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Power Electronics

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PHASE CONTROLLED

CONVERTERS

Phase-Control

Phase-Control Converters

Converters

Single-Phase

Single-Phase Three-Phase

Three-Phase

Semiconverter

Semiconverter Semiconverter

Semiconverter

Full

Full converter

converter Full

Full converter

converter

Dual

Dual converter

converter Dual

Dual converter

converter

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Semiconverter

Semiconverter

..is

..is aa one-quadrant

one-quadrant converter

converter and

and itit has

has one

one polarity

polarity

Full

Full converter

converter

..is

..is aa two-quadrant

two-quadrant converter

converter andand the

the polarity

polarity of

of its

its

output

output can

can be

be either

either positive

positive oror negative.

negative.

However

However

the

the output

output current

current of

of full

full converter

converter has

has

one

one polarity

polarity only

only

Dual

Dual converter

converter

..can

..can operate

operate in

in four

four quadrants

quadrants ;; both both the

the output

output

voltage

voltage and

and current

current can

can be

be either

either positive

www.Vidyarthiplus.com positive or

or negative

negative

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Average

Average Output

Output Voltage

Voltage

11 VVmm

VVdcdc sin

VVmm sin td

td tt 11 cos

cos

22 22

Maximum

Maximum VVmm

VVdm

dm

Output

Output Voltage

Voltage

VVdcdc

Normalizing

Normalizing VVnn 00..5511 cos

cos

Output

Output Voltage

Voltage VVdm

dm

RMS

RMS Output

Output Voltage

Voltage

11 VVmm 11 sin

sin 22

sin td tt

22 22

VVrms

rms

VVmm sin td

22 22

www.Vidyarthiplus.com 22

If

If the

the converter

converter has

has aa purely

purely resistive

resistive load

load of

of R

R and

and

the

the delay

delay angle is ,, / 2 determine

angle is determine

(a)

(a) the

the rectification

rectification efficiency

efficiency

(b)

(b) the

the form

form factor

factor FF

FF

(c)

(c) the

the ripple

ripple factor

factor RF

RF

and

and (d)

(d) the

the peak

peak inverse

inverse voltage

voltage PIV

PIV ofof thyristor

thyristor TT11

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11 VVmm

VVdcdc sin

VVmm sin td

td tt 11 cos

cos

22 22 22

22

VVdcdc 00..1592

1592VVmm

22

VVmm 11 2

2 00..3536

rms

VVrms sin

sin 3536VVmm

22 22 22

VV 22

dc

1592VVmm

00..1592

22

20.27%

22 20.27%

dc

VV 22

rms

rms

00..3536

3536VVmm

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If

If the

the converter

converter has

has aa purely

purely resistive

resistive load

load of

of R

R and

and

the

the delay

delay angle is ,, / 2 determine

angle is determine

(a)

(a) the

the rectification

rectification efficiency

efficiency

(b)

(b) the

the form

form factor

factor FF

FF

(c)

(c) the

the ripple

ripple factor

factor RF

RF

and

and (d)

(d) the

the peak

peak inverse

inverse voltage

voltage PIV

PIV ofof thyristor

thyristor TT11

VVrms 00..3536

3536VVmm

FF

FF rms 22..221

221

V

Vdcdc 00..1592

1592VVmm

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If

If the

the converter

converter has

has aa purely

purely resistive

resistive load

load of

of R

R and

and

the

the delay

delay angle is ,, / 2 determine

angle is determine

(a)

(a) the

the rectification

rectification efficiency

efficiency

(b)

(b) the

the form

form factor

factor FF

FF

(c)

(c) the

the ripple

ripple factor

factor RF

RF

RF FF

FF 11 22..221

221 11 11..983

22 22

RF 983

and

and (d)

(d) the

the peak

peak inverse

inverse voltage

voltage PIV

PIV of

of thyristor

thyristor TT11

PIV VVmm

PIV

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Semiconverterwww.Vidyarthiplus.com

Single-Phase

Single-Phase Semiconverter

Semiconverter

22 VVmm

VVdcdc sin

VVmm sin td

td tt 11 cos

cos

22

22

sin td

tt

22 22

rms

VVrms VVmm sin td

22

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Single-Phase

Single-Phase Semiconverter

Semiconverter (RL-load) (RL-load)

Mode 11 L di

Mode diLL11

Ri

L Ri LL11

EE 00

0 t dt

dt

R

EE

R

RR

IILL11 iiLL11

tt IILL00ee

11ee

LL LL

RR

Mode

Mode 22

t 11 L

ZZ RR L

22 22

L tan

L tan

di R

R

di Ri sin

RiLL22 EE 22VVSS sin

LL22

LL tt

dt

dt

22VVSS EE EE 22VVSS RR

LLtt

IILL22 sin

sin tt IILL11 sin ee

sin

ZZ RR RR ZZ

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Single-Phase

Single-Phase Semiconverter

Semiconverter (RL-load)

