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KONSEP DASAR EPIDEMIOLOGI

Ns. Rian yuliyana, S.Kep, MNS


TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN

Tujuan umum
Mahasiswa mampu memahami konsep dasar epdiemiologi
Tujuan khusus
a. Mahasiswa mampu memahami pengertian epidemiologi
b. Mahasiswa mampu memahami kegunaan epidemiologi
c. Mahasiswa mampu memahami metode epidemiologi (deskriptif dan
analitik)
DEFINITION OF EPIDEMIOLOGI

Epydemiology is the study of the distribution


and factors that determine health-related
states of events in a population and the use
of this information to control health
problems.
PURPOSE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
The understanding of factors to contribute to health and disease

The development of health promotion and disease-prevention measures

The detection and characterization of emerging infectious agents

The evaluation of health services and policies

The practice of nursing in community health


CATEGORIES WITH OBJECTIVES RELATED
TO EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Access to quality health services 14. Maternal, infant and child health
2. Arthritis, osteoporosis and chronic back condition 15. Medical product safety
3. Cancer
16. Mental health and mental disorder
4. Chronic kidney disease
17. Nutrition and overweight
5. Diabetes
18. Occupational safety and health
6. Disability and secondary conditions
7. Educational and community-based programs 19. Oral health
8. Environmental health 20.Physical activity
9. Family planning 21.Respiratory disease
10. Food safety 22. Sexually transmitted disease
11. Health communication
23.Substance abuse
12. HIV
24.Tobacco use
13. Prevention of injury and violence
TASK OF NURSES

A key part of the interdisciplinary team in community


settings, looking at health and at disease causation and
at how to both prevent and treat illness.
The step of the nursing process:
a. Assessment
b. Planning
c. Implementation
d. Evaluation
BASIC CONCEPTS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY

A. Measures of morbidity and mortality


B. Prevalence proportion
C. Incidence and prevalence compered
D.Attack rate
E. Mortality rate
LEVEL OF PREVENTIVE INTERVENTIONS

Primary
prevention

Secondary
prevention

Testier prevention
ASSESS HEALTH PROBLEMS IN A
COMMUNITY
1. Examine local epidemiologic data
2. Examine local-health services data to identify major
causes of hospitalizations and emergency
department visits.
3. Mobilize community group to elicit discussions and
identify perceived health priorities within the
community
4. Analyze community environmental health hazard
and pollutants
ASSES......

4. Examine indicators of community knowledge and practices of


preventive health behaviors
5. Identify cultural priorities and beliefs about health among different
social, cultural, racial, or national.
6. Assess community members interpretation of and degree of trust
in federal, state, and local assistance programs.
7.Engage community members in conducting surveys to assess
specific health problems
ASSESS HEALTH PROBLEMS IN AN
INDIVIDUAL

1. Obtain a history of physical and mental health


problems.
2. Ask the individual to identify major health
problems
3. Obtain a family history of disease.
4. Perform clinical examination, including
laboratory work.
CONT...

5.Evaluate health risk based on lifestyle.


6. Identify immediate and long range safety concerns
7. Assess individuals cultural beliefs about health
8. Examine the knowledge and practice of preventive
health care.
9. Provide appropriate age-based screening (e.g cancer,
sceerning, hypertension screening)
Thanks