Concrete Technology

Concrete is the most commonly used construction material today. The versatility and mouldability of this material, its high compressive strength, and the discovery of the reinforcing & prestressing techniques have contributed to its widespread use.

Reasons for widespread use of concrete

Excellent resistance to water: The ability of concrete to withstand the action of water without serious deterioration makes it an ideal material for building structures to control, store, and transport water.

Itaipu dam, Brazil

Reasons for widespread use of concrete

Ease with which structural concrete elements can be formed into a variety of shapes and sizes: Freshly made concrete is of a plastic consistency, which enables the material to flow into prefabricated formwork.

Fountain of Time: a sculpture in concrete Fountain of Time by Lorado Taft ² a massive 120 by 18 by 14 ft work of art in concrete on the south side of the University of Chicago campus. .

.Fountain of Time: a sculpture in concrete Fountain of Time by Lorado Taft ² a massive 120 by 18 by 14 ft work of art in concrete on the south side of the University of Chicago campus.

.Reasons for widespread use of concrete The cheapest and most readily available material: The principle components for making concrete are relatively inexpensive and are commonly available in most parts of the world.

Concrete vs Steel Maintenance Fire resistance Resistance to cyclic loading .

Materials for Concrete Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water Admixtures* .

Chemical composition of cement The raw materials used for the manufacture of cement mainly consist of a) Lime b) Silica c) Alumina d) Iron oxide The relative proportions of these oxides composition are responsible for influencing the various properties of cement. .

0-3.1-4.0 0. content 60-67 17-25 3.4-1.0 0.Approximate oxide composition limits of Ordinary Portland Cement Oxide CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO Alkalies (K2O.0 .0 0.Na2O) SO3 Per cent.5-6.0-8.3 1.

Bogue¶s compounds At high temperature these oxides present in the raw materials combine with each other to form complex compounds.Bogue¶s work and hence it is called as ³Bogue¶s compounds´. These compounds are identified based on R.H. .

Bogue¶s compounds (In abbreviated formula C ±CaO.SiO2 3 CaO.SiO2 2 CaO. F-Fe2O3) Name of compound Tricalcium Silicate Dicalcium Silicate Tricalcium Aluminate Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite Formula 3 CaO. A-Al2O3.Fe2O3 Abbreviated Formula C3S C2S C3A C4AF .Al2O3.Al2O3 4 CaO. S-SiO2.

5 2 1.Oxide composition & Compound composition Oxide CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO SO3 Alkalies (K2O.Na2O) Per cent 63 20 6 3 1.8 9.6 10.1 .1 16.0 Compound C3S C2S C3A C4AF Per cent 54.

Types of cement .I Ordinary Portland Cement  33 Grade ± IS 269:1989  43 Grade ± IS 8112: 1989  53 Grade ± IS 12269:1987 Rapid Hardening Cement ± IS 8041: 1990 Extra Rapid Hardening Cement Sulphate Resisting Cement ± IS 12330: 1988 Portland Slag Cement ± IS 455: 1989 Quick Setting Cement Super-Sulphated Cement ± IS 6909: 1990 Low Heat Cement ± IS 12600: 1989 .

II Portland Pozzolana Cement ± IS 1489:1991(Part I & II) Air-entraining Cement Coloured Cement: White Cement-IS 8042:1989 Hydrophobic Cement ± IS 8043: 1991 Masonry Cement ± IS 3466:1988 Expansive Cement .Types of cement .

Types of cement .III Oil-well Cement ± IS 8229: 1986 Redi-set Cement Concrete Sleeper grade Cement ± IRS-T40:1985 High Alumina Cement ± IS 6452:1989 Very High Strength Cement .

ASTM Classification Type I . or where moderate heat of hydration is required.concrete construction where the special properties specified for other types are not required (OPC). . Type III ± when early high strength is required (Rapid Hardening Cement). Type II ± concrete construction exposed to moderate sulphate action.

Type V ± when high sulphate resistance is required (Sulphate Resisting Cement). Other minor types like Type IS. Type IP and Type IA. . IIA & IIIA.ASTM Classification Type IV ± when low heat of hydration is required (Low Heat Cement).

53 ± Strength of the cement at 28 days when tested as per IS 4031-1988.Ordinary Portland Cement Ordinary Portland cement is the most commonly used cement for a wide range of applications. After 1987 higher grade cements were introduced in India. 43. . These applications cover drylean mixes. general-purpose ready-mixes etc. Grades: 33.

RHC at the age of 3 days develops the same strength of OPC at 7 days.I As the name indicates it develops strength rapidly and more appropriate to call it as high early strength cement. RHC should not be confused with Quick setting cement which only sets quickly. .Rapid Hardening Cement .

