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Chronicles of Civil Engineering

Robert Hooke on Elastic Materials

Thomas Young on Elastic Modulus

Civil Engineering vs. Military Engineering

Different Branches of Civil Engineering

Structural Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Hydraulic Engineering

Civil Engineering Constructions

Western Gate, Israel Pyramids, Egypt

Jeetawanarama, Sri Lanka Todai-ji Temple, Japan

Civil Engineering Constructions (Cont.)

Iron Bridge, UK Hoover Dam, USA

1827 1930
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge - Japan
Tall buildings

John Hancock Building

Sears building
WTC framed tube Bundled tube Diagonalized tube
Lesson Lesson Topic Total Sub-topics
No Hours

1. Identification of building elements.

INTRODUCTION 2. Theory and practice related to detail construction
1 TO BUILDING 10 drawings.
CONSTRUCTION 3. Use of construction drawings in the construction of
low rise buildings.
1. Identification and use of suitable building materials
and construction methods.
2. Familiarize with relevant standards related to
construction of foundations, walls, doors &
windows, roofs, ceilings, floors and finishes.
3. Introduction to suitable building materials and
construction methods for services including water
supply, sanitary facilities, electricity, fire fighting,
air-conditioning and vertical & horizontal
1. Manufacturing processes, properties, specifications
MANUFACTURING and test methods for major construction materials
3 20
PROCESSES including cement, sand, aggregates, steel, bricks,
timber, roof covering materials, pipes and fittings

A building is a permanent or temporary
structure enclosed within exterior walls and
a roof.

The appearance, structure, materials and

construction methods of a building are
selected to suit different locations,
circumstances and user requirements.
Evolution of Buildings


We spend (live, work, sleep etc. ) most of our time
in buildings.

There are many different types of buildings to

suit our various requirements.

Ex. House, office, factory, school, hospital, etc.

A building can be divided into substructure
(foundation) and superstructure. Plinth is the
dividing line between substructure and

In building construction, we study how the civil

works are carried out in the field after the building
layout is planned by an architect and structurally
designed by an engineer.
Types of Buildings
Buildings can be classified in several ways based on
different criteria.
Structural systems
Structural material
Type of construction







Structural System



Structural Material


Type of Construction



Building Projects
A building is constructed because someone wants

This person, who may act on his own or on behalf

of a group of people (company) is referred to as
the client.

A client would wish to complete a building project

within an agreed time, cost and acceptable quality.

The management of this process is project

Cost, Time and Quality
The quality, time and cost considerations are

If the completion date is critical higher cost (no

time to verify all cost effective solutions).

If the cost is critical more time (to verify the

most cost effective method).

There should be some compromise among time,

cost and quality.
Building Project Team
A building that meets requirements of a client
needs careful planning and construction.

In order to achieve this specific inputs are needed.

A building project team consisting of following
members is required to provide these inputs.
Project Manager
Design Team Architect, Structural Engineer,
Building Services Engineers, Quantity Surveyor
Building Elements
The following are the basic elements of a building:
Roof is the top most portion of the building which
provide top cover to the building. It should be leak

Sloping roof covers like tiles and asbestos sheets

give leak proof cover easily. But they do not give
provision for the construction of additional floors.
Flat roofs give provision for additional floors.
Terrace adds to the comfort of occupants. Water
tanks can be easily placed over the flat roofs.
Roof Types
Roof Shape and Structure
Various shapes and materials are available for the
formation of the roof.
Pitched (sheets or tiled) roof is framed by steel,
timber or concrete members.
Flat roofs usually constructed of reinforced
concrete and are used as roof terrace, roof
gardens, observation platforms etc.
Curved roofs places like temples, churches etc.
have prominent roofs of distinctive shape.
Flexible roofs using cable, fabric or membranes.
Floors are an important component of a building.
They give working/useful area for the occupants.

The ground floor is generally prepared by filling

brick bats, waste stones etc. on well compacted
soil. Alternatively, lean concrete is also used. On
this a damp proof course may be provided. Then
floor finishing is done as per the requirement of
the owner.

Upper floors are generally made out of reinforced

concrete (RCC).
Floor Systems
There are various types of floor systems.
Cast insitu reinforced concrete beam and slab
Floor systems using precast concrete ribbed
elements (no formwork or props required).
Timber floors supported on timber or steel
Composite floors combinations of concrete,
steel and timber.
Beam and Slab Precast Concrete
Columns are used to support the weight of the
suspended floors in framed structures.

