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UNIT II

PHASE CONTROLLED
CONVERTERS
Phase-Control
Phase-Control Converters
Converters

Single-Phase
Single-Phase Three-Phase
Three-Phase

Semiconverter
Semiconverter Semiconverter
Semiconverter

Full
Full converter
converter Full
Full converter
converter

Dual
Dual converter
converter Dual
Dual converter
converter
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Semiconverter
Semiconverter
..is
..is aa one-quadrant
one-quadrant converter
converter and
and itit has
has one
one polarity
polarity
Full
Full converter
converter
..is
..is aa two-quadrant
two-quadrant converter
converter andand the
the polarity
polarity of
of its
its
output
output can
can be
be either
either positive
positive oror negative.
negative.
However
However
the
the output
output current
current of
of full
full converter
converter has
has
one
one polarity
polarity only
only

Dual
Dual converter
converter
..can
..can operate
operate in
in four
four quadrants
quadrants ;; both both the
the output
output
voltage
voltage and
and current
current can
can be
be either
either positive
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or negative
negative
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Average
Average Output
Output Voltage
Voltage

11 VVmm
VVdcdc sin
VVmm sin td
td tt 11 cos
cos
22 22
Maximum
Maximum VVmm
VVdm
dm
Output
Output Voltage
Voltage
VVdcdc
Normalizing
Normalizing VVnn 00..5511 cos
cos
Output
Output Voltage
Voltage VVdm
dm
RMS
RMS Output
Output Voltage
Voltage

11 VVmm 11 sin
sin 22

sin td tt

22 22
VVrms
rms
VVmm sin td
22 22
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If
If the
the converter
converter has
has aa purely
purely resistive
resistive load
load of
of R
R and
and
the
the delay
delay angle is ,, / 2 determine
angle is determine
(a)
(a) the
the rectification
rectification efficiency
efficiency
(b)
(b) the
the form
form factor
factor FF
FF
(c)
(c) the
the ripple
ripple factor
factor RF
RF
and
and (d)
(d) the
the peak
peak inverse
inverse voltage
voltage PIV
PIV ofof thyristor
thyristor TT11

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11 VVmm
VVdcdc sin
VVmm sin td
td tt 11 cos
cos
22 22 22
22

VVdcdc 00..1592
1592VVmm

22
VVmm 11 2
2 00..3536
rms
VVrms sin
sin 3536VVmm
22 22 22


VV 22
dc

1592VVmm
00..1592
22
20.27%
22 20.27%
dc
VV 22
rms
rms
00..3536
3536VVmm
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If
If the
the converter
converter has
has aa purely
purely resistive
resistive load
load of
of R
R and
and
the
the delay
delay angle is ,, / 2 determine
angle is determine
(a)
(a) the
the rectification
rectification efficiency
efficiency
(b)
(b) the
the form
form factor
factor FF
FF
(c)
(c) the
the ripple
ripple factor
factor RF
RF
and
and (d)
(d) the
the peak
peak inverse
inverse voltage
voltage PIV
PIV ofof thyristor
thyristor TT11

VVrms 00..3536
3536VVmm
FF
FF rms 22..221
221
V
Vdcdc 00..1592
1592VVmm

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If
If the
the converter
converter has
has aa purely
purely resistive
resistive load
load of
of R
R and
and
the
the delay
delay angle is ,, / 2 determine
angle is determine
(a)
(a) the
the rectification
rectification efficiency
efficiency
(b)
(b) the
the form
form factor
factor FF
FF
(c)
(c) the
the ripple
ripple factor
factor RF
RF

RF FF
FF 11 22..221
221 11 11..983
22 22
RF 983

and
and (d)
(d) the
the peak
peak inverse
inverse voltage
voltage PIV
PIV of
of thyristor
thyristor TT11
PIV VVmm
PIV
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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Semiconverter
Semiconverter


22 VVmm
VVdcdc sin
VVmm sin td
td tt 11 cos
cos
22

22
sin td
tt
22 22
rms
VVrms VVmm sin td
22

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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Semiconverter
Semiconverter (RL-load) (RL-load)
Mode 11 L di
Mode diLL11
Ri
L Ri LL11
EE 00
0 t dt
dt

R
EE
R
RR

IILL11 iiLL11
tt IILL00ee

11ee
LL LL
RR
Mode
Mode 22
t 11 L
ZZ RR L
22 22
L tan
L tan
di R
R
di Ri sin
RiLL22 EE 22VVSS sin
LL22
LL tt
dt
dt
22VVSS EE EE 22VVSS RR
LLtt
IILL22 sin
sin tt IILL11 sin ee
sin
ZZ RR RR ZZ
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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Semiconverter
Semiconverter (RL-load)
(RL-load)