This higher rate of development of strength attributes to higher fineness of grinding and higher C3S and lower C2S content.Rapid Hardening Cement .II RHC gives out much heat of hydration and hence should not be used in mass concrete construction. .

In cold weather concreting. Road repair works. . Where formwork is required to be removed early for re-use elsewhere.Uses of RHC Prefabricated concrete construction.

compacted and finished within 20 minutes. The normal addition of Calcium Chloride should not exceed 2% by weight of RHC. Concrete made by using ERHC should be transported.Extra Rapid Hardening Cement .I It is obtained by inter-grinding Calcium Chloride with RHC. . placed.

II ERHC should not be stored for more than a month. Very suitable in concreting in cold weather. .Extra Rapid Hardening Cement .

Sulphate Resisting Cement OPC is susceptible to the attack of sulphates. . this cement has a high silicate content. in particular to the action of MgSO4. Sulphates in solution permeate into concrete and cause disruption and this is known as Sulphate attack. Cement with low C3A & C4AF is known as sulphate resisting cement. C3A content limits to 5%. This is accelerated if accompanied by alternate wetting and drying which normally takes place in marine structures due to tidal variations. In other words.

Fabrication of pipes which are likely to be buried in marshy region or sulphate bearing soils. Construction of sewage treatment works. .Uses of sulphate resisting cement Marine structures In foundation and basement where soil is infested with sulphates.

So can be used in mass concreting. It cannot be used in cold weather. gypsum and granulated blast furnace slag and grinding the mixture or separately grinding and later mixing them intimately. Low heat of hydration. Resistant to soils and water containing sulphates or alkali metals. which is waste product from blast furnaces can be used effectively. Hence blast furnace slag. .Portland Slag Cement (PSC) Obtained by mixing Portland cement clinker. So can be used in marine structures. to acidic waters. alumina and iron. Slag mixed with Portland cement clinker will range from 25-65%.

Use of quick setting cement reduces the pumping time and makes it economical. The early setting property is brought out by reducing the gypsum content at the time of clinker grinding.Quick Setting Cement As the name indicates it sets very early. It is used mainly under water construction where pumping is involved. It may also find its use in some typical grouting operations. .

Specific surface must not be less than 4000cm2/gm. and about 5% Portland cement clinker.Super Sulphated cement .I Manufactured by grinding together a mixture of 80-85 % granulated slag. It has a low heat of hydration of about 40-45 calories/gm at 7 days and 45-50 calories/gm at 28 days. The product is ground finer than that of PC. It is more sensitive to deterioration during storage than PC. 10-15 % hard burnt gypsum. .

. where chemically aggressive conditions exist ii) marine works iii) Fabrication of R.II Because of high sulphate resistance it is recommended for use in i) Foundation. pipes which are likely to be buried in sulphate bearing soils.C.Super Sulphate cement .

. A low-heat of hydration is achieved by reducing the contents of C3S and C3A which are the compounds evolving the maximum heat of hydration and increasing C2S. Formation of cracks in large body of concrete necessitated the production of cement with less heat of hydration. The feature of low-heat cement is a slow rate of gain of strength but ultimate strength is the same as that of OPC.Low Heat Cement Hydration of cement is exothermic action which produces large quantity of heat.

People¶s Republic of China Largest concrete dam in the world The 185 m high concrete gravity dam has a total length of 2300 m along its axis.Three-Gorges Dam Three-Gorges Dam. To minimize the thermal stresses in the mass concrete. low-heat cement and forty percent of fly ash were used .

It reduces the leaching of CaOH when used in hydraulic structures. It produces less heat of hydration and offers greater resistance to the attack of aggressive waters than OPC. . or by intimately and uniformly blending PC and fine pozzolana.Portland Pozzolana Cement Manufactured either by grinding together Portland cement clinker and pozzolana with addition of gypsum. It is useful in marine and hydraulic construction and other mass concrete construction.

segregation. workability. Air-entraining agents i) Alkali salts of wood resins ii) Synthetic detergents iii) Calcium lignosulphate iv) Calcium salts of glues & other proteins Produces air bubbles in the body of concrete which will modify properties w.Air-Entraining Cement Made by mixing a small amount of airentraining agent with OPC clinker at the time of grinding. .r.