Columns are generally square, rectangular or

circular in shape.

They are constructed out of reinforced concrete or

The function of walls is to transfer the load of the
structure vertically downwards to transfer it to
foundation. Apart from this wall performs the
following functions also:
It encloses building area into different
compartments and provides privacy.
It provides safety from burglary and insects.
It keeps the building warm in winter and cool in
Walls are mostly made of masonry. It may be brick,
blockwork, stonework etc.
Foundation is the most important part of the building.
Building activity starts with digging the ground for
foundation and then building it. It is the lower most
part of the building. It transfers the load of the
building to the ground. Its main functions and
requirements are:
Distribute the load from the structure to soil evenly
and safely.
To anchor the building to the ground so that under
lateral loads building will not move.
It gives level surface for the construction of super
Foundation Types
The type of foundation required for a building
depends on the column/wall loads and the ground
conditions of the site.
Shallow Foundations Strip (rubble / concrete),
pad (reinforced concrete), combined (reinforced
concrete) and raft (reinforced concrete).
Deep Foundations In poor ground conditions
the building may need to be founded on piles.
Shallow Foundations Deep Foundation
Sundry Building Elements
In addition to the main building elements following
sundry elements are also components of an
ordinary building.
Doors and windows
Building services
Selection of a Building Site
Following criteria can be used to select a site
suitable to construct a building.
Availability of vital facilities.
Accessibility to the site.
Geological considerations.
Orientation of the site.
Configuration and frontage.
Proximity of the site to essential amenities.
Quality of the environment.
Vital Facilities
Following facilities are vital and need to be
Water Supply Potable water for drinking,
washing and cleaning.
Electricity A must to construct a building.
Drainage - Disposal of foul water and surface
Communication Telephone facilities.
Accessibility and Access
Easy access is essential.
Safe and convenient access for pedestrians,
cyclists and motor vehicles.
Space for parking.
Geological Considerations
Physical characteristics of a site is important.
Topography Planning and layout is influenced
by the topography flooding, drainage, contours,
Ground Conditions Founding strata and subsoil
conditions influence the choice of foundations.
Poor Ground
Configuration and Frontage
Layout of the site and the space available are
important for certain types of buildings.
Local Authority requirements Allowances for
street line and rear space.
Clients requirements More / less frontage
depending on the type of development.
Proximity to Essential Facilities
A building should be located to complimentary
facilities for them to function properly.
Supermarkets should be located close to town
Schools and offices should be located in areas
where public transport is freely available.
Quality of the Environment
It is vital to check the following environmental
quality factors:
Air free of pollution, dust etc.
Water free of harmful chemicals.
Noise levels.
Industrial activity well controlled.
A locality where law and order is maintained.
Building Laws
In Sri Lanka as well as any country in the world,
buildings cannot be constructed in a haphazard
manner. Depending on the remoteness of the
location there are certain building laws governing
the construction of buildings.

In areas of law population such as villages in

remote country areas these laws are lax but from
village council and above they need to be followed.
In towns and more congested inner city areas,
building laws have to be strictly implemented.
Why Building Laws?
Building laws are in action to safeguard the
following issues:
Public health
Land use and zoning
Safety against hazards
Flexibility for future planning
Preservation of natural resources
Preservation of archeological sites.
Relevant Authorities
Following authorities enact building laws in areas
under their jurisdiction:
Local Authority of the area.
Urban Development Authority.
Central Environmental Authority.
Coast Conservation Board.
Department of Wildlife.
Authority Approval
It is necessary to obtain the approvals of all
planning authorities before starting construction of
a building.

It is generally the responsibility of the architect (or

the client) and he should initiate a dialogue with
the authorities concerned at an early stage to get
the advise of the authorities to make sure that
subsequent changes, which are costly ( due to
delays, design changes and complications), need to
be avoided.
Parameters Regulated
Following parameters are regulated by the building laws:
Distance to street line.
Minimum extent of the land plot.
Rear space.
Side space.
Access requirements.
Gap between the drinking water well and the toilet pit.
Road frontage requirements.
Light and ventilation requirements.
Clearance from electric lines.
Building heights.
Internal dimensions.
Minimum floor area of rooms.
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Steps in Construction of a Residential Building
Main steps involved:
Visit the site and verify the size of the site.
Draw a suitable plan for the building.
Get the drawings approved by the relevant authorities.
Prepare structural drawings.
Site preparation, construction of sheds, fences etc.
Set out the building.
Construct the building.
Complete electrical, plumbing and any other service works.
Construct interior features like shelves, pantry cupboards etc.
Construction of exterior works like boundary wall, gates etc.
and hardscaping and landscaping works.
Site Layout
Following items should be considered when
planning the site layout:

