an individual or organization, that
is distributed to the media and other
parties judged to be interested in the
information it contains.

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Crisis Management Programs

Legalese:

Off The Record An oral agreement


between a reporter and an interviewee
wherein the reporter promises not to
quote the interviewees comments for
publication.

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Crisis Management Programs

Precrisis Planning
Emergency Plan Development
Emergency Plan Practice
Crisis Response
Management Response
Staff Response
Guest Response
Media Relations
Postcrisis Assessment

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Search the Web 14.1

Log on to the Internet and enter


www.cdc.gov/niosh/homicide.html

You will arrive at a Web site developed and operated by


the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH). NIOSH is operated by the federal
government's Centers for Disease Control (CDC). When
you arrive, locate and read NIOSH Publication No. 93-
109, then proceed to the following:

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Search the Web 14.1
1. Currently, only the operation of motor vehicles and machinery
caused more workplace deaths than homicide. List five
explanations you believe can be used to help understand the
proliferation of workplace homicide incidents.
2. Identify the 10 occupations that most put workers at the risk of
serious workplace violence.
3. List five actions suggested by NIOSH to reduce life-threatening
situations at work.
4. Address the question of how a serious incident of workplace
violence would impact:
(a) Other employees
(b) Guests
(c) The business itself

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Analyze the Situation 14.6

Irving Nash managed a 24-hour table


service restaurant that specialized in
breakfast items. Lendal Ketchar, a customer,
arrived at the restaurant at approximately
2:00 A.M. one morning. Upon entering the
restaurant, Mr. Ketchar tripped over the curb
leading to the sidewalk and broke his hip.
Because Mr. Ketchar was a very visible city
councilman, the incident was reported in the
local paper.
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Analyze the Situation 14.6

Mr. Nash was interviewed extensively


about the cause of the accident. He
specifically mentioned to reporters that the
curb had not been painted bright yellow as a
warning to guests, nor were lighting levels
very high at the entrance area where he fell.
Irving Nash read the interviews and shared
them with his two assistant managers.

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Analyze the Situation 14.6

Both suggested that the restaurant paint


the curb area, install additional lighting, and
inform the media that these actions were
undertaken. Mr. Nash's boss vetoed this idea,
however, stating that any action such as
painting the curb and installing light could
imply previous negligence on the part of the
organization and thus could increase the
organization's potential legal liability.

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Analyze the Situation 14.6

1. Which factors would influence the potential liability of


Mr. Nash's restaurant for the accident?
2. Is the future liability of the restaurant greater under
the proposed action of Mr. Nash's assistant managers
or his boss?
3. What effective safety and security programs could be
undertaken to limit legal liability if Mr. Nash is
required to follow the advice of his boss?
4. As a professional hospitality manager, is Mr. Nash
ethically obligated to take action to prevent a further
occurrence of this type?
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What Would You Do?

You are the manager of a 150-room limited


service, all-suite hotel located off the
interstate highway near a large metropolitan
area. Kate Roessler is your executive
housekeeper. Ms. Roessler contacts you to
ask you to go with her to inspect room 415,
which is occupied by a guest, Mr. Barney.

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What Would You Do?

Ms. Roessler explains that the guest has


been checked in for 10 days, and has had a
Do Not Disturb sign on the door for all but
two of those days. She has asked you to
view the room before it is cleaned, because
she says she is concerned for the safety of
her housekeepers in their routine cleaning
tasks.

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What Would You Do?

Upon entering the room, you observe


several ripped plastic baggies, money
wrappers, large quantities of empty fast
food containers, a scale, and a pistol holster
partially hidden under a mattress. You recall
that this is the same man who arrived by
cab to the hotel, and paid cash up front for
a two-week stay.

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What Would You Do?
1. Write a memo to your Executive Housekeeper outlining
the steps she is to take for servicing Mr. Barneys room.
2. Assuming a drug interdiction program is in place in your
city, would you contact that program to report Mr.
Barney?
3. Regardless of your decision in question 2 above, if the
police asked to use the room next to that of Mr. Barney
for an undercover operation, would you allow them to do
so?
4. Write a memo to the chief of police stating your position
in question 3, along with your rationale for the decision.

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Rapid Review
1. Describe three threats to safety and three threats to
security in the hospitality organization with which
you are most familiar. Explain how management
currently addresses (manages) these threats.
2. Assume you are the Foodservice Manager of a
college dormitory. You are asked to address parents
regarding the impact your facility will make on the
overall educational experience of their children.
Compose a five-minute presentation that addresses
your safety and security philosophy and its relation
to the well-being and educational experience of your
residents.
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Rapid Review
3. Analyze the four-step safety and security
management method. Select one of the steps and
prepare a three-minute presentation that could be
delivered to members of your safety committee, in
which you emphasize the importance of this step.
4. Assume you have implemented a safety program
designed to reduce employee accidents resulting from
improper lifting techniques. Identify at least three
different measurable outcomes that could be used to
evaluate the program's effectiveness. Explain which
of these three you would use and why.

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Rapid Review

5. Contact your local law enforcement officials to


determine what training programs are offered to
businesses for the purpose of assisting those
businesses in their safety and security efforts.
Determine the cost, if any, of the programs, and
the frequency with which they will be offered in
the coming 12 months.

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Rapid Review

6. The Educational Institute of the American Hotel


and Motel Association (EI) certifies hospitality
security guards. Log on to its Web site at www.ei-
ahma.org and identify the methods of qualifying
for the designation of Certified Lodging Security
Director (CLSD). Assume your property is
considering such a program for the head of your
Safety and Security department. Prepare a memo
for your immediate supervisor detailing the
advantages and disadvantages of using the EI
program, as opposed to one you would develop
yourself.
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Rapid Review

7. Assume that a bomb threat has forced you to


evacuate your restaurant. The police have
arrived; no one has been hurt, but the press is
at your property. Create an outline of a one-
page press release that would address the
items about which the media would be most
interested in learning.

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Rapid Review

8. An employee who burned himself while


working did not seek medical treatment. The
employee missed five days of work, then later
filed, and won, a workers' compensation claim,
because the burn became infected. Draft a
memo outlining the criteria your managers
should use in the future for determining which
employee accidents will result in mandatory
medical treatment.

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