(RL-load)

RMS

RMS Current

Current 1

IR i d t

2

for

for Thyristor

Thyristor 2

L2

RMS

RMS Current 1

for

Current

for Thyristor

Thyristor

IA

2 i d t

L2

RMS

RMS Output

Output I 1 1

i d t

2

i d t

2

Current

Current rms

2 0

L1

2

L2

AVG Output I 1 i d t 1

AVG Output

Current

Current

dc

1

2www.Vidyarthiplus.com

0 2 i d t

2

The

The single-phase

single-phase semiconverter

semiconverter has has an

an RLRL loadload ofof

LL == 6.5mH,

6.5mH, R R == 2.5

2.5 Ohm,

Ohm, and and EE == 1010 V.V. The

The inputinput

voltage

voltage is is V

VSS == 120

120 V(rms)

V(rms) at at 60

60 Hz.

Hz. Determine

Determine

(a)

(a) the

the load

load current

current IIL0 at

at t 0 ,, and

and the

the load

load

L0

current I at t 60 ,

current IL1 L1 at ,

(b)

(b) the

the average

average thyristor

thyristor current

current IIAA

(c)

(c) the

the rms

rms thyristor

thyristor current current IIRR

(d)

(d) the

the rms

rms output

output currentcurrent IIrms

rms

and

and (e)

(e) the

the average

average output

output current

current IIdcdc

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Rectification

Mode

Inversion

Mode

Single-Phase

Full Converter www.Vidyarthiplus.com

Single-Phase

Single-Phase Full

Full Converter

Converter

22 22VVmm

VVdcdc VVmm sin

sin ttdd

tt cos

cos

22

22 22 22 VVmm

rms

VVrms VVmm sin

sin

ttdd tt

22 22

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Single-Phase

Single-Phase Full

Full Converter

Converter (RL-load)

(RL-load)

11

LL

Mode 1 = Mode 2 ZZ RR

LL

22

Mode 1 = Mode 2 tantan

22

RR

22VVSS EE EE 22VVSS RR

LLtt

IILL sin

sin tt IILL00 sin ee

sin

ZZ RR RR ZZ

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Single-Phase

Single-Phase Full

Full Converter

Converter (RL-load)

(RL-load)

RMS

RMS Current

Current 1

IR i d t

2

for

for Thyristor

Thyristor 2

L

RMS

RMS Current 1

Current IA i L d t

for

for Thyristor

Thyristor 2

RMS

RMS Output

Output I rms I R2 I R2 2 I R

Current

Current

AVG

AVG Output

Output I dc I A I A 2 I A

Current

Current www.Vidyarthiplus.com

Dual

Converter

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Single-Phase

Single-Phase Dual

Dual Converter

Converter

22VVmm

VVdcdc11 cos

cos 11

22VVmm

VVdcdc22 cos

cos 22

VVdcdc11 VVdcdc22

High-Power

High-Power Variable-Speed

Variable-Speed Drives

Drives

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Three-Phase

Semiconverter

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3 Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage.

They provide higher dc output voltage.

Higher dc output power.

Higher output voltage ripple frequency.

Filtering requirements are simplified for

smoothing out load voltage and load

current.

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Extensively used in high power variable

speed industrial dc drives.

Three single phase half-wave converters

can be connected together to form a three

phase half-wave converter.

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3-Phase

Half Wave Converter

(3-Pulse Converter)

with

RL Load

Continuous & Constant

Load Current Operation

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Vector Diagram of

3 Phase Supply Voltages

V CN

0

120

0 V A N RNv v AN

120

120

0 vYN vBN

vBN vCN

V BN

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3 Phase Supply Voltage

Equations

We deifine three line to neutral voltages

(3 phase voltages) as follows

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vRN van Vm sin t ;

Vm Max. Phase Voltage

2

vYN t

vbn Vm sin

3

Vm sin t 1200

2

vBN t

vcn Vm sin

3

Vm sin t 120 0

Vm sin t 240 0

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van vbn vcn van

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Each thyristor conducts for 2/3 (1200)

