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Consumers Markets and

Consumer Buyer Behavior

Chapter 5
Consumer market: all the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal

Consumer buying Behavior: the buying behavior of final consumers- individuals and households
who buy goods and services for personal consumption.
Characteristics affecting Consumer Behavior:
1- Culture: The set of basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviors learned by a member of
society from family and other important institutions. E.g Values in the American society may
include: achievement & success; activity & involvement; efficiency & practicality; progress,
individualism, freedom, fitness & health.
A- Sub-Culture: A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and
situations. E.g Black Consumers, Mexicans etc.b
B- Social Class: Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose numbers share
similar values, interests and behaviors. E.g Upper Uppers give large sums to charity, often buy
and dress conservatively, send their children to finest schools; Lower Uppers they buy for symbol
and status; Upper Middles are concerned with career, no family nor unusual wealth, e.g corporate
managers, believe in education; Middle Class they live better side of the town and do proper
things, most are concerned with fashion, seeking better brand names; Working Class depend
heavily on relatives for income , emotional support and advice on purchases, Upper Lowers have
their living standard just above poverty, they lack education and Lowers Lowers are poverty
stricken and usually out of work and are dependent on public aid and charity for income.
2- Reference Groups: People often are influenced by reference groups to which they do not belong.
Reference groups expose a person to new behavior, life styles and influence persons attitude.

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A- Family: The roles and influences of husband, wife and children on the purchase of different products is of great
importance to be known by the marketers. In case of expensive products and services , husband and wife make joint
B- Roles and Status: A persons position in each group( family, club, organization) can be defined in terms of both role
and status. Roles is consist of activities people expect to perform from a person e.g daughter-father whereas status
reflect general esteem given to it by society, e.g a brand manager .

3- Personal Factors: a- Age & Life Cycle Stage:

Family Life Cycle Stages


Single single older married

Married w/o children married w/o children Older Unmarried

Married with children married with children

Divorced with children Married w/o dependent children

divorced without children
divorced with children
divorced without dependent children
B- Occupation: e.g Blue collar workers tend to buy more work clothes, whereas white collar workers
buy more suits and ties.
C- Economic situation: If economic indicators point to a recession (decline), marketers can take steps
to redesign, reprice their products.

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D- Life-style: a persons pattern of living as expressed in his activities, interests and opinions. E.g
activities include work, hobbies, shopping, sports, social events; interests include food, fashion, family,
recreation and opinions include social issues, business , products and about themselves.

Lifestyle Classifications:

Actualizers: people with the highest income , image is important to them, open to change
FulFilleds: mature, responsible, well educated professionals. High income but are value oriented
Believers: conservative, predictable consumers . Their lives are centered on family, church, nation.
Achievers: successful, work oriented, get satisfaction from jobs and families and respect authority.
Strivers: peoples with values similar to those of achievers but with few economic, social and
psychological resources.
Experiencers: consumers who spend heavily on clothes, fast food, music. They Like new things.
Makers: They alike to affect their environment in practical ways, focus on family, work and physical
Strugglers: people with lowest income and too few resources.

E- Personality & Self-Concept: Personality is described in terms of traits such as self confidence,
dominance, defensiveness, adaptability and aggressiveness.
Self concept / self image: e.g a person may se himself as outgoing, creative and active and will favor
a camera that projects the same qualities . If Nikon promote a camera for same things ten it,s
brand image will match that persons self image.

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4- Psychological Factors: a- Motivation: Maslows theory of Motivation:
Self-actualization needs( self development and realization)
Esteem needs( self- esteem, recognition, status)
Social Needs( sense of belonging, love)
Safety needs( security, protection)
Psychological Needs( hunger ,thirst)

B- perception: the process by which people select, organize and interpret information to form a meaningful picture
of the world. Selective attention- the tendency for people to screen out most of the information they are exposed.
Selective distortion- the tendency of people to interpret information in a way that will support what they already
C- Learning : these are the changes in an individual's behavior arising from experience.
D-Belief: a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. Beliefs may be based on real knowledge,
opinion faith or may or may not carry emotional charge.
E-Attitude: A persons consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings and tendencies toward an object
or idea. E.g liking and disliking of things and moving towards or away from them
Buyer Decision Process

Purchase Post purchase

Need Information Evaluation of
Decision behavior
recognition search alternatives

Need recognition: At this stage a consumer recognizes a problem or need

Information Search: from personal sources ( family ,friends, neighbors), commercial sources( advertising,
salespeople, packaging, displays), Public sources( mass media) Experiential sources( handling, examining , using
the product)
Evaluation of Alternatives: The consumers uses information to evaluate alternative brands in their choice set.(
product attributes, degree of importance, brand image, total product satisfaction)
Purchase Decision: the stage at which consumer actually buys the product.
Post purchase Behavior: At this stage the consumer take further action after purchase based their satisfaction or

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