Coloured Cement Coloured cement consists of Portland cement with 5-10 % of pigment. . With the use of grey cement only red or brown cement could be produced. For manufacturing various coloured cements either white cement or grey Portland cement is used as a base. Pigment cannot be satisfactorily distributed throughout the cement by mixing. a wide range of colours is obtainable. Hence it is usual to grind the cement and pigment together. Though the use of white cement as a base is costly.

or under unfavourable conditions. Hydrophobic cement is obtained by grinding ordinary Portland cement clinker with water repellant filmforming substance such as oleic acid. get plenty of rainfall in the rainy season and have high humidity in other seasons.Hydrophobic cement In India places such as Assam. or transport. Shillong etc. The transportation and storage of cement in such places cause deterioration in the quality of cement. and stearic acid. reduces the rate of deterioration of the cement during long storage. The water-repellant film formed around each grain of cement. .

shrinkage & durability. Used in brick and stone masonry construction .to strength and setting properties but inferior w. Masonry cement is a mixture of Portland cement and plasticizing materials such as limestone together with other materials introduced to enhance one or more properties such as workability. shrinkage etc.Masonry cement Cement mortar is good when compared to lime mortar workability.r.

if shrinks. the purpose for which the grout is used will be to some extent defeated. This type of cement is made by using an expanding agent and a stabilizer. Concrete also shrinks continuously for long time. (known as drying shrinkage) Cement used for grouting anchor bolts or grouting machine foundations or the cement used in grouting the prestressed concrete ducts.Expansive cement Concrete made with OPC shrinks while setting due to loss of free water. . The type of cement which suffers no overall change in volume on drying is known as expansive cement.

Very finely ground cement with high C3S content designed to develop high early strength.IRS ± T 40 Special Grade Cement Manufactured as per specification laid down by M/o of Railways. high strength concrete . high rise buildings. Used for prestressed concrete elements.

Retarding agents prevent quick setting and retain slurry in mobile condition to facilitate penetration to all fissures and cavities. .Oil-well cement Cement slurry used to seal off the annular space between steel casing and rock strata should remain sufficiently mobile to be able to flow. cellulose products or acids. The common retarders are starches. This is achieved by adjusting compound composition or by adding retarders to OPC.

Developed by Associated Cement Company of India. Applications:  a) Very-high-early-(3 to 4 hours) strength concrete and mortar. equivalent to ³Regset´ developed by PCA laboratories of USA.Rediset Cement A cement which could yield high strength in a matter of hours without showing any retrogression.  c) quick release of forms in the precast concrete products industry. .  d) slip-formed concrete construction.  b) patch repairs and emergency repairs.  e) construction between tides.

MgO1%) Very high rate of strength development. TiO2-2%. Used to make refractory concrete to withstand high temperature. FeO-6%. SiO2-4%.High Alumina Cement Raw materials used for manufacture of high alumina cement are limestone and bauxite. Fe2O3-9%. (Composition: CaO-37%. Shows retrogression in strength when exposed to hot and humid conditions. about 80% of the ultimate strength is achieved in one day. . Al2O339%.

A strength of 300 MPa for calcium aluminate system and 150 MPa for Portland cement system can be achieved.Very High Strength Cement . At the final processing stage entrapped air is removed by applying pressure. In the MDF process 4-7 % water-soluble polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyle cellulose is added as rheological aid to permit cement to be mixed with very small amount of water.MDF Macro-defect-free cements (MDF) refers to the absence of relatively large voids or defects which are usually present in conventional mixed cement pastes because of entrapped air and inadequate dispersion. .

. A strength of 270 Mpa have been achieved with silica fume substituted paste.Very High Strength Cement . Silica fume is added from 5 to 25%.DSP Densely Packed System (DSP): Normal Portland cement and ultrafine silica fume are mixed.

. Increase in strength is resulted from the removal of most of the porosity and generation of very homogeneous. Compressive strength of 650 MPa and tensile strength up to 68 MPa have been obtained by warm pressing Portland and calcium aluminate cements.7 %.Very High Strength Cement ± Pressure Densification & Warm pressing A new approach has been developed for achieving very high strength by a method called ³Warm Pressing´ (applying heat and pressure simultaneously) to cement paste. fine microstructure with the porosities as low as 1.

.Very High Strength Cement ± High Early Strength Cement High early strength is an important factor for repair and emergency work. Lithium salts have been used as accelerators in high alumina cement. 27 MPa within 3 hours and 49 MPa in one day. Results: 4 MPa within 1 hour.

Very High Strength Cement ± Pyrament Cement A high early strength and durable cement called by trade name ³Pyrament Cement´ for repair of Air Field Runways developed in USA. . ACC in collaboration with R & D Engineers. Dighi. In India. Pune also produced high early strength for rapid repair of airfields.

fine aggregate and water. di-sodium tetraborate (Borax) . New Delhi for rapid repair of damaged concrete roads and airfield pavements. Magnesite (MgCO3) when calcined at or above 15000C gives dead burnt magnesite (DBM). Sodium tripolyphosphate.Very High Strength Cement ± Magnesium Phosphate Cement (MPC) MPC giving high early strength has been developed by CRRI. Powdered DBM is mixed with Mono ammonium Phosphate. . The DBM and sand is added into cold phosphate and borax solution and applied for the purpose of repair ± ready for opening traffic within 4-5 hours.

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