World Wide Trend for Blast Furnace Burden Availability and Cost are the major factors. Lump Ore and Sinter popular in countries like India, Brazil where Rich ores are available . Pellets are popular in USA, Canada, China, Europe due to low Fe magnetite ores Almost all combinations and proportions of Lump ore, Sinter and Pellets are used Some Canadian/US furnaces use 100% pellets While some Japanese furnaces use 100 % sinter No Big Size furnace operates without Sinter or Pellets


one of the major agglomeration techniques used reparing Iron Ore Fines to a form suitable for ging in BF. Pellets produced are generally 9 to16 dia. ron ore used for pelletization needs to be hed to finer sizes (generally -300 mesh). The pellets produced are much stronger than sinter can be transported with many falls without kages. Due to their spherical shape and greater uniformity e pellets improve the gas permeability in BF. can be stored for months together.

Pelletization Process Description The pelletization process consists of forming green balls out of a very finely ground mixture of Iron ore fines, flux, coke breeze and a binder like bentonite. These balls are then fired in an indurating furnace to get hardened balls called pellets. The fired pellets are then segregated for size and the fraction between 9 to 16 mm is sent to Blast furnace as the finished product.

The Raw Materials used in Pellet Making Iron ore Fines/concentrate Flux Coke Breeze Binder like Bentonite All Iron Bearing Waste materials produced in Integrated Steel Plants Like Mill Scale, Sludge, Flue Dust etc.

Different Units of Pellet Plant 1.Raw Material Receiving Section 2.Proportioning 3.Drying & Grinding Unit 4.Ground Material Storage 5.Mixing Unit 6.Balling Unit 7.Induration furnace/machine 8.Pellet segregation & Hearth Layer Separation 9.Product Storage/Dispatch

Raw Material Receiving Section It consists of a few Receiving Conveyors and Bins for receiving and storage of the different raw materials.

Proportioning Section
Proportioning of the different Raw materials is accomplished using weigh feeders of suitable capacities. These weigh feeders are placed under respective bunkers and are controlled throgh a PLC. A typical raw material proporyion could be: Iron Ore Fines 439.8 T/h 965 Kg/T of pellets Sludges 18.2 T/h 40 CokeBreeze 9.1 T/h 20 Bentonite 3.2 T/h 7 L.S. 11.4 T/h 25

Drying & Grinding Unit
Typically the input material sizes are as under: Ore Fines -8 mm Sludges -1 mm Coke -25 mm L.S. -10 mm Bentonite -5 mm The drier cum grinder unit consists of two parts the first part being the drier. Drying is done using a hot gas generator burning mixed gas.

After drying, the moisture level is less than 1 %. The grinding section uses steel balls as the grinding medium. Closed circuit grinding uses air separators for separating coarse particles from the output. Air slides and bucket conveyors carry the ground material to silos.

Ground Material Storage The output from drying and grinding unit is stored in silos. The silos are equipped with aeration equipment, electrically operated gates and air lock valves at the outlet. Belt weigh feeders are provided below the silo for drawing out material at desired rate.

Mixing Unit Paddle Mixers are used to produce a thoroughly uniform mix after adding water. The ground material from the silos is charged to the mixer. Bulk of water addition is done here. The mixed material from the mixer is then carried to the green pellet forming unit.

BALLING UNIT To form green pellets with sufficient strength which can be loaded onto the induration machine without breakage. Pelletizers consist of inclined (at 45 to 50 deg) rotating discs , rotating between 5 -12 rpm. Controlled quantity of water is added to adjust the final moisture .

Induration of Green Balls 1. It is the thermal treatment of green pellets through stages of Drying, Preheating, Firing, After Firing & Cooling 2. It is the main unit of the Pellet Plant. 3. Two types of indurations units are popular: Traveling Grate type:(70%). Grate Kiln type : (30%).

Principle of Travelling Grate M/c Pelletization as opposed to sintering uses gas as the main fuel. The consumption of gas is very high compared to that in Sintering. Hence recirculation of hot waste gases is highly important. An elaborate scheme is devised to utilize the sensible heat of waste gases to the maximum.

Indurated Pellets

Pellet plant

Pellets with their higher Fe content(63 %) as opposed to sinter with Fe Content of max 54% offer an attractive solution easing the transportation problem considerably. Pellets are considerably stronger than sinter, the size does not degrade during transportation. Hence the "PELLET RETURNS" if at all are NEGLIGIBLE.

Due to their higher strength dust pollution is negligible. This will reduce Air Pollution in High lines area to a great extent. If an effort is made to divert ore fines with higher 1 mm fraction to Pellet Plant and the ore fines with lesser -1 mm fraction sent to Sinter Plant, benefits will accrue to both Sinter Plant and Pellet Plant. Pellet Plant will spend less energy on crushing and grinding while the productivity and quality of Sinter will improve due to better raw material quality. This will ultimately benefit Blast Furnaces and BSP.

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