RMS
RMS Current
Current 1
IR i d t
2
for
for Thyristor
Thyristor 2
L2

RMS
RMS Current 1

for
Current
for Thyristor
Thyristor
IA
2 i d t
L2

RMS
RMS Output
Output I 1 1
i d t
2
i d t
2
Current
Current rms
2 0
L1
2
L2

AVG Output I 1 i d t 1
AVG Output

Current
Current
dc
1
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0 2 i d t
2
The
The single-phase
single-phase semiconverter
semiconverter has has an
an RLRL loadload ofof
LL == 6.5mH,
6.5mH, R R == 2.5
2.5 Ohm,
Ohm, and and EE == 1010 V.V. The
The inputinput
voltage
voltage is is V
VSS == 120
120 V(rms)
V(rms) at at 60
60 Hz.
Hz. Determine
Determine
(a)
(a) the
the load
load current
current IIL0 at
at t 0 ,, and
and the
the load
load
L0
current I at t 60 ,
current IL1 L1 at ,
(b)
(b) the
the average
average thyristor
thyristor current
current IIAA
(c)
(c) the
the rms
rms thyristor
thyristor current current IIRR
(d)
(d) the
the rms
rms output
output currentcurrent IIrms
rms
and
and (e)
(e) the
the average
average output
output current
current IIdcdc
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Rectification
Mode

Inversion
Mode

Single-Phase
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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Full
Full Converter
Converter

22 22VVmm
VVdcdc VVmm sin
sin ttdd
tt cos
cos
22
22 22 22 VVmm
rms
VVrms VVmm sin
sin
ttdd tt
22 22

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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Full
Full Converter
Converter (RL-load)
(RL-load)
11
LL
Mode 1 = Mode 2 ZZ RR
LL
22
Mode 1 = Mode 2 tantan
22

RR
22VVSS EE EE 22VVSS RR
LLtt
IILL sin
sin tt IILL00 sin ee
sin
ZZ RR RR ZZ

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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Full
Full Converter
Converter (RL-load)
(RL-load)

RMS
RMS Current
Current 1
IR i d t
2
for
for Thyristor
Thyristor 2
L

RMS
RMS Current 1
Current IA i L d t
for
for Thyristor
Thyristor 2

RMS
RMS Output
Output I rms I R2 I R2 2 I R
Current
Current

AVG
AVG Output
Output I dc I A I A 2 I A
Current
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Dual
Converter
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Single-Phase
Single-Phase Dual
Dual Converter
Converter

22VVmm
VVdcdc11 cos
cos 11

22VVmm
VVdcdc22 cos
cos 22

VVdcdc11 VVdcdc22

High-Power
High-Power Variable-Speed
Variable-Speed Drives
Drives
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Three-Phase
Semiconverter

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3 Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage.
They provide higher dc output voltage.
Higher dc output power.
Higher output voltage ripple frequency.
Filtering requirements are simplified for
smoothing out load voltage and load
current.

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Extensively used in high power variable
speed industrial dc drives.
Three single phase half-wave converters
can be connected together to form a three
phase half-wave converter.

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3-Phase
Half Wave Converter
(3-Pulse Converter)
with
RL Load
Continuous & Constant
Load Current Operation
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Vector Diagram of
3 Phase Supply Voltages
V CN

0
120
0 V A N RNv v AN
120

120
0 vYN vBN
vBN vCN
V BN
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3 Phase Supply Voltage
Equations
We deifine three line to neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
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vRN van Vm sin t ;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
2
vYN t
vbn Vm sin
3
Vm sin t 1200
2
vBN t
vcn Vm sin
3
Vm sin t 120 0

Vm sin t 240 0

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van vbn vcn van

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Each thyristor conducts for 2/3 (1200)
Constant Load
Current
io=Ia

Ia

Ia

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To Derive an
Expression for the
Average Output Voltage of a
3-Phase Half Wave Converter
with RL Load
for Continuous Load Current
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T1 is triggered at t 300
6
5
T2 is triggered at t 1500
6
7
T3 is triggered at t 270
0

6
0 2
Each thytistor conducts for 120 or radians
3
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5
6

3Vm
Vdc sin t.d t
2

6

5
6

3Vm
Vdc cos t
2

6


3Vm 5

Vdc cos cos

2 6 6

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Note from the trigonometric relationship
cos A B cos A.cos B sin A.sin B
5 5
cos
cos sin sin
3Vm 6 6