Access roads Access should be provided for

material deliveries during construction.
Temporary facilities Temporary sheds need to
be constructed to store construction materials
and to provide accommodation for the workers.
Site Preparation
Site clearing clearing and grubbing.
Enclosing the site to ensure safety of the
neighbours and to prevent stealing of
construction materials and equipment.
Construction of retaining walls
RRM walls, RC walls, Gabion walls and Soil nail
Services Required at Site
Following basic services are required at site.
Temporary electricity supply to operate
construction equipment and to provide lighting
to the labour camp.
Temporary water supply for construction works
and sanitary facilities of workers.
Waste and storm water drainage to keep the
site clean and to prevent damaging the new
construction work.
Setting Out
Before starting construction of buildings layout of
the proposed building as shown in the drawings
need to be transferred to the ground. Following
steps need to be followed in doing so.
Make sure that the legally required clearance for
the street line is allowed.
Requirements of rear space and side space need
to be satisfied.
A Typical Site Plan
A Typical Site Plan
Setting Out Pegs for Centre Line
Foundation Trenches
Site Setup
Use of Grid Lines
Usually, a primary baseline is provided from which all
other positions can be set out. It is normal to establish
a rectangular grid that includes all sides of the structure
(see example). The corner positions and the centres of
columns and their bases are set out from the baseline.

Each corner is checked by Theodolite (or Total Station),

comparing observed and calculated angles. Any
adjustment to the points to meet specification is done
at this stage. The grid lines should then be projected
beyond the construction area and referenced to well-
constructed/permanent control stations.
Use of Grid Lines
Use of Grid Lines
Example of checking procedure:
Set up instrument on BL1 and zero to BL6.
Observe A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, D6,
C6, B6, A6, A5, A4, A3, A2.
Set up instrument on A1, E1, E6, A6, BL6 and
Adjust points if necessary.
Reference lines beyond construction area.
Building Plans
Building plans include:
Setting out details.
Layout plans of the building.
Cross sections of the building.
Details of all the building elements like
foundations, floor slabs, columns, beams, roof,
doors, windows etc.
Details about the sanitary and electrical fittings.
Rather than depicting some of these items by their
actual configuration, it is usual to represent these
Construction Drawing Practices
Construction drawing is a means of showing in
graphical form the shape, size and position
together with the composition of materials used
and the way the building is to be constructed.
Drawing Paper Sizes
Line Types
Drawing Scale
It is not feasible to draw buildings to their actual
size. Instead they are drawn in proportion to the
actual measurements. This proportion is known as
the scale of the drawing.

Common scales are 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100,

1:200, 1:500, 1:1000 etc.

If the scale is 1:10, the object is drawn a tenth of its

actual size. In other words the object is ten times
larger than shown on the drawing.
It is important that all drawings are fully
dimensioned, so that the builder and others know
the required size of every part of the building:
Dimension lines should be unbroken lines
terminated at their ends with arrowheads /
oblique strokes.
If any dimension is not drawn to scale the letters
NTS (not to scale) should be written after the
scale or as a general note.
Dimension Lines
North points are generally shown on key plans, ste
plans, block plans etc. to indicate the position of
north relative to the site or building. The point of
the arrow should be drawn to face north.
Level Marks
Symbols for Construction Materials
Conventional Symbols for Construction Materials
Conventional Symbols for Construction Materials
Conventional Symbols for Construction Materials
Conventional Symbols for Construction Materials
Door Symbols
Window Symbols
Architectural Drawing Symbols
Building Services Symbols
Types of Plans
A building may be completely represented on
paper by the following types of plans:
Site plan.
Plan of each floor (ground floor plan, 1st floor
plan etc.)
Foundation plan.
Structural plan for each floor.
Roof/terrace plan.
Site Plans
A site plan is a location drawing showing a view
looking downwards. The purpose of a site plan is:
Provide a general picture of a site, including its
shape and extent.
Locate the proposed building with respect to the
roads and boundaries of the property.
Provide information on external services,
especially drinking water well and septic tank
A Typical Site Plan
Convention of Cutting a Plan
A building consists of a number of rooms including
toilets, kitchens etc interconnected through
corridors, passages, verandahs etc. Each room may
contain a number of doors, windows, almirahs,
cupboards etc. In order to represent these
elements on a plan, the plan is conventionally cut
at window sill level.
Convention of Cutting a Plan
Typical Floor Plan
The plan of a typical floor, cut at the window sill
level should include the following details:
Arrangement and dimensions of rooms showing
Any steps / stairs.
Finished floor levels.
Positions and dimensions of doors, windows,
cupboards, etc.
Furniture arrangement.
Sanitary fittings.
Doors & Windows
Doors are generally numbered as D1, D2, D3 etc.
At each door position it should be made clear
which way the door is hung.