Constant Load

Current

io=Ia

Ia

Ia

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To Derive an

Expression for the

Average Output Voltage of a

3-Phase Half Wave Converter

with RL Load

for Continuous Load Current

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T1 is triggered at t 300

6

5

T2 is triggered at t 1500

6

7

T3 is triggered at t 270

0

6

0 2

Each thytistor conducts for 120 or radians

3

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5

6

3Vm

Vdc sin t.d t

2

6

5

6

3Vm

Vdc cos t

2

6

3Vm 5

Vdc cos cos

2 6 6

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Note from the trigonometric relationship

cos A B cos A.cos B sin A.sin B

5 5

cos

cos sin sin

3Vm 6 6

Vdc

2

cos .cos sin sin

6 6

3Vm

cos 150 0

cos

sin 150 0

sin

Vdc

2

cos 30 0

.cos sin 30 0

sin

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3Vm

cos 180 0

30 0

cos sin 180 0

30 0

sin

Vdc

2

cos 30 0

.cos sin 30 0

sin

Note: cos 1800 300 cos 300

sin 1800 300 sin 300

3Vm

cos 30 0

cos sin 30 0

sin

\Vdc

2

cos 30 0

.cos sin 30 0

s in

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3Vm

Vdc

2

2 cos 30 0

cos

3Vm 3

Vdc 2 cos

2 2

3Vm 3 3Vm

Vdc 3 cos cos

2 2

3VLm

Vdc cos

2

Where VLm 3Vm Max. line to line supply voltage

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The maximum average or dc output voltage is

obtained at a delay angle 0 and is given by

3 3 Vm

Vdc max Vdm

2

Where Vm is the peak phase voltage.

And the normalized average output voltage is

Vdc

Vdcn Vn cos

Vdm

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The rms value of output voltage is found by

using the equation

1

5

6

2

3

VO RMS Vm sin t.d t

2 2

2

6

and we obtain

1

1 3 2

VO RMS 3Vm cos 2

6 8

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3 Phase Half Wave

Controlled Rectifier Output

Voltage Waveforms For RL

Load

at

Different Trigger Angles

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V an V bn V cn

V

=300

0

0

=30

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

t

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

V V V

an bn cn

V 0

= 60

0

=600

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

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V V

bn cn

V an

=900

V 0

0

=90

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

t

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

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3 Phase Half Wave

Controlled Rectifier With

R Load

and

RL Load with FWD

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T 1 T 1

a a

T 2 T 2

b b +

T 3 T 3

c c

R R V 0

V 0

L

n n

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3 Phase Half Wave

Controlled Rectifier Output

Voltage Waveforms For R Load

or RL Load with FWD

at

Different Trigger Angles

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V an

V bn V cn

=0

V s

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

=0

t

0

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

V an

V bn V cn

=15 =150

0

V 0 t

0 30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

210

0

240

0

270

0

300

0

330

0

360

0

390

0

420

0

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V an

V bn V cn

= 3 0 0

0

=300

V 0

30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

210

0

240

0

270

0

300

0

330

0

360

0

390

0

420

0 t

V an

V bn V cn

= 6 0 0

V

=600

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

t

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

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To Derive An

Expression For The Average Or

Dc Output Voltage Of A

3 Phase Half Wave Converter

With Resistive Load

Or

RL Load With FWD

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T1 is triggered at t 30

0

6

T1 conducts from 300 to 1800 ;

vO van Vm sin t

5

T2 is triggered at t 1500

6

T2 conducts from 150 to 300 ;

0 0

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7

T3 is triggered at t 270

0

6

T3 conducts from 270 to 420 ;

0 0

Vm sin t 120 0

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3 1800

Vdc vO .d t

2

300

vO van Vm sin t ; for t 300 to 1800

3 1800

Vdc Vm sin t.d t

2 300

3Vm

0

180

Vdc sin t.d t

2 300

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3Vm 1800

Vdc cos t

2 300

3Vm

Vdc

2

cos180 0

cos 30 0

Q cos180 1, we get

0

3Vm

Vdc

2

1 cos 30 0

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Three Phase Semiconverters

dc drive applications upto 120kW power output.

Single quadrant operation is possible.

Power factor decreases as the delay angle

increases.

Power factor is better than that of 3 phase half

wave converter.

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3 Phase

Half Controlled Bridge Converter

(Semi Converter)

with Highly Inductive Load &

Continuous Ripple free Load

Current

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Wave forms of 3 Phase

Semiconverter for

> 600

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3 phase semiconverter output ripple frequency of

output voltage is 3 f S

During the period

300 t < 2100

7

t < , thyristor T1 is forward biased

6 6

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If thyristor T1 is triggered at t

,

6

T1 & D1 conduct together and the line to line voltage

vac appears across the load.

7

At t , vac becomes negative & FWD Dm conducts.

6

The load current continues to flow through FWD Dm ;

T1 and D1 are turned off.

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If FWD Dm is not used the T1 would continue to

conduct until the thyristor T2 is triggered at

5

t , and Free wheeling action would

6

be accomplished through T1 & D2 .

