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Topic 6:


After successful orientation and placement, the
new employees start a new life in the work
organisation. During their initial life in the
organisation, the organisation readily utilises
the employees’ past knowledge, skills, and
experience for its performance. But this
situation changes in the course of time, when
the employees’ ability to perform starts falling
below the demands of their jobs. Then the
organisation has to train them in order to
ensure the restoration of the match between
their performance capabilities and their job
What is Employee Training and
Training may be defined as a learning
process in which people acquire
knowledge, skills, experience, and
attitudes that they need in order to
perform their jobs well for the
achievement of their organisation’s
The main objective of training is to try to
maintain a continued balance of the
following equation;

Employee Performance Capability =


The components; knowledge (K), skills (S),

experience (E), and attitudes (A)

The HR department is responsible for designing
and managing the organisation’s training and
development programme.
However, the successful design and
implementation of an organisation’s T&D
programme, greatly depends on the co-
operation between the training officer or
manager and the officers or managers in other
departments, because the latter are the
former’s sources of information as well as the
leaders of the employees being trained.
Because of their close and continuous contact
with the employees, managers understand the
employees’ general and specific training needs
as well as training duration.
The specific responsibilities of a training
officer / manager
1. Conducts training needs assessments.
2. Solicits information regarding training
institutions, i.e. venues, particulars of
programmes being offered, fees, etc.
3. Prepares skill-training materials.
4. Conducts or arranges for off the job
5. Co-ordinates all training efforts.
6. Provides input and expertise in the
organisational development programmes. 6
7. Co-ordinates career plans and employee
development efforts.
8. Prepares the T&D budget.
9. Prepares the training schedule and co-
ordinates its implementation according to
the budget and organizational needs.
10.Evaluates training efforts and provides
feedback to the employees’ user
departments and trainers.
11.Evaluates trainers and recommends or
oppose their reappointment.
12.Maintains all training records.
Organisational performance and survival
is a function of the relationship
between job demands or performance
demands (PD), and performance
capabilities (PC) of their doers.
The relationship between PD and PC is
perceived in the form of a PC: PD
model. This model can assume the
form of 3 possible scenarios;

1st Scenario
This is a situation, where employees’
performance capabilities are just right
for the effective performance of their
This is also the situation, which all
organisations would like to reach and
maintain. There is no need for
training efforts in this situation.
1st scenario:
Performance capabilities = performance demands

Past Education, Job Demands
Orientation Training

2nd Scenario:
Performance Demands > Performance Capabilities


Education, skills, Orientatio

experience,attitu Training


The reasons giving rise to the 2nd scenario may
be as follows:
• Poor recruitment process.
• Shortage of training funds, followed by very
little or no training.
• Top management is unwilling to invest in
• New products and competition call for
employees with new or additional skills.
• Rapid changes in technology call for new or
additional skills among existing employees.
• Poor retention of trained staff, as a result of
poor motivation, poor placement, and poor
• Poor job design. 12
3rd Scenario:
Performance Capabilities > Performance Demands

Past Education, Orientation

skills, experience,

3rd scenario:
This is a rare situation in work organizations. It is
caused by the following reasons:
• Poor job design.
• Employees are over-qualified for their jobs.
• Employees do not have sufficient work to do.
• Lower Production targets.
In this situation, employees see little meaning in
their work, and see less challenge.
Therefore, management ought to redesign jobs for
purposes of utilizing their personnel better, and
create more challenging jobs. There is no need
for training in such a situation.
Although both training and education are
processes which equip a person with
knowledge, skills, experience and attitudes,
they differ in purpose.
Training helps employees to do their present
jobs better, i.e. it is role-specific.
Education on the other hand, is more general
and is related to the goals of the individual,
more than it is to the goals of an
organisation. Education therefore, tends to
focus on the individuals, their growth needs,
and the multiple roles they may play in

Education normally takes longer to achieve

its objectives than training does.
Training programmes are designed on the
basis of what an individual can do, and
thus the programme facilitates a
mechanistic learning process.
Education programmes involve organic
learning which purports to cause a change
in the individual (not in what the individual
can do) and whose outcome is often
difficult to predict.

Another distinction between training and

education is that, training is normally paid for
by the employee’s work organization,
whereas, education is normally paid for by
the individual employee.
Finally, whereas education emphasizes the use
of theoretical and conceptual materials aimed
at stimulating the individual’s general
analytical ability, training programmes
emphasizes the use of materials aimed at
providing the trainee with the knowledge,
skills, and experiences that are necessary to
enable the individual to carry out specific job
Importance of T&D
(a) Benefits to the Work Organisation
(1) Leads to improved profitability.
(2) Improves the morale of the work force.
(3) Improves corporate image.
(4) Improves the relationship between boss and
(5) Leads to increased productivity.
(6) Reduces the organization's dependence on
outside consulting.
(7) Reduces the organization's dependence on
recruitment from outside for job openings.
(8) Reduces employee obsolescence
Importance of T&D…
(b) Benefits to the Individual Employees
• Better job performance.
• Improves employee job knowledge and performance.
• Prepares employees for transfers and promotions.
• Improves employee work attitude and loyalty to the
• Helps a person develop speaking, writing, and listening
• Helps employees adjust to change.
• Improves employee self-confidence.
• Increases job satisfaction and recognition.
• Satisfies the personal needs of the trainee.
• Eliminates the employees' fear in attempting new
Why do Organizations Train Employees?

