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Punctuation Rules: The Period

Presented by Juan Camilo Alvarez and Lucero Alvarez


August 29th 2017
What does it do?

It marks the end of sentences that are not questions or exclamations, like the following:
Complete statements (independent clause with a verb and a subject).
Greetings, requests, instructions or commands.
Sentences with indirect questions.
It separates ideas or complementary emphasis.
It separates elements of vertical lists, or lists with long elements.
It marks the end of a paragraph.
It helps make abbreviations.
It has other uses for specific notations; for instance, in computing it denotes domain
names and extensions, and in mathematics it denotes the decimal fraction in some regions,
and denotes each set of thousands in others.
Usage

It requires to be placed at the end of the sentence, right after the last letter. Also, the
next sentence must start with a space and a capital letter.
Several types of abbreviations, like for example:
Most shortened words like Mrs. (Mistress), Tues. (Tuesday), Jan. (January), Ave. (Avenue), Dr.
(Doctor).
Latin phrases like i.e. (in other words), e.g. (for example), etc. (and so forth).
Some measurements like in. (inches), ft. (feet), oz. (ounce).
Peoples names. For example, Jhon Andres Candamil written as J.A. Candamil.
When using quotation marks before a period, the period should be included before the
closing mark.
This is an example.
When using parentheses, if they contain a whole statement the period should go inside
them; otherwise, the period should go outside.
The period should be inside in this example (because this parentheses does not include an
entire sentence).
This example shows the other possible case. (The period goes inside here.)
Usage

An indirect question ends with a period, not a question mark.


Example:
Direct question: What is she doing tonight?
Indirect question (as a statement): I wonder what shes doing tonight.

To mark the end of a group of words that dont form a conventional sentence,
so as to emphasize a statement:
I keep reliving that moment. Over and over again.
When not to use periods

Before or after quotation or exclamation marks; however, in case there is an


abbreviation before one of these marks, the period must be included.
Exceptions of abbreviations. There are many special cases where periods are not
necessary, like: academic degrees, most acronyms, directions.
Separating fragments from main clauses (thats what commas are for).
Exercise
Edit the following passage by adding or removing periods, in order to improve it.
Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the
Earth in an intimate way most people dontthe coastlines, terrains, mountains, and
rivers; some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution
that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of
our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye. And its
fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favorite views of Earth is of the
Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colors, the
vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with
something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs;
whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make
a point of taking them to the Cupolaa module made entirely of windows looking
down on Earthto see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and
appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing. (The whole thing
does sound like a great adventure!).

Taken from the National Geographic Magazine.


http://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/08/space-odyssey-astronaut-
scott-kelly-book-endurance/
Exercise (Original)
Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the
Earth in an intimate way most people dontthe coastlines, terrains, mountains, and
rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution
that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of
our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its
fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favorite views of Earth is of the
Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colors. The
vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with
something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs.
Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make
a point of taking them to the Cupolaa module made entirely of windows looking
down on Earthto see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and
appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing. (The whole thing
does sound like a great adventure!)

Taken from the National Geographic Magazine.


http://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/08/space-odyssey-astronaut-
scott-kelly-book-endurance/