Vdc
2
cos .cos sin sin
6 6
3Vm


cos 150 0
cos
sin 150 0
sin

Vdc
2
cos 30 0
.cos sin 30 0
sin

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3Vm


cos 180 0
30 0
cos sin 180 0
30 0
sin

Vdc
2
cos 30 0
.cos sin 30 0
sin

Note: cos 1800 300 cos 300
sin 1800 300 sin 300

3Vm


cos 30 0
cos sin 30 0
sin

\Vdc
2
cos 30 0
.cos sin 30 0
s in

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3Vm
Vdc
2

2 cos 30 0
cos

3Vm 3
Vdc 2 cos

2 2
3Vm 3 3Vm
Vdc 3 cos cos
2 2
3VLm
Vdc cos
2
Where VLm 3Vm Max. line to line supply voltage
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The maximum average or dc output voltage is
obtained at a delay angle 0 and is given by
3 3 Vm
Vdc max Vdm
2
Where Vm is the peak phase voltage.
And the normalized average output voltage is
Vdc
Vdcn Vn cos
Vdm

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The rms value of output voltage is found by
using the equation
1
5
6
2
3
VO RMS Vm sin t.d t
2 2

2

6


and we obtain
1

1 3 2
VO RMS 3Vm cos 2
6 8

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3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier Output
Voltage Waveforms For RL
Load
at
Different Trigger Angles

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V an V bn V cn


V
=300
0
0
=30
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
t
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

V V V
an bn cn


V 0
= 60
0
=600
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

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V V
bn cn
V an

=900
V 0
0
=90

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
t
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

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3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier With
R Load
and
RL Load with FWD

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T 1 T 1
a a
T 2 T 2
b b +
T 3 T 3
c c

R R V 0

V 0
L

n n
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3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier Output
Voltage Waveforms For R Load
or RL Load with FWD
at
Different Trigger Angles

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V an
V bn V cn

=0
V s

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
=0
t
0
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

V an
V bn V cn

=15 =150
0

V 0 t
0 30
0
60
0
90
0
120
0
150
0
180
0
210
0
240
0
270
0
300
0
330
0
360
0
390
0
420
0

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V an
V bn V cn

= 3 0 0

0
=300
V 0
30
0
60
0
90
0
120
0
150
0
180
0
210
0
240
0
270
0
300
0
330
0
360
0
390
0
420
0 t

V an
V bn V cn

= 6 0 0

V
=600
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
t
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

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To Derive An
Expression For The Average Or
Dc Output Voltage Of A
3 Phase Half Wave Converter
With Resistive Load
Or
RL Load With FWD
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T1 is triggered at t 30
0

6
T1 conducts from 300 to 1800 ;
vO van Vm sin t
5
T2 is triggered at t 1500
6
T2 conducts from 150 to 300 ;
0 0

vO vbn Vm sin t 1200

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7
T3 is triggered at t 270
0

6
T3 conducts from 270 to 420 ;
0 0

vO vcn Vm sin t 240 0



Vm sin t 120 0

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3 1800
Vdc vO .d t
2
300
vO van Vm sin t ; for t 300 to 1800

3 1800
Vdc Vm sin t.d t
2 300
3Vm
0
180
Vdc sin t.d t
2 300

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3Vm 1800
Vdc cos t

2 300

3Vm
Vdc
2

cos180 0
cos 30 0


Q cos180 1, we get
0

3Vm
Vdc
2
1 cos 30 0


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Three Phase Semiconverters

3 Phase semiconverters are used in Industrial


dc drive applications upto 120kW power output.
Single quadrant operation is possible.
Power factor decreases as the delay angle
increases.
Power factor is better than that of 3 phase half
wave converter.

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3 Phase
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi Converter)
with Highly Inductive Load &
Continuous Ripple free Load
Current

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Wave forms of 3 Phase
Semiconverter for
> 600

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3 phase semiconverter output ripple frequency of
output voltage is 3 f S

The delay angle can be varied from 0 to


During the period
300 t < 2100
7
t < , thyristor T1 is forward biased
6 6

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If thyristor T1 is triggered at t
,
6
T1 & D1 conduct together and the line to line voltage
vac appears across the load.
7
At t , vac becomes negative & FWD Dm conducts.
6
The load current continues to flow through FWD Dm ;
T1 and D1 are turned off.