It is usual practice to number the windows as
W1, W2, W3 etc.
Window positions are shown approximately on
the floor plans relative to walls.
Room Names & Notes
A name should be given to each room or space.
On large projects room numbers should be
Notes should be kept to a minimum.
Lettering should be easy to read.
A Typical Floor Plan
A Typical Toilet
A section is a view of a building making an
imaginary cut through it.:
A vertical section through a building will show
details of the construction of the foundations,
walls, floor, roof and other parts.
No. of sections required depends on the size and
complexity at least two along the length and
Sections provide overall vertical dimensions and
A Typical Cross Section
An elevation is a view of the building looking in a
horizontal direction:
Elevations provide details of the external faces of
the building.
Locate the door and window openings and other
features of the building.
A Typical Front Elevation
Foundation Plan
A foundation plan is sectioned at the foundation
level, depicting the details of various types of
foundations provided for the building. A building
may contain the following types of foundations:
Strip footings for walls.
Rectangular RCC footings for columns.
Combined RCC footings.
Strap footings
Raft foundations.
Foundation Plan

Rubble Masonry Foundations for Walls
Rectangular Pad Footings
Strap Footing for Two Columns
Combined Footing
Raft Foundation
Structural Floor Plan
A structural plan of a typical floor should contain:
Floor level.
Slab type / slab thickness.
Slab reinforcement details.
Layout / Details of beams.
Column locations.
Reinforcement Identification
Standard abbreviations are used to provide
information about the reinforcements.:
R - mild steel round bars (Yield Strength 250 N/mm2).
T - high tensile strength (tor steel) bars (Yield Strength
250 N/mm2).
T1/B1 - reinforcement near the top and bottom
face of the concrete respectively.

Ex. 21T10 10 200T1 means there are 21 bars of

high tensile steel of diameter 10mm with a bar mark
10 space 200mm apart near the top face of concrete.
Structural Floor Plan
Roof or Terrace Plan
The terrace plan is the plan at the roof level
Terrace plan at the roof level.
Roof details (material / slope angle / sloping
direction etc.).
Roof or Terrace Plan
Building Services
Special details of building services should be given
on a layout plan of the building:
Electrical wiring layout.
Cold water and sewerage pipe layouts.
A Typical Electrical Wiring Layout
Characteristics of a Structure
Stability needed to maintain shape. The
structure is dependent upon balanced
forces and equilibrium
Strength - ability of the structure to
withstand the applied forces, usually
includes a factor of safety
Economic Value includes choices made
about the design, materials, and function
of the structure
Steps in Structural Design
1. Planning what function will the structure
2. Preliminary structural configuration and layout
3. Establishing the loads to be carried
4. Preliminary sizing of members
5. Analysis of structural members
6. Evaluate and compare the preliminary design
7. Redesign or repeat the above steps as this is an
iterative process
8. Designing and detailing the structural
Forces and Loads
Design Loads

Dead Loads (DL) fixed loads

Building materials or components and the weight of structural
Given load of building, which is either calculated or is known
Live Loads (LL) transient and moving loads
Occupancy loads and furnishing loads, building usage varies
Construction loads
Live Load maybe variable during structures lifetime
Building codes specify Live Loads for floor and roof loadings
Design Loads (continued)
Wind Load (WL)
Depends on Height and location
of structure (Exposure

Resulting loads yields:

Lateral load on walls
Downward and upward pressure
on roofs
Overturning of the structure
Design Loads (continued)

Earthquake Loads (EQ)

Seismic load based on
building mass , type and
Vertical and lateral forces
Building codes can simplify

