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LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

Theories of Language acquisition and language


learning
BEHAVIOURISM

Imitation
Practice

Reinforcement (feedback on success)

Habit formation

Formation of associations between words and


objects or events (provided by environment)
Language development formation of habits
First language habits interfere with the second
language ones.
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH)
INNATISM: KRASHENS MONITOR MODEL

1. The acquisition-learning hypothesis

2. The monitor hypothesis

3. The natural order hypothesis

4. The input hypothesis

5. The affective filter hypothesis


COGNITIVE THEORIES
A. Information Processing: building up of
knowledge systems that, thorough practice, can
eventually called on automatically for speaking
and understanding. (noticing/restructuring)

B. Connectionism: gradual build-up of language


through exposure to thousands of instances of
the linguistic features they eventually learn.
(mental or neurological connections)
INTERACTIONIST THEORIES

Conversational interaction: child-directed speech.

Modified interaction comprehensible input

acquisition.

Examples of conversational modifications:

1. Comprehension checks

2. Clarification requests

3. Self-repetition or paraphrase
FACTORS AFFECTING SECOND LANGUAGE
LEARNING

Personality
Intelligence

Aptitude

Motivation : extrinsic and intrinsic

Cognitive or learning styles: field dependent or


field independent; VAK
Beliefs (previous learning experiences)

Age (Critical Period Hypothesis)


DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCES
Present progressive -ing
Plural -s

Irregular past forms

Possessive s

Copula: be

Articles: the / an

Regular past

Third person singular simple present

Auxiliary: be
WHAT WORDS DO CHILDREN LEARN
FIRST?

children's first words are general nominals,


explicit names. Ex: doll, animal.
After general nouns, specific nominals,

Then action words (up, hi),

followed by modifiers (adjectives), social words,


and function words.
NEGATION
First language Second language

1. no 1. no or not
No go. No cookie. No No bicycle. I not like it. No
have any sand.
comb hair. 2. no, not, dont
2. The negative just He dont like it. I dont can
before the verb: sing.
Daddy no comb hair. 3. Negative after auxiliaries
You can not go there. He was not
3. Some auxiliaries happy. She dont like rice.
I cant do it. He dont 4. Correct tense marking
want it. It doesnt work.
4. Correct attachment: But sometimes: she doesnt wants
to go.
You didnt do it. She
doesnt want it.
QUESTIONS
First language Second language

1. cookie? Mommy book? 1. Four children? A dog?


formulaic chunks 2. Its a monster in the corner?
2. You like this? I have some? Why The boys throw the ball?
you catch it? 3. Fronting:
3. Can I go? Is that mine? But may
generalize: a. wh- where the children are?
Is the teddy tired? b. do does in this picture there is
Do I can have a cookie? four astronauts?
wh- declarative word order. c. Other: is the picture has two
planets on top?
4. Subject-auxiliary inversion in
yes/no questions. 4. Where is the sun? Is there a
5. Combine both operations fish in the water? (auxiliary
be other than do)
Why can he go?
6. Embedded questions:
5. How do you say..?
generalization 6. Complex questions: tags,
I dont know why cant he go out. negative, embedded.
Notice:

what is generally the first wh-word to be used; often learned as part of


a whole (chunk) whatsat? Whatsit?

where and who emerge when the child can generally ask questions
that they can already answer, about the here and now; reinforced by
adults.

why emerges around the age of the second year and becomes a
favourite for the next year or two. However, the child does not always
seem to have a very good understanding of the meaning of the word, but
has discovered the usefulness of this little word in getting adults to
engage in conversation.

how and when emerges when the child begins to understand


manner and time.

Child When can we go outside?


Parent In about five minutes.
Child 1-2-3-4-5!! Can we go now?