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If FWD Dm is not used the T1 would continue to
conduct until the thyristor T2 is triggered at
5
t , and Free wheeling action would
6
be accomplished through T1 & D2 .

If the delay angle , each thyristor conducts
3
2
for and the FWD Dm does not conduct.
3
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We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t ; Vm Max. Phase Voltage
2
t
vYN vbn Vm sin


m
3
V sin t 120 0

2
vBN vcn Vm sin

t
m
3
V sin t 120 0

Vm sin t 240 0

Vm is the peak phase voltage of a wye-connected source.
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vRB vac van vcn 3Vm sin
t
6
5
vYR vba vbn van 3Vm sin
t
6

vBY vcb vcn vbn 3Vm sin
t
2

vRY vab van vbn 3Vm sin t
6
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Wave forms of 3 Phase
Semiconverter for
600

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To derive an
Expression for the
Average Output Voltage
of 3 Phase Semiconverter
for > / 3
and Discontinuous Output Voltage

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For and discontinuous output voltage:
3
the Average output voltage is found from
7

3 6
Vdc v .d t
2
ac

6
7


6
3
Vdc 3 V sin
t d
t
2
m
6
6
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3 3Vm
Vdc 1 cos
2
3VmL
Vdc 1 cos
2
VmL 3Vm Max. value of line-to-line supply voltage
The maximum average output voltage that occurs at
a delay angle of 0 is
3 3Vm
Vdc max Vdm

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The normalized average output voltage is
Vdc
Vn 0.5 1 cos
Vdm
The rms output voltage is found from
1
7
3 6 2

VO rms v 2
.d t
2
ac

6
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Three Phase Dual Converters

For four quadrant operation in many industrial


variable speed dc drives , 3 phase dual
converters are used.
Used for applications up to 2 mega watt output
power level.
Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full
converters which are connected in parallel & in
opposite directions across a common load.

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Outputs of Converters 1 & 2

During the interval (/6 + 1) to (/2 + 1),


the line to line voltage vab appears across
the output of converter 1 and vbc appears
across the output of converter 2

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We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t ;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
2
vYN vbn Vm sin t Vm sin t 120
0

3
2
vBN vcn Vm sin t Vm sin t 120
0

3
Vm sin t 240 0

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We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t ;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
2
vYN vbn Vm sin t Vm sin t 1200
3
2
vBN vcn Vm sin t Vm sin t 1200
3
Vm sin t 2400

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To obtain an Expression for the Circulating
Current

If vO1 and vO2 are the output voltages of


converters 1 and 2 respectively, the
instantaneous voltage across the current
limiting inductor during the interval
(/6 + 1) t (/2 + 1) is given by

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vr vO1 vO 2 vab vbc

vr 3Vm sin t sin t
6 2

vr 3Vm cos t
6
The circulating current can be calculated by
using the equation
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t
1
ir t v .d t
r
Lr
1
6
t
1
ir t .d t
t
3Vm cos
Lr 6
1
6

3Vm
ir t t sin 1
sin

Lr 6
3Vm
ir max
Lr

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Four Quadrant Operation

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There are two different modes of
operation.
Circulating current free
(non circulating) mode of operation
Circulating current mode of operation

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Non Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode of operation only one converter is
switched on at a time
When the converter 1 is switched on,
For 1 < 900 the converter 1 operates in the
Rectification mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the
average load power Pdc is positive.
Power flows from ac source to the load

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When the converter 1 is on,
For 1 > 900 the converter 1
operates in the Inversion mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the
average load power Pdc is negative.
Power flows from load circuit to ac
source.

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When the converter 2 is switched on,
For 2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in
the Rectification mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the
average load power Pdc is positive.
The output load voltage & load current
reverse when converter 2 is on.
Power flows from ac source to the load

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When the converter 2 is switched on,
For 2 > 900 the converter 2 operates in the
Inversion mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the average
load power Pdc is negative.
Power flows from load to the ac source.
Energy is supplied from the load circuit to the ac
supply.

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Circulating Current
Mode Of Operation
Both the converters are switched on at the same
time.
One converter operates in the rectification mode
while the other operates in the inversion mode.
Trigger angles 1 & 2 are adjusted such that (1
+ 2) = 1800

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When 1 < 900, converter 1 operates
as a controlled rectifier. 2 is made
greater than 900 and converter 2
operates as an Inverter.
Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc
is positive.

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When 2 < 900, converter 2 operates
as a controlled rectifier. 1 is made
greater than 900 and converter 1
operates as an Inverter.
Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and
Pdc is positive.

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