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Semester 4, 2008-2009

geokimia
2 SKS teori
by:
Dr. Hil. Gendoet Hartono

Selasa, jam 9.45 10.35


jam 10.40 11.35
Hari/Tgl Materi yang diajarkan Remark
Kamis/18-2-2010 PENDAHULUAN 1x pertemuan
Berisi tentang latarbelakang, difinisi, tujuan,
pengeritian geokimia dan cabang-cabang geokimia
Kamis/25-2-2010 PENGERTIAN DASAR GEOKIMIA 2x pertemuan
dan 4-3-2010 Berisi tentang unsur, senyawa, atom dan molekul,
susunan berkala unsur-unsur, dan bumi

Kamis/11-3-2010 STRUKTUR DAN KOMPOSISI BUMI 2x pertemuan


dan 18-3-2010 Berisi tentang data kegempaan dan densitas bumi,
struktur dan komposisi bumi, klasifikasi, dan RFM
Kamis/25-3-2010 KIMIA MINERAL 1x pertemuan
Kimia mineral kelompok silikat rantai : kimia mineral
piroksin, kimia mineral amfibol
1x pertemuan
29 Mar-10 Ujian Tengah Semester
Apr 2010 T.A. 2009-2010
Grading:
20 % quizzes and task
30 % mid test
50 % final test
Pustaka Bacaan:

Geochemistry, Brownlow, A.H. (1996)


Introduction to Geochemistry, Krauskopf, K.B.
dan Bird, D.K. (1995)
An Introduction to the Rock Forming Mineral,
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., dan Zussman, J. (1978)
Principles of Geochemistry, Mason, B. (1958)
Majalah Ilmiah yg membahas geologi dan kimia
What is unique about the Earth?
Earth is a Dynamic and
Evolving Planet
changes in its surface

changes in life
Start of Sun-driven part of Rock Cycle: WEATHERING
Two forms: Mechanical fragmentation by physical process but does not
change its chemical composition
Chemical Minerals in the rock are chemical altered or changed
There is a make
Atoms hierarchy to the elements
up elements.
of Geology

Elements combine to form


the natural compounds.

Natural compounds
and elements combine
to form minerals.
.

Minerals make up rocks.

Rocks make up the Earth.


Atomic Theory proposes that all matter is
composed of the atoms of about 100 different chemical
elements. It further proposes that chemical
compounds are formed by the combination of the
atoms of different chemical elements.

Elements can be arranged, based on their identifiable


properties, into the Periodic Table
O
Na Mg Al Si
K Ca Fe

Only eight elements make up over 98%


of the earths crust!
Geochemistry
Using rock compositions to understand
their origin and evolution
Major elements (not very useful, same
information as mineralogy!)
Trace elements
Isotopes
Identifying magmatic
processes
using geochemistry
Definisi:

pemerian sebaran unsur-unsur di dalam material


bumi dan alasan terhadap sebaran tersebut.
ilmu pengetahuan yg mempelajari kimia bumi
sebagai satu keseluruhan dan bagian-bagiannya.
Tujuan Geokimia:

Mengetahui penyebaran dan kelimpahan unsur-


unsur kimia dan isotop di dalam bagian-bagian
bumi dan formasi geologi, baik secara kualitatif
maupun kuantitatif.
Mencari aturan/prinsip yg berlaku terhadap
distribusi dan kelimpahan unsur-unsur tersebut.

Memahami kemungkinan adanya perubahan-


perubahan aturan distribusi dan kelimpahan
sebagai akibat evolusi bumi.
Cabang Geokimia:

Atmogeokimia, mempelajari kimia atmosfer bumi


Hidrogeokimia, mempelajari kimia air

Biokimia, mempelajari kimia makhluk hidup

Litogeokimia, mempelajari kimia litosfer bumi

Kosmogeokimia, mempelajari kimia benda-benda


luar bumi atau benda-benda luar angkasa
about 7,000oC 57million psi
Atmosphere

Ocean
Continental
Crust
Mid-
ocean
Base of
Ridge
lithosphere

Plume
Oc
e an
i c
Cr
us
t

Mantle
Core
?

Not to scale
Relationships of volcanic activity to plate tectonics.