(i) Employee obsolescence.

(ii) Improvements in technology.
(iii) Change of business
(iv) Job redesign
(v) Transfers
(vi) Promotions
(vii) Competition
Retention of Trained Manpower…
Employees’ training costs a lot of money and
interrupts the organization's production
schedules. Thus to train employees
essentially means to increase their
marketability and to risk losing them to an
employer who is willing to pay them better.
It is wasteful to train employees if you have
no strategies for retaining them and utilizing
their acquired performance capability
The following are strategies, which employers
may use to retain their trained manpower;
i. Utilise employee skills acquired through
training by redesigning jobs of trained
manpower to include duties that utilise the
new skills.
ii. Increase pay packages of trained staff.
iii. Promote trained staff.
iv. Symbolically recognise employee training
efforts. Employees returning from training
feel honoured if they are congratulated
through a letter of commendation or even a
small party.
Learning may be defined as a process of relatively
permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a
result of experience.
Therefore, changes in behaviour indicate that
learning is taking place.
Learning is abstract. Its not seen. We can only
infer that learning has taken place if an
individual behaves, reacts, responds, as a result
of experience, in a manner different from the
way he or she formerly behaved.
The change of behaviour may be positive or negative
e.g. to increase their support for a quality of work life
improvement programme or learn negative behaviours
like contributing insufficient effort in the production
Learning Theories
There are three main theories,
which explain how people
1. Classical conditioning,
2. Operant conditioning, and
3. Social learning.

(a) Classical Conditioning
The classical conditioning theory grew out of the
experiments conducted by a Russian psychologist,
Ivan Pavlov in 1902.
Classical conditioning is passive: something happens
and people act in a certain manner, as long as they
are able to associate their actions to a specific
conditioning event. Classical conditioning is not a
useful theory to explain complex learning processes
in modern organisational life. In addition, most
employee behaviour in work organisations is
voluntary, ie they voluntarily decide to work hard or
to be co-operative.
In modern democratic societies however, human
beings cannot be simplistically manipulated like the
bell-meat-salivation example in Pavlov’s experiment. 25
(b) Operant Conditioning
The operant conditioning theory resulted from the work
of a Harvard psychologist called Skinner in 1971 by
building on Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory.
Behaviour is learned from outside. Skinner maintains
that by creating attractive consequences to follow
specific patterns of behaviour, the frequency of that
behaviour will increase. If people are positively
reinforced for doing something, they will repeat that
behaviour. If penalised, they will most likely avoid
doing it. In this sense rewards and punishments can
make people learn. However, in order for rewards
and punishments to condition the learning process
effectively, they must be administered immediately
following the respective response.
(b) Operant Conditioning …

Impact of consequence on the

activity (3)

Activity Consequence
e.g. high e.g. a promotion (2)
performance (1)

Figure: The stages of operant conditioning 27

(c) Social Learning
It is an extension of the operant conditioning
theory. It states that behaviour is not only
dependent on consequences, it is a result of
imitating others.
Example; much of what people have learned or in
fact how they behave today, has been learned
from watching the actions of models and how
these models have been rewarded or penalised
in life. People learn from and imitate models like
teachers, parents, colleagues, managers, and
movie stars. The process of social learning
goes through four steps.
(c) Social Learning…
Pay attention (1) Reinforcement (4)

Model’s behaviour

Remember model’s
behaviour (2) Imitate model’s
behaviour (3)

Learning Principles
Learning principles are guidelines to the
ways in which people learn most
(1) Participation
(2) Relevance
(3) Repetition
(4) Transference
(5) Feedback

(1) Participation
Learning is usually faster and longer-lasting when the
learner can participate actively in the learning
process. The truth of this statement is born by the
following message;
“PEOPLE REMEMBER 20% of what they HEAR
30% of what they SEE 50% of what they SEE AND
HEAR at the Same Time 70% of what they SAY
and 90% of what they DO,
which was spotted on the wall in one of the offices of
the Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines in Kitwe,
(2) Relevance
A trainee learns well if he or she is
convinced that what he or she is
learning makes sense to him or her.
This is why it is important that at the
beginning of employee training
programmes, trainers spend sufficient
time to explain about the purpose of
the programme, its design, and what
they are expected to benefit from it ,
before going into the specific tasks.
(3) Repetition
Repetition or doing the same thing over
and over again creates a pattern in the
learner's memory, which helps him or her
to master what is learned, fast.
A learner who gets opportunities of
repeating what he or she earns many
times, has more chances of mastering
his or her material within a shorter period
and for a longer time than the learner
with one or fewer opportunities for
repetition. 33
(4) Transference
Transference refers to how applicable the
training is to the trainee's actual job situation.
The learner learns and masters his or her job
faster, if he or she can closely match the
demands of his or her training programme to
the demands of his or her job.
Eg A person learning how to drive a motor
vehicle should not be trained on riding a
motorcycle because the trainee cannot
transfer directly the tasks and conditions of
motorcycle riding to motor vehicle driving. 34
(5) Feedback
Feedback refers to information that helps
evaluate the success or failure of an action or
system. Through feedback learners can
receive guidance from their trainers.
Through feedback trainers can reinforce positive
performance behaviour and correct negative
behaviour so that the learner knows his or her
progress. Learners who do not receive
feedback necessarily become slow learners
because they spend a long time trying before
they can master doing the task right.