Hypocenter Forces at Base
of Building
Design Loads and Factor of Safety

Structural Design contains a Factor of Safety. In

order to accomplish this, Load Factors are applied
to the various calculated loads.
Building Code requirements are conservative in
the methods of distribution and the weights of
loads, which adds to the Factor of Safety.
Loads & Load Paths

Roof load

Use and occupancy load (such

as DL and LL)

Self weight of structure DL

Ground reaction
The building dead load is the only known
load. All other forces will vary in magnitude,
duration and location.
The building is designed for design load
possibilities that may never occur.
The structural efficiency of a building is
measured as the ratio of dead to live load.
The building designer strives to keep the
ratio low.
Beam Design
Beams are used in floors and roofs.
Maybe called floor joists, stringers, floor
beams or girders.
Loads on beams are either concentrated or
uniform loads
Beams are designed for Shear, Moment
(bending), and Deflection
Beams are sized appropriately to safely support the
loads a structure will carry.
Beams are primarily subjected to bending and shear.
Deflection and deformation can be calculated.
Beams are sized to provide the maximum result with
the minimum materials. A factor of safety is included
in the design.
Beam Deflection
Limit Deflection (BS 8110 Part 1) to
L/250 of total load (building use throughout life is
unknown) Preferred Limit

Ceiling cracks in plaster
Roof ponding (flat roofs)
Visual or psychological reasons, such as too much
deflection and people think it could be unsafe
Designers judgment
Beam Types


(fixed at one end)
Beam Types

Moments at each end

Propped- Fixed at one end supported at other

Columns carry primary Axial Loads and
therefore are designed for compression.
Additional loads from snow, wind or other
horizontal forces can cause bending in the
Columns then need to be designed for Axial
Load and Bending.
F (External)

Column Forces
Horizontal loads caused by wind,
snow, seismic or internal building WCOL (External)

R1 (Internal)

R2 (Internal)

WFTG (External)

RSoil (External)
Building Dead Loads

Weight of the structure

(steel, concrete, timber)
Partitions/ Walls
Electrical fixtures
Floor coverings
Roof coverings
Typical Building Dead Loads

Concrete (density 150 lb/ft3)

per 1 inch thickness 12.5 lb/ft2
Steel and Timber based on structural element weight s
Partitions/ Walls
Wood stud 2x4 12 to 16 on center
with gypsum board both sides 6 lb/ft2
Brick (4 thick) 40 lb/ft2
Concrete Block (8 Wall) 38 lb/ft2
Typical Building Dead Loads

Floor Covering
Tile 12 lb/ft2
Hardwood 4 lb/ft2
Linoleum 1 lb/ft2
Sub floor plywood 3 lb/ft2
Suspended 2 lb/ft2
Drywall 5 lb/ft2
Typical Building Dead Loads

Sheathing (3/4) 3 lb/ft2
Asphalt Shingles 3 lb/ft2
Insulation Loose lb/ft2
3 ply ready roofing 1 lb/ft2
5ply felt and gravel 6 lb/ft2
Electrical, Ductwork and Plumbing
these loads can vary - Estimated 10 lb/ft2
Estimate depends on the type of building
Some may use a percentage of Dead Load
Typical Building Uniform Live Loads
First Floor 100 lb/ft2
Upper Floors 80 lb/ft2
Stadiums and Arenas
Bleachers 100 lb/ft2
Fixed Seats 60 lb/ft2
Stacks 150 lb/ft2
Reading rooms 60 lb/ft2

Offices 50 lb/ft2
Typical Building Uniform Live Loads

Classrooms 40 lb/ft2
First floor corridors 100 lb/ft2
Corridors above first floor 80 lb/ft2
Stadiums and Arenas
Bleachers 100 lb/ft2
Fixed Seats 60 lb/ft2
Residential (one and two family) 40 lb/ft2
Hotels and Multifamily
Private rooms and corridors 40 lb/ft2
Private rooms and corridors 100 lb/ft2
Design for Wind Loads
Dead Loads figure in the evaluation of a building when
designing for Wind Load.
The building Dead Load can help resist the Overturning and
Uplift conditions caused by wind.
Typically, a building framed with steel beams and columns will
have some type of bracing, such as steel cross bracing or
masonry block walls on exterior or in elevator shaft to handle
the wind load conditions.
The floor slab also helps resist wind loads and shear loads