If the delay angle , each thyristor conducts

3

2

for and the FWD Dm does not conduct.

3

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We deifine three line neutral voltages

(3 phase voltages) as follows

vRN van Vm sin t ; Vm Max. Phase Voltage

2

t

vYN vbn Vm sin

m

3

V sin t 120 0

2

vBN vcn Vm sin

t

m

3

V sin t 120 0

Vm sin t 240 0

Vm is the peak phase voltage of a wye-connected source.

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vRB vac van vcn 3Vm sin

t

6

5

vYR vba vbn van 3Vm sin

t

6

vBY vcb vcn vbn 3Vm sin

t

2

vRY vab van vbn 3Vm sin t

6

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Wave forms of 3 Phase

Semiconverter for

600

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www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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To derive an

Expression for the

Average Output Voltage

of 3 Phase Semiconverter

for > / 3

and Discontinuous Output Voltage

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For and discontinuous output voltage:

3

the Average output voltage is found from

7

3 6

Vdc v .d t

2

ac

6

7

6

3

Vdc 3 V sin

t d

t

2

m

6

6

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3 3Vm

Vdc 1 cos

2

3VmL

Vdc 1 cos

2

VmL 3Vm Max. value of line-to-line supply voltage

The maximum average output voltage that occurs at

a delay angle of 0 is

3 3Vm

Vdc max Vdm

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The normalized average output voltage is

Vdc

Vn 0.5 1 cos

Vdm

The rms output voltage is found from

1

7

3 6 2

VO rms v 2

.d t

2

ac

6

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Three Phase Dual Converters

variable speed dc drives , 3 phase dual

converters are used.

Used for applications up to 2 mega watt output

power level.

Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full

converters which are connected in parallel & in

opposite directions across a common load.

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Outputs of Converters 1 & 2

the line to line voltage vab appears across

the output of converter 1 and vbc appears

across the output of converter 2

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We deifine three line neutral voltages

(3 phase voltages) as follows

vRN van Vm sin t ;

Vm Max. Phase Voltage

2

vYN vbn Vm sin t Vm sin t 120

0

3

2

vBN vcn Vm sin t Vm sin t 120

0

3

Vm sin t 240 0

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We deifine three line neutral voltages

(3 phase voltages) as follows

vRN van Vm sin t ;

Vm Max. Phase Voltage

2

vYN vbn Vm sin t Vm sin t 1200

3

2

vBN vcn Vm sin t Vm sin t 1200

3

Vm sin t 2400

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To obtain an Expression for the Circulating

Current

converters 1 and 2 respectively, the

instantaneous voltage across the current

limiting inductor during the interval

(/6 + 1) t (/2 + 1) is given by

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vr vO1 vO 2 vab vbc

vr 3Vm sin t sin t

6 2

vr 3Vm cos t

6

The circulating current can be calculated by

using the equation

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t

1

ir t v .d t

r

Lr

1

6

t

1

ir t .d t

t

3Vm cos

Lr 6

1

6

3Vm

ir t t sin 1

sin

Lr 6

3Vm

ir max

Lr

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Four Quadrant Operation

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There are two different modes of

operation.

Circulating current free

(non circulating) mode of operation

Circulating current mode of operation

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Non Circulating

Current Mode Of Operation

In this mode of operation only one converter is

switched on at a time

When the converter 1 is switched on,

For 1 < 900 the converter 1 operates in the

Rectification mode

Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the

average load power Pdc is positive.

Power flows from ac source to the load

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When the converter 1 is on,

For 1 > 900 the converter 1

operates in the Inversion mode

Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the

average load power Pdc is negative.

Power flows from load circuit to ac

source.

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When the converter 2 is switched on,

For 2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in

the Rectification mode

Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the

average load power Pdc is positive.

The output load voltage & load current

reverse when converter 2 is on.

Power flows from ac source to the load

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When the converter 2 is switched on,

For 2 > 900 the converter 2 operates in the

Inversion mode

Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the average

load power Pdc is negative.

Power flows from load to the ac source.

Energy is supplied from the load circuit to the ac

supply.

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Circulating Current

Mode Of Operation

Both the converters are switched on at the same

time.

One converter operates in the rectification mode

while the other operates in the inversion mode.

Trigger angles 1 & 2 are adjusted such that (1

+ 2) = 1800

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When 1 < 900, converter 1 operates

as a controlled rectifier. 2 is made

greater than 900 and converter 2

operates as an Inverter.

Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc

is positive.

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When 2 < 900, converter 2 operates

as a controlled rectifier. 1 is made

greater than 900 and converter 1

operates as an Inverter.

Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and

Pdc is positive.

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