You are on page 1of 23

Chapter 2

2.1 Principles of
Conductive Heat
To describe the
principles of
conduction heat
transfer (solid, Objectives
liquid and gas)
Heat Conduction
Conduction is the process of thermal energy
transfer without any flow of the material
(lots of vibration) (not much vibration)

Heat travels
along the rod
When the thermal energy(heat) is supplied to one end of
the rod, the particles (atom or molecules) at the hot end
vibrate vigorously.
These particles will collide with neighbouring particles,
making them vibrate as well.

Kinetic energy of the vibrating particles at the hot end is

transferred to the neighbouring particles.

Vibrate Collide Transfer

In metals, not only do the atoms vibrate more when
heated, but the free electrons charge around more as
well. These transfer the energy much faster than just
vibrations in bonds.

This fast moving electrons then diffuse into the cooler

parts of the metal.

In the process, they collide with the atoms in the cooler

parts of the metals and transfer their kinetic energy to

This explains why good conductors like metals are

capable of transferring thermal energy much faster than
insulators.(i.e. non-metals)
Conduction can take place in solids, liquid and gases
provided no bulk motion involved.

Solid Liquid Gas

- Metals are good -Less good conductors of -Very poor conductors of heat
conductors of electricity. heat than solids
- Molecules are widely
- They are also good - The interactions are weaker separated and interact rarely
conductors of heat. In than in solids and this makes compared to solids and
metals, not only do the
atoms vibrate more when energy transfer less efficient liquids
heated, but the free
electrons charge around
more as well. These transfer
the energy much faster than
just vibrations in bonds.
Good conductors of heat:
Metals such as copper, iron and silver

Bad conductors of heat/insulators:

Non metals such as glass, plastics, bricks, wool, wood, air and water.

The metal conducts heat

from the cup of warm water
to the cup of cool water

Your Cokes become cold because

the heat from soda transfers
into the ice, not the other way
Heat transfer is a vector quantity; it has both direction
and magnitude

+ve quantity indicates

heat transfer in the
positive direction

-ve quantity indicates

heat transfer in the
negative direction
Steady versus Transient(Unsteady)

Steady Transient
Steady Variation
state with time or
No change time
with time independence
at any
within the
One dimensional heat transfer

The temperature in the

medium varies in one
direction only.
The variation of
temperature and thus the
heat transfer in other
Another example:
direction are negligible
Heat transfer through
a hot water pipe (radial or zero.
direction from the hot
water to ambient)
Two dimensional heat transfer
Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction
(for one dimensional heat conduction)
Heat Flux
(Wm-2) q dT
Q k
A dx
Heat Transfer (W)
Perunit Area (m2)

Thermal Conductivity
(Wm-1K-1) dT
q kA
dT = temperature difference (K) dx
dx = distance across section (m)
q kA
Heat is conducted in the dx
direction of decreasing
temperature Hot face Cold face

Thus, the temperature

gradient is negative when heat face
is conducted in +ve x-direction temp.

-ve sign to ensure that the

heat transfer in +ve x-direction Temp.
is +ve quantity face
gradient temp.
Thermal conductivity
The rate of heat transfer through a unit thickness of
the material per unit area per unit temperature

Thermal conductivity (k), is a physical property

of the material

Measures the materials ability to conduct heat.

(High value of k = good heat conductor, & otherwise).
Varies for different materials
The SI unit is W/mK
Thermal Conductivity

Diamond 2300
Silver 429
Copper 401
Gold 317
Aluminum 237
Iron 80.2
Mercury (liq) 8.54
Glass 0.78
Brick 0.72
Water (liq) 0.63
Air (g) 0.026
Human skin 0.37
Helium (g) 0.152
Try ya!
Calculate the heat loss per square meter
of surface area for an insulating wall of a
food cold-storage room where the outside
temperature is 299.9K and the inside
temperature is 276.5K. The wall is
composed of 25.4 mm of corkboard
having a thermal conductivity of 0.0433
W/(m K)

Ans = -39.89 W/m2

q/A = -k dT/dX
= -k (T2 T1)/(x)
= - (0.0433)(299 276.5)
25.4 x10-3
= - 39.89 W/m2

x -ve sign means the

flux is in the x
direction; from the
276.5 K 299 K outside inwhich is

25.4 mm on corkboard
Try lagi deh!
Calculate the heat loss per m2 of surface
area for an insulating wall composed of
25.4-mm-thick fiber insulating board,
where the inside temperature is 352.7 K
and outside temperature is 297.1 K.
Thermal conductivity of fiber insulating
board is 0.048W/m.K.
q/A = k dT/dX
= k (T1 T2)/(x)
= 0.048/0.0254(352.7-297.1)
= 